part of a basin of attraction of a value v=4, neighborhood k=3, size n=9, 1d cellular
automaton, with the nodes shown in 2d. The rule and other info is shown below.
Below that, the color scheme for cell values.
complex kcode with many emerging gliders, glider
guns, and self-replicating structures, on hex
lattice. Click to enlarge, click here for info.
Discrete Dynamics Lab

Update Dec 2003

DDLab Version m04: multi value logic, totalistic rules, many new features

return to: DDLab home - DD-Life - Multi-Value examples

This is a major update. The two most significant changes:

Multi-value new DDLab includes many other new features, improvements and revisions, both major and minor, since the last official release in May 2002. Some of these, but not all, are listed below. The usual harvest of bugs have also been fixed (and not too may added - we hope!).

For previous updates since March 96,
click July 01, Feb 99, Sept 97.

Some new features and changes

Forward only for just totalistic rules

complex kcode with emerging spirals on hex lattice. click to enlarge, click here for info

Multi-value logic

2d neighborhoods (square and hex) updated

As mentioned earlier, the max neighborhood size when DDLab is constrained to run forward only, for just totalistic rules, is k=25 (for v>5 k is reduced). For the full lookup table max k=13 (for v>3 k is also reduced).

The predefined 2d neighborhoods have been extended up to k=25. Some k have a layout for both a square and hex lattice. Others have just hex or square for best symmetry. In the case of both, square is the default. To force hex where its available there is a new option in the top right WIRING prompt.

Below are all predefined neighborhoods (defaults shown with a black background).
Note that the center cell may form part of its neighborhood (or not). If it does it is shown in red.
k=4 k=5 k=6 k=7 k=8 k=9 k=10 k=11 k=12 k=13 k=14 k=15 k=16 k=17 k=18 k=19 k=20 k=21 k=22 k=23 k=24 k=25
none none none none none none none
none none none none none none none none

Toggling between square and hex presentation

In the 2d wiring graphic prompts, there is a new prompt, This toggles the lattice presentation between hex and square, changes the highlighted cell's neighborhood to a local CA predefined neighborhood, and toggles the neighborhood between hex and square (if possible).

In the "on the fly" prompts when running forward in 2d, there is a new prompt to change between square or hex presentation,

For CA with a square neighborhood, the 2d space-time pattern will start on a square lattice, if hex on a hex lattice.

Setting rules/states updated

Classification of rule-space and complex rule sample

The automatic classification of rule space has been updated for multi-value. Samples of glider/complex rules are available that can be randomly set on-the-fly when running forward, with g,
These files are in dd_extra.tar.gz and include the following,

rule sample automatic classification files:

  • for 1d, v=2, full lookup table, as before but renamed,
    • v2k5ss.sta (k=5)
    • v2k6ss.sta (k=6)
    • v2k6ss.sta (k=7)
  • for 1d, multi_value, full lookup table,
    • v3k3ss.sta (v=3 k=3)
    • v4k2ss.sta (v=4 k=2)
    • v4k3ss.sta (v=4 k=3)
    • v5k2ss.sta (v=5 k=2)
  • for 2d, multi-valye kcode,
    • v3k4bs.sta (v=3 k=4)
    • v3k5bs.sta (v=3 k=5)
    • v3k6bs.sta (v=3 k=6)
    • v3k7bs.sta (v=3 k=7)
    • v4k4bs.sta (v=4 k=4)
    • v4k6bs.sta (v=4 k=6)
glider/complex rule sample files for loaded on-the-fly with "g":
  • for 1d, v=2, full lookup table, as before but renamed,
    • g_v2k5.r_s (k=5)
    • g_v2k6.r_s (k=6)
    • g_v2k7.r_s (k=7)
  • for 1d, multi_value, full lookup table,
    • g_v3k3.r_s (v=3 k=3)
    • g_v3k4.r_s (v=3 k=4)
    • g_v4k2.r_s (v=4 k=2)
  • for 2d/3d, kcode lookup table,
    • g_v3k6.r_v (v=3 k=6)

An automatically classified sample of about 16000 v=3 k=6 kcode rules for 2d hex CA
Axies are as follows:
x=standard deviation of the input-entropy, y=mean entropy, z=frequency of rules on the xy scatter plot.
Complex rules are spread out on the right with higher standard deviation, Chaotic and ordered rules are on the left with low standard deviation - chaos has high entropy (the tower), and order lower entropy.

The "un-slant" option, rule 153, Click to enlarge.

New/revised on-the-fly options

When running forward, there are some new and revised on-the-fly options as follows:

change seed size


Falling of edge boundary conditions

By default, the boundary condition in DDLab are periodic, a ring for 1d, a torus for 2d and a 3d torus for 3d. There is a new option, in the top right space-time pattern interrupt options, to set a fixed border of a given value and width. If a suitable border width, and border value (same as the background), are set, gliders and other structures in 2d and 3d complex CA can seem to fall of the edge, simulating an infinite space, though structures sometimes interact with the edge.

Return to the
Discrete Dynamics Lab home page.
Last modified: Dec 2003