A MARX BIBLIOGRAPHY

with sections on 20th-21st century Marxism and recent thought on capitalism, socialism and communism

 

This selective bibliography is all on one page

It is mainly of English-language material but some items in French and German are also listed

Printed out, the bibliography is about 170 pages long.

It is divided into 15 main sections, each with up to 30 headings tagged with '@'

To return to the top of the page, press Ctrl-Home
Diacritical marks (as in Lukács, Žižek) have been omitted in section headings

Links are to the publisher's page where possible, otherwise to Jstor, Semantic Scholar, ResearchGate or Google Books

 

[ ] = date of original publication (or of writing)

* = recommended

+ = introductory

 

Please e-mail suggestions for additions or improvements to Andrew Chitty, University of Sussex, England

See also PhilPapers Marx bibliography

Last updated 20 May 2024

 

––––––––

 

Contents

 

GENERAL

Collections of Marx's works online

Collections of Marx and Engels' works in hard copy

Partial collections of Marx' works

Marx's most important writings

Introductions to Marx

Commentaries on Marx's work as a whole

Collections of articles on Marx

Biographies of Marx

Journals of Marx and Marxism studies

PRECURSORS

Influences on Marx's development: general

Aristotle and Marx

Spinoza's political thought and Marx

Liberalism and Marx

Rousseau and Marx

Steuart and Marx

Smith and Marx

Kant and Marx: general

Kant and Marx: Critique of Pure Reason

Kant and Marx: ethics and political philosophy

Humboldt and Marx

Sieyès and Marx

Romanticism and Marx

Fichte and Marx

Ricardo and Marx

Schiller and Marx

Hegel and Marx: general

Hegel and Marx: Marx's critiques of Hegel's philosophy as a whole

Savigny and the historical school of law: general

Savigny on possession

Savigny and Hegel

Savigny and the Young Hegelians

Savigny and Marx, Niebuhr and Marx

Stahl

Gans

Pre-Marxist socialism and Marx, utopian socialism and Marx

Utopianism in Marx

Saint-Simon and Marx

Fourier and Marx

Young Hegelians: general

Young Hegelians: politics

Young Hegelians and Marx: general

Heine and Marx

Strauss

Cieszkowski and Marx

Bauer, Bruno: texts

Bauer, Bruno and Marx

Bauer, Edgar

Ruge and Marx

Feuerbach: texts

Feuerbach: general

Feuerbach and Hegel

Feuerbach and religion

Feuerbach's anthropology, species-being and anti-individualism in Feuerbach

Feuerbach's political thought, his humanism and civic humanism

Feuerbach and Marx

Feuerbach and Stirner

Stirner

Stirner and Marx

Hess and Marx

Proudhon and Marx

VERY EARLY WRITINGS

Marx's early development as a whole

Letter to his father (1837)

Doctoral Dissertation and preparatory writings (1839-41): general

Doctoral dissertation and preparatory writings: political interpretations

Early political writings as a whole (1832-43)

Rheinische Zeitung articles (1842-43)

Law in the early political writings (1842-43)

Critique of Hegel's Doctrine of the State (1843)

On the Jewish Question (1843)

State in the early political writings (1842-43)

Democracy and republicanism in the early political writings (1842-43)

French Revolution in Marx

Judaism and Marx

Religion: Marx's critique

Marxist sociology of religion

Religious, mythological and spiritual themes in Marx's thought

SPECIES-BEING AND ALIENATION

Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts and Comments on James Mill: general

@ Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts and Comments on James Mill: text-critical accounts and reception istories

Civil society in the early writings (1843-44)

Species-being: general

Species-being as a normative ground, perfectionism in Marx, normativity in the young Marx

Good life in Marx

Humanism in Marx

Species-being and Aristotle

Species-being as self-creation, Marx and the posthuman and transhuman

Species-being and consciousness

Species-being and collective intentionality

Species-being and human biology, life in Marx

Species-being and Hess

Species-being and Hegel

Species-being and Feuerbach

Species-being and earlier thinkers

Species-being: critiques

Species-being and feminism

Species-being and non-human animals

Human nature in Marx after 1844

Human nature in Marx after 1844: relationalist conceptions

Labour in Marx

Labour in Marx: critiques

Marx and automation, the fragment on machines

Domestic labour and Marx

Contemporary theory of work

Needs (Bedürfnisse) in Marx and Marxism

Alienated labour

Alienation in Marx's early writings: general

Alienation as self-subordination, autonomisation and inversion in the early writings

Alienation as a psychological condition

Psychoanalysis and Marx

Phenomenology of Spirit and Marx

Alienation and market exchange

Alienation: sources for the concept

Species-being and alienation in Marx's later writings in general, the 'epistemological break' debate

Species-being and alienation in value theory

Alienation-based and humanist accounts of the later Marx

Alienation in classical non-Marxist thinkers

Alienation in recent social theory

Property, 'true property' and 'individual property' in Marx

Subject and subjectivity and identity in Marx

History in the early writings (1837-42)

Art in Marx

Animals in Marx

Ecology in Marx: general

Ecology in Marx: alienation from nature in capitalism

Ecology in Marx: critique of capitalism as unsustainable

Ecology in Marx: communism as ecologically sustainable

Ecology in Marx: domination of nature as a theme in Marx

Ecology in Marx: labour

Ecology in Marx: Malthusianism and Marx

Ecology in Marx: species-being and nature

Ecological Marxism and eco-socialism: general

Ecological Marxism: the concept of nature

Ecological Marxism: critique of capital as unsustainable

Ecological Marxism and core-periphery relations, ecological imperialism

Feminist eco-socialism

Ecological Marxism: post-capitalist proposals

Degrowth and antigrowth theory

MATERIALISM

Marx's view of philosophy, theory and practice

Philosophy of Marx

Materialism in Marx, Marx's metaphysics and philosophy of nature

Theses on Feuerbach

Praxis and activity in Marx: general

Praxis and activity in Marx's theory of history

Epistemology of Marx

HISTORY, THEORY OF

Theory of history: precursors

Theory of history ('historical materialism'): texts

German Ideology: text-critical discussions

Theory of history: introductions

Theory of history: method

Theory of history: fuller discussions

Determinism, inevitability, structure and agency in Marx's theory of history

Theory of history: class-struggle based interpretations

Historical and ontological materialism

Teleology in Marx's theory of history, history as human self-realisation

Hegel and Marx on history

Pre-capitalist societies

Social relations of productions' effect on culture

Theory of history: technological determinist interpretations

Technological determinism in non-Marxists

Cohen on Marx's theory of history

Productive forces and their effect on social relations of production

Social relations of production and their effect on legal and political structures

Methodological individualist criticism of functionalist explanation in Marxism

Rational choice approaches to the problem of transition between epochs

Transition from feudalism to capitalism

International and intranational competition in Marx's theory of history

Weakened versions of historical materialism

Moral progress in historical materialism

Sociological materialism

Marx's historiography

Communist Manifesto

Soviet Union: Marxist analyses

Time and temporality in Marx

Late Marx on historical evolution

Ethnological Notebooks, anthropology and Marx

IDEOLOGY

Ideology and 'false consciousness' in Marx

Language and Marx

Literature and literary style in Marx

Ideology since Marx

CAPITAL

Capital: introductions

Grundrisse and the 1861-63 Manuscripts

General accounts of Marx's economics

Science, scientific method and Marx

Dialectical exposition and dialectical method in general

Politics of Capital

Method of Capital: general

Method of Capital: historical vs. transhistorical concepts

Method of Capital: movement from the abstract to the concrete

Method of Capital: logical vs. historical development and the idea of simple commodity production

Method of Capital: 'successive approximations' interpretations

Method of Capital: Hegelian interpretations

Value-form theory: general

Value-form theory: Neue Marx-Lekture

Value-form theory: Krisis group

Value-form theory: Postone's interpretation

Value-form theory: Uno's interpretation

Value-form theory and Hegel's Logic

Homology thesis

Logic of essence in Capital

Logic of the concept in Capital

Philosophy of Right and Capital

Value-form theory: normative implications

Abstract labour

Use-value and concrete labour

Contradictions of commodity production

Abstraction as a feature of capitalism, real abstraction

Labour theory of value (i.e. quantitative aspects of value and labour): general

Labour theory of value: the 'third thing' argument and Marx's critique of Bailey

Labour theory of value: the 'labour allocation' argument

Labour theory of value: the 'equalisation in exchange' argument

Social ontology in Marx and in critical theory, critical social ontology

Fetishism in Marx: general

Fetishism and fetish-character

Fetishism as ideology, as a general form of social consciousness

Reification in Marx

Fetishism and hypostatisation

Fetishism and idolatry

Money: in Marx

Money: Marxian views

Money: in Simmel

Money: other views

Capital: the concept

Capital in general and many capitals

Transition from money to capital (C-M-C to M-C-M')

Money, capital and God in Marx

Transition from feudalism to capitalism in Marx

Developmental tendencies of capitalism in Marx

Capital as subject, inversion in the later works, spectres and possession in Marx

Competition

Subsumption

Working day

Transformation problem: the Foley-Duménil interpretation

Transformation problem: the 'single system' approaches

Immiseration (the 'iron law of wages') and the industrial reserve army

Transformation problem: general

Crisis tendencies in capitalism: in Marx

Crisis tendencies in capitalism: in contemporary Marxism

Primitive accumulation

STATE AND LAW

Marx's political thought as a whole

State in the later Marx

Democracy and republicanism in the later Marx

Nationalism and national identity in Marx

Nationalism and national identity in Marxism

Law in Marx: general

Natural law, rule of law, and Marx

Rights and Marx

Law, rights and socialism

Crime

Pashukanis and the commodity-form account of law

History of law

Anarchism and Marx

ETHICS AND NORMATIVITY

Morality and normativity in Marx: general

Anti-moralism in Marx and Marxism

Freedom as a normative ground in Marx

Domination in Marx

Modernism in Marx

Justice of capitalism in Marx

Equality in Marx

Radical injustice

Exploitation in Marx

Rawls and Marx

Civic friendship in Marx

Recognition and solidarity in Marx

Love in Marx's account of communism

Recognition in Marxist historiography

Critique in Marx: general

Critique of capitalism in Marx

CLASS AND CLASS CONSCIOUSNESS

Class: general

Class: Roemer's and Wright's accounts

Proletariat

Class consciousness and revolutionary subjectivity

Rational choice approaches to class action and class consciousness, collective action in Marxism

Class struggle as a moral struggle

Revolution, ethics of revolution

Revolutionary party, its role and tactics

COMMUNISM

Communism in Marx: general

Unalienated labour

Unalienated labour: feminist discussions

Unalienated labour: the coordination problem

Unalienated labour: 'producing for others' accounts

Individuality and community in communism

Communism and the division of labour

Needs principle

Communism as emergent out of capitalism

Supersession of the state

COLONIALISM AND RACE

Colonialism and Marx

International relations and Marx

Colonialism and international relations in Marxism, imperialism in Marxism

Eurocentricism and Marx

Slavery and Marx

Race and Marx

20TH-21ST CENTURY MARXISM

20th-21st century Marxism: histories and surveys

20th-21st century Marxism: dialectics of nature and dialectical materialism

20th-21st century Marxism: praxis-based epistemology and ontology

20th-21st century Marxism: the state

20th-21st century Marxism: morality and critique

Adorno: texts

Adorno: commentary

Adorno and enlightenment

Adorno and enlightenment: Habermas's critique

Adorno on capitalism

Adorno on reification and fetishism

Adorno on consumerism and the culture industry

Adorno on identity thinking, ideology and Ursprungsphilosophie

Adorno and ethics

Adorno and psychoanalysis

Adorno and Kant

Adorno and Marx

Althusser: general

Althusser's anti-humanism and the structural determination of human actions

Althusser on ideology and interpellation

Althusser on history

Analytical Marxism

Anti-capitalist movement and Marx

Black and decolonial Marxism

Bloch

Camatte

Castoriadis

Cohen, G.A

Council communism

Critical realism and Marxism

Critical theory, critical social theory

Debord, Vaneigem and situationism

Dunayevskaya

Engels

Frankfurt School: collections of texts

Frankfurt School: key writings by main figures and their interlocutors in the early period (1923-1937)

Frankfurt School: histories and commentaries

Frankfurt School on nature and ecology

Frankfurt School and political economy

Gramsci

Heller

Horkheimer: texts

Horkheimer: commentary

Ilyenkov (Ilieknov, Il'enkov): texts

Ilyenkov: commentary (general)

Ilyenkov and Spinoza, Ilyenkov and Hegel, Ilyenkov and Engels

Ilyenkov's cosmology

Ilyenkov on the ideal

Immanent critique and internal criticism

Japanese Marxism

Kautsky

Korsch

Labriola

Laclau and Mouffe

Lefebvre

Leontyev (Leontiev, Leont'ev) and activity theory

Lenin: philosophical and theoretical writings

Lenin: commentary

Lenin and Hegel

Lukács: texts

Lukács: general

Lukács: reification, alienation and rationalisation

Lukács: class consciousness and the standpoint of the proletariat

Lukács' social ontology

Luxemburg

Lyotard

Marcuse: texts

Marcuse: general

Marcuse and Heidegger

Marcuse and Hegel

Marcuse and labour

Open Marxism

Operaismo and Autonomist Marxism

Plekhanov

Praxis group

Rational choice Marxism and methodological individualist Marxism: general

Social reproduction theory

Sohn-Rethel

Trotsky: texts

Trotsky: commentary

Trotsky: biographies

Trotsky: bibliographies

Vygotsky and cultural-historical psychology

SUBSEQUENT PHILOSOPHERS AND MARX

Agamben and Marx

Arendt and Marx

Baudrillard and Marx

Derrida and Marx

Dewey and Marx

Du Bois and Marx

Existentialism and Marx

Fanon and Marx

Feminism and Marxism

Foucault and Marxism

Fromm and Marx

Habermas and Marx

Heidegger and Marx

Honneth and Marx

Husserl and Marx, phenomenological Marxism

Kojève and Marx

Kierkegaard and Marx, Kierkegaard and Feuerbach

Lacan and Marx

Levinas and Marx

MacIntyre and Marx

Mead and Marx

Merleau-Ponty and Marx

Mills and Marx

Nietzsche and Marx

Polanyi and Marx

Postmodernism and Marx

Rose and Marx

Sartre and Marx

Schutz and Marx

Sraffa and Marx

Weber and Marx

Weil and Marx

Wittgenstein and Marx

Zizek and Marx

CAPITALISM IN RECENT THOUGHT

Market, concept of

Capitalism, concept of

Varieties of capitalism

Moral status of the market: surveys and collections

Contract and coercion

Markets and the contribution principle

Monetisation and commodification of specific goods

Exploitation in markets

Exploitation in capitalism: as violation of self-ownership

Exploitation in capitalism: Roemer's account

Exploitation theory of profit, the 'fundamental Marxian theorem'

Exploitation in capitalism: as enrichment through domination

Freedom and unfreedom in capitalism

Domination and non-domination in capitalism

Structural domination in capitalism

Capitalism as just or unjust

Capitalism and political regimes

Consumerism and consumer capitalism

Slavery and unfree labour in capitalism

Race and capitalism, racial capitalism

Digital technology and capitalism

SOCIALISM AND COMMUNISM, HISTORY OF

Socialism and communism: surveys and introductions

Histories of socialist thought

Anthologies of socialist thought

Socialist texts

History of American socialism

History of British socialism

History of French socialism

History of German socialism

Socialist humanism

SOCIALISM AND COMMUNISM IN RECENT THOUGHT

Socialism in recent thought

Market socialism

G.A. Cohen's socialism

Communism in recent thought

Solidarity economy, social economy, postcapitalism

Commonism

Communisation

Post-work socialism and communism

Left-libertarianism

Workplace democracy

 

––––––––

 

@ GENERAL

 

@ Collections of Marx's works online

   The Marx/Engels internet archive has most of Marx's works in English

   The MLWerke site has the best collection of Marx's texts in German

 

@ Collections of Marx and Engels' works in hard copy

   Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe II, Dietz Verlag 1970- (MEGA) site

   Marx-Engels Werke, Dietz Verlag 1956-2018 (MEW) pdfs

   Karl Marx and Frederick Engels: Collected Works, Lawrence and Wishart 1975-2004 (CW) index

 

@ Partial collections of Marx' works

   Karl Marx: The Revolutions of 1848, ed. David Fernbach, Penguin 1973

   Karl Marx: Surveys from Exile, ed. David Fernbach, Penguin 1973

   Karl Marx: The First International and After, ed. David Fernbach, Penguin 1974

   Karl Marx: Early Writings, ed. Lucio Colletti, Penguin 1975

   Marx: Early Political Writings, eds Joseph O'Malley and Richard A. Davis 1994

   Marx: Later Political Writings, ed. Terrell Carver 1996

   Karl Marx: Dispatches for the New York Tribune, ed. David Ledbetter, Penguin 2007

   Karl Marx: Selected Writings, ed. David McLellan 1977, 2nd edition 2000

 

@ Marx's most important writings

   (With dates of composition / first publication, and volume of Marx Engels Collected Works)

   Doctoral Dissertation (1840-41 / 1902) CW1

   Critique of Hegel's Doctrine of the State (1843 / 1927) CW3

   On the Jewish Question (1843 / 1844) CW3

   Contribution to a Critique Hegel's Philosophy of Right: Introduction (or 'The 1843 Introduction') (1843-44 / 1844) CW4?

   Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts (1844 / 1932) CW4?

   Comments on James Mill (or Notes on James Mill) (1844 / 1932) CW4?

   The Holy Family (with Engels) (1844 / 1845) CW4

   Theses on Feuerbach (1845 / as edited by Engels 1888, original text 1924) CW5

   The German Ideology (with Engels) (1845-46 / 1932) CW5

   Letter to Annenkov (1846 / 1912) CW38

   The Poverty of Philosophy (1847 / 1847) CW6

   Wage Labour and Capital (1847 / 1849) CW6

   The Communist Manifesto (with Engels) (1847-48 / 1848) CW6

   The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte (1851-52 / 1852) CW11

   Grundrisse (or Economic Manuscripts of 1857-58) (1857-58 / 1939) CW28-29

   Urtext: Zur Kritik der politischen Ökonomie (1858 /1939) CW29 at pp. 257ff

   (Part of the Grundrisse not included in the Penguin translation)

   A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy (including '1859 Preface') (1858-59 / 1859) CW29?

   Economic Manuscripts of 1861–63 (1861-63 / 1976-82) CW31-33

   Theories of Surplus Value (1862-63 / 1963-71) CW31-33

   (Part of the Economic Manuscripts of 1861–63)

   Capital vol. 3 (1864-65 / edited by Engels 1894) CW37

   Value, Prices and Profit (1865 / 1898) CW20

   Capital vol. 2 (1865-70 / edited by Engels 1885) CW36

   Capital vol. 1 (1866-67 / 1867) CW35

   Capital vol. 1, chapter 1 of the first edition 'The commodity', and appendix 'The value-form' (1866-67 / 1867)

   (For translations see section on 'Value-form theory: general' below)

   The Civil War in France (1870-71 / 1871) CW22?

   Critique of the Gotha Programme (1875 / 1891) CW24

   Notes on Wagner (1879-80 / 1930)

   Ethnological Notebooks (1880-81 / 1972)

 

@ Introductions to Marx

   McLellan, David (1971) The Thought of Karl Marx, 3rd ed. 1995

   McLellan, David (1975) Marx, Fontana Modern Masters

   Singer, Peter (1980) Marx, Pastmasters, reissued as Marx: A Very Short Introduction 2001

   Elster, Jon (1986) An Introduction to Karl Marx (an abridged version of Elster 1985, see below)

   McCarney, Joseph (1990) Social Theory and the Crisis of Marxism, chs. 6-8 pdf

   Graham, Keith (1992) Karl Marx: Our Contemporary. Social Theory for a Post-Leninist World

   Eagleton, Terry (1997) Marx, The Great Philosophers

   Wolff, Jonathan (2003) Why Read Marx Today?

   Collier, Andrew (2004) Marx

   Osborne, Peter (2005) How to Read Marx

   Allen, Kieran (2011) Marx and the Alternative to Capitalism

 

@ Commentaries on Marx's work as a whole

   Lichtheim, George (1961) Marxism

   Avineri, Shlomo (1968) The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx

   Kolakowski, Leszek (1978) Main Currents of Marxism, vol. 1: The Founders

   Wood, Allen W. (1981) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 2004

   Bottomore, Tom (ed) (1983) Dictionary of Marxist Thought, 2nd ed. 1991

   Elster, Jon (1985) Making Sense of Marx

 

@ Collections of articles on Marx

   Bottomore, Tom (ed) (1973) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 1979

   Mepham, John and Ruben, David-Hillel (eds) (1979-81) Issues in Marxist Philosophy, 4 vols

   Parkinson, G.H.R. (ed) (1982) Marx and Marxisms

   Ball, Terence and Farr, James (eds) (1984) After Marx

   Cowling, Mark and Wilde, Lawrence (eds) (1989) Approaches to Marx

   Jessop, Bob and Malcolm-Brown, Charlie (eds) (1990) Karl Marx's Social and Political Thought: Critical Assessments, 4 vols

   Carver, Terrell (ed) (1991) The Cambridge Companion to Marx

   Panasiuk, Ryszard and Nowak, Leszek (1998) Marx's Theories Today

   Meikle, Scott (ed) (2002) Marx, International Library of Critical Essays in the History of Philosophy

   Uchida, Hiroshi (ed) (2006) Marx for the 21st Century

   Bellofiore, Riccardo and Fineschi, Roberto (eds) (2009) Re-reading Marx: New Perspectives after the Critical Edition

   Chitty, Andrew and McIvor, Martin (eds) (2009) Karl Marx and Contemporary Philosophy

   Kandiyali, Jan (ed) (2018) Reassessing Marx's Social and Political Philosophy: Freedom, Recognition and Human Flourishing

   Gandesha, Samir and Hartle, Johan F. (eds) (2017) Aesthetic Marx contents

 

@ Biographies of Marx

   Mehring, Franz [1918] Karl Marx: The Story of His Life, tr. E. Fitzgerald 1936

   Berlin, Isiah (1939) Karl Marx: His Life and Environment

   Cornu, Auguste (1958) Karl Marx et Friedrich Engels: Leur vie et leur oeuvre, 3 vols

   Rubel, Maximilien (1957) Karl Marx: Essai de biographie intellectuelle

   McLellan, David (1971) Karl Marx: His Life and Thought

   Seigel, Jerry E. (1978) Marx's Fate: The Shape of a Life

   Draper, Hal (1985) The Marx-Engels Cyclopedia, 3 volumes

   Wheen, Francis (1999) Karl Marx

   Sperber, Jonathan (2013) Karl Marx: A Nineteenth Century Life

   Stedman Jones, Gareth (2016) Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion summary

   Heinrich, Michael [2018] Karl Marx and the Birth of Modern Society (The Life of Marx and the Development of His Work, Volume I: 1818-1841), tr. Alex Locascio 2019 summary

 

@ Journals of Marx and Marxism studies

   Studies in Marxism

   Historical Materialism site

   Actuel Marx site

 

@ PRECURSORS

 

@ Influences on Marx's development: general

   (See also 'Young Hegelians and Marx')

   Cornu, Auguste (1957) The Origins Of Marxian Thought

   Kolakowski, Leszek (1978) Main Currents of Marxism, vol. 1: The Founders, first chapters

   Kouvelakis, Stathis (2003) Philosophy and Revolution: From Kant to Marx, reissued 2018 summary

 

@ Aristotle and Marx

   (See also the London Metropolitan University bibliography on Marxism and Aristotelianism)

   (For species-being and Aristotle see 'Species-being and Aristotle')

   McCoy, Charles N.R. (1954) 'The logical and the real in political theory: Plato, Aristotle and Marx', American Political Science Review 48(4)

   Lobkowicz, Nicholas (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx

   Gould, Carol C. (1978) Marx's Social Ontology: Individuality and Community in Marx's Theory of Social Reality, ch. 1 'The ontology of society'

   Castoriadis, Cornelius (1978) 'From Marx to Aristotle, from Aristotle to us, Social Research 45(4), retitled and retranslated as 'Value, equality, justice, politics: From Marx to Aristotle and from Aristotle to ourselves', in Castoriadis, Crossroads in the Labyrinth 1999

   Mansfield, Harvey C. Jr. (1980) 'Marx on Aristotle: freedom, money and politics', Review of Metaphysics 34(2)

   Miller, Richard W. (1981) 'Marx and Aristotle: a kind of consequentialism', Canadian Journal of Philosophy, supp. vol. 7 Marx and Morality, reprinted in A. Callinicos (ed) Marxist Theory 1989; in G.E. McCarthy (ed) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth Century German Social Theory and Classical Antiquity 1992; and in Scott Meikle (ed) Marx 2002

   Gilbert, Alan (1984) 'Marx's moral realism: eudaimonism and moral progress', in T. Ball and J. Farr (eds) After Marx

   Meikle, Scott (1985) Essentialism in the Thought of Karl Marx

   Springborg, Patricia (1986) 'Politics, primordialism and orientalism: Marx, Aristotle and the myth of the Gemeinschaft', American Political Science Review 80(1)

   Kain, Philip J. (1988) Marx and Ethics, chs. 1-2

   McCarthy, George E. (1990) Marx and the Ancients: Nineteenth Century German Social Theory and Classical Antiquity

   Meikle, Scott (1991) 'History of philosophy: the metaphysics of substance in Marx', in Terrell Carver (ed) The Cambridge Companion to Marx

   Kain, Philip J. (1992) 'Aristotle, Kant and the ethics of the young Marx', in G.E. McCarthy (ed) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth Century German Social Theory and Classical Antiquity (Ipek Demir)

   McCarthy, George E. (ed) (1992) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth-Century German Thought and Classical Antiquity (Set of articles arguing for links between Aristotle and Marx)

   Mewes, Horst (1992) 'Karl Marx and the influence of Greek antiquity on Eighteenth-century German Thought', in G.E. McCarthy (ed) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth Century German Social Theory and Classical Antiquity

   Depew, David J. (1992) 'The polis transfigured: Aristotle's Politics and Marx's Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right', in G.E. McCarthy (ed) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth Century German Social Theory and Classical Antiquity

   MacIntyre, Alasdair [1994] 'The Theses on Feuerbach: a road not taken' in Kelvin Knight ed The MacIntyre Reader 1998

   Katz, Claudio J. (1994) 'The socialist polis: antiquity and socialism in Marx's thought', Review of Politics 56(2)

   Wilde, Lawrence (1998) 'Marx and justice revisited: the Greek dimension', Studies in Marxism 5, pp. 93-113

   Pike, Jonathan E. (1999) From Aristotle to Marx: Aristotelianism in Marxist Social Ontology

   Giddy, Patrick (2000) 'A critical ethic of transformation: dialogue with Marx and Aristotle', Theoria: A Journal of Social and Political Theory 95

   Pike, Jonathan E. (2001) 'Aristotle and Marx: egalitarianism, civic friendship and rights', Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research 12

   Meikle, Scott (ed) (2002) Marx, International Library of Critical Essays in the History of Philosophy (many articles in this collection focus on the Marx-Aristotle relationship)

   McCarthy, George E. (2003) 'Karl Marx, Athenian democracy and the critique of political economy', in his Classical Horizons: The Origins of Sociology in Ancient Greece

   Burns, Tony (2005) 'Whose Aristotle? Which Marx? Ethics, law and justice in Aristotle and in Marx', Imprints 8(2)

   Burns, Tony (2010) 'Revolutionary Aristotelianism? The political thought of Aristotle, Marx and MacIntyre', in Paul Blackledge and Kelvin Knight (eds) Virtue and Politics

   Pack, Spencer J. (2010) Aristotle, Adam Smith and Karl Marx: On Some Fundamental issues in 21st century Political Economy

   Groff, Ruth (2012) 'Aristotelian Marxism / Marxist Aristotelianism: MacIntyre, Marx and the analysis of abstraction', Philosophy and Social Criticism 38(12)

   Pickford, Henry (2017) 'Poiesis, praxis, aisthesis: remarks on Aristotle and Marx', in Samir Gandesha and Johan F. Hartle (eds) Aesthetic Marx

   Levine, Norman (2021) Marx's Resurrection of Aristotle

   Lazarus, Michael (2022) 'Alienation and action in the young Marx, Aristotle, and Arendt', Constellations 29(4) abstract

 

@ Spinoza's political thought and Marx

   Spinoza, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, especially ch. 16

   Marx [1841] 'Exzerpte aus Benedictus Spinoza: Opera ed. Paulus', in MEGA IV.1, 1976

   Matheron, Alexandre (1977) 'Le Traité Théologico-Politique vu par le jeune Marx', Cahiers Spinoza 1(1)

   Negri, Antonio [1981] The Savage Anomaly: The Power of Spinoza's Metaphysics and Politics, tr. Michael Hardt 1991

   Negri, Antonio [1984] 'The Political Treatise, or the foundation of modern democracy', in Subversive Spinoza: (Un)contemporary Variations, ed. Timothy Murphy 2004

   Balibar, Etienne [1985] Spinoza and Politics, tr. Peter Snowdon 1998

   Montag, Warren (1989) 'Spinoza: politics in a world without transcendence', Rethinking Marxism 2(3)

   Smith, Steven B. (1994) 'Spinoza's democratic turn: Chapter 16 of the 'Theologico-Political Treatise'', Review of Metaphysics 48(2)

   Hardt, Michael (1994) 'Spinoza's democracy: the passions of social assemblages', in Antonio Callari (ed) Marxism in the Postmodern Age

   Holland, Eugene (1998) 'Spinoza and Marx', Cultural Logic 2(1)

   Hull, Gordon (2000) 'Marx's anomalous reading of Spinoza', Interpretation 28(1) preview

   Ward, Lee (2011) 'Benedict Spinoza on the naturalness of democracy', Canadian Political Science Review 5(1) abstract

   Aurelio, Diogo Pires (2015) 'Spinoza, Marx and democracy', Revisto Estudios Politicos 6(1) abstract

   Bianchi, Bernardo (2018) 'Marx's reading of Spinoza: on the alleged influence of Spinoza on Marx', Historical Materialism 26(4) abstract

   Bowring, Bill (2022) 'Spinoza, Marx, and Ilyenkov (who did not know Marx's transcription of Spinoza)', Studies in East European Thought 74(3) abstract

   Field, Sandra L. (2022 online) 'Marx, Spinoza and 'true democracy', in Jason M. Yonover & Kristin Gjesdal (eds) Spinoza in Germany: Political and Religious Thought across the Long Nineteenth Century abstract

 

@ Liberalism and Marx

   (See also 'Rights and the rule of law')

   Blackburn, Robin (ed) (1991) After the Fall: The Failure of Communism and the Future of Socialism

   Reiman, Jeffrey (2014) As Free and as Just as Possible: The Theory of Marxian Liberalism

   Shoikhedbrod, Igor (2019) Revisiting Marx's Critique of Liberalism: Rethinking Justice, Legality, and Rights

 

@ Rousseau and Marx

   (See also An egalitarian political philosophy bibliography: 'Rousseau and critical theory')

   Rousseau [1755] Discourse on the Origins of Inequality

   Rousseau [1762] The Social Contract

   Rotenstreich, Nathan (1949) 'Between Rousseau and Marx', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 9(4)

   Della Volpe, Galvano [1957] Rousseau and Marx, tr. 1987

   Meszaros, Istvan (1970) Marx's Theory of Alienation, pp. 48-61, 99-107

   Althusser, Louis [1970] Politics and History: Montesquieu, Rousseau, Marx, part 2 'Rousseau: the social contract', tr. 1972

   Lecercle, Jean-Luis (1982) 'Rousseau et Marx', in R.A. Leigh (ed) Rousseau After Two Hundred Years (and discussion by Robert Wokler)

   Wokler, Robert (1983) 'Rousseau and Marx', in David Miller and Larry Siedentop (eds) The Nature of Political Theory, reprinted in Wokler's Rousseau, the Age of Enlightenment, and Their Legacies 2012 abstract

   Levine, Andrew (1993) The General Will: Rousseau, Marx and Communism summary

   Leopold, David (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, pp. 262-271 'Marx and Rousseau' site

   Lecercle, Jean-Luis (2011) Rousseau et le Marxisme summary

   Forst, Rainer (2017) 'Noumenal alienation: Rousseau, Kant and Marx on the dialectics of self-determination', Kantian Review 22(4) abstract

   Neuhouser, Frederick (2022) Diagnosing Social Pathology: Rousseau, Hegel, Marx, and Durkheim, chs. 3-6 contents

 

@ Steuart and Marx

   Marx [1862-63] Theories of Surplus Value vol. 1, ch. 1 'Sir James Steuart'

   McColloch, William (2011) 'Marx's appreciation of James Steuart: A theory of history and value', Working Paper no. 2011-09, University of Utah abstract

   Betancourt, Rebeca G. and Manigat, Matari P. (2018) 'James Steuart and the making of Karl Marx's monetary thought', The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 25(5) abstract

 

@ Smith and Marx

   (See also An egalitarian political philosophy bibliography: 'Smith on commercial society')

   Marx [1862-63] Theories of Surplus Value vol. 1 ch. 3 'Adam Smith'

   West, E.G. (1969) 'The political economy of alienation: Karl Marx and Adam Smith', Oxford Economic Papers 21(1) preview

   Baumol, William J. (1976) 'Smith vs. Marx on business, morality and the social interest', The American Economist 20(2), reprinted in The American Economist 61(1), 2016 preview

   Meek, Ronald M. (1977) 'Smith and Marx', in his Smith, Marx, and After: Ten Essays in the Development of Economic Thought preview

   Clarke, Simon (1982) Marx, Marginalism and Modern Sociology: From Adam Smith to Max Weber, chs. 2-3 summary

 

@ Kant and Marx: general

   (See also 'Kant's ethics and political philosophy and Marx', 'Sohn-Rethel')

   Goldmann, Lucien [1945] Immanuel Kant, tr. 1971

   Levine, Andrew (1978) 'Alienation as heteronomy', Philosophical Forum 8(2)

   Woei Lien Chong (1999) 'Combining Marx with Kant: the philosophical anthropology of Li Zehou', Philosophy East and West 49(2) preview

   Negt, Oskar (2003) Kant und Marx: Ein Epochengesprach summary

   Ypi, Lea (2017) 'From revelation to revolution: the critique of religion in Kant and Marx', Kantian Review 22(4) abstract

 

@ Kant and Marx: Critique of Pure Reason

   (See also ' ~Sohn-Rethel)

   Habermas, Jürgen [1968] Knowledge and Human Interests, tr. 1971, ch. 2 'Marx's metacritique of Hegel: social labor as synthesis'

   Hoffman, Piotr (1982) The Anatomy of Idealism: Passivity and Activity in Kant, Hegel and Marx summary

   McCarthy, George (1985) 'Development of the concept and method of critique in Kant, Hegel, and Marx', Studies in Soviet Thought 30(1) preview

   Karatani, Kojin (2003) Transcritique: On Kant and Marx summary

   Noonan, Jeff (2006) 'Kant, Marx, and the origins of critique', Historical Materialism 14(2) (review of Karatani 2003) pdf

   Lotz, Christian (2014) The Capitalist Schema: Time, Money, and the Culture of Abstraction summary

 

@ Kant and Marx: ethics and political philosophy

   (See also An egalitarian political philosophy bibliography: 'Kantian socialism and egalitarianism')

   Bauer, Otto (1906) 'Marxismus und Ethik', Die Neue Zeit 24(2)

   Adler, Max (1912) 'Marxismus und Ethik', Archiv für Sozialwissenschaft 34

   Kamenka, Eugene (1962) The Ethical Foundations of Marxism, 2nd ed. 1972, also html

   Kamenka, Eugene (1969) Marxism and Ethics

   Howard, Dick (1981) 'The politics of modernism: from Marx to Kant', Philosophy and Social Criticism 8(4)

   Howard, Dick (1984) 'From Marx to Kant: the return of the political', Thesis Eleven 8 (1)

   Howard, Dick (1985) From Marx to Kant, 2nd ed. 1993

   Kain, Philip J. (1986) 'The young Marx and Kantian ethics', Studies in Soviet Thought 31(4) preview

   Kain, Philip J. (1988) Marx and Ethics, chs. 1-2 (expansion of Kain 1986)

   Nielsen, Kai (1989) Marxism and the Moral Point of View: Morality, Ideology and Historical Materialism, chs. 11-12

   Booth, William James (1993) 'The limits of autonomy: Karl Marx's Kant critique' in R. Beiner and W.J. Booth (eds) Kant and Political Philosophy: The Contemporary Legacy

   Karatani, Kojin (2003) Transcritique: On Kant and Marx summary

   Ypi, Lea (2014) 'On revolution in Kant and Marx', Political Theory 42(3) abstract

   Furner, James (2015) 'Marx with Kant on exploitation', Contemporary Political Theory 14(1) abstract

   Forst, Rainer (2017) 'Noumenal alienation: Rousseau, Kant and Marx on the dialectics of self-determination', Kantian Review 22(4) abstract

   Love, Suzie M. (2017) 'Kant after Marx', Kantian Review 22(4) abstract

   Williams, Howard (2017) 'The political philosophies of Kant and Marx', Kantian Review 22(4) abstract

   Wood, Allen W. (2017) 'Marx and Kant on capitalist exploitation', Kantian Review 22(4) abstract

   Furner, James (2018) Marx on Capitalism: The Interaction-Recognition-Antinomy Thesis, chs. 3, 8 summary

   Kuhne, Frank (2022) Marx und Kant. Die normativen Grundlagen des Kapitals review

 

@ Humboldt and Marx

   Humboldt, Wilhelm von [1792] The Limits of State Action [Ideen zu einem Versuch, die Grenzen der Wirksamkeit des Staates zu bestimmen] (previously translated under the title The Sphere and Duties of Government) html

   Chomsky, Noam (1970) 'Notes on anarchism', in D. Guerin (ed) Anarchism: From Theory to Practice

   Geuss, Raymond (2001) History and Illusion in Politics, CUP, pp. 80ff

 

@ Sieyès and Marx

   Sieyès, Emmanuel J.[1788] What Is the Third Estate?

   Sieyès, Emmanuel J. [1789] View of the Executive Means Available to the Representative of France in 1789

   Guilhaumou, Jacques (1999) 'Marx, Sieyès et le moment constituant (1789)', Actuel Marx 26 preview

   von Eggers, Nicolai (2018) 'Towards a materialist conception of constituent power: reinterpreting the constitutional theory of Sieyès', History of Political Thought 39(2) abstract

   Stanislas, Richard (2020) 'Sieyès and Marx in Paris', Contemporary Political Theory 19 abstract

 

@ Romanticism and Marx

   Lukes, Stephen (1973) Individualism, ch. 10 'Self-development' summary

   Levin, Michael (1974) 'Marxism and romanticism: Marx's debt to German conservatism', Political Studies 22(4) preview

   Löwy, Michael (1987) 'The romantic and the Marxist critique of modern civilization', Theory and Society 16(6) preview

   White, James D. (1996) Karl Marx and the Intellectual Origins of Dialectical Materialism, chs. 1,4 contents

   Löwy, Michael and Sayre, Robert (2002) Romanticism Against the Tide of Modernity, ch. 3 ' Excursus: Marxism and Romanticism' contents

   Breckman, Warren (2022) 'Marx and romanticism', Critical Review 34(1) abstract

 

@ Fichte and Marx

   Fichte [1792] Attempt at a Critique of all Revelation, CUP 1978, see p. 73 (for the idea of Entäusserung)

   Fichte [1794] Science of Knowledge, CUP 1982, see p. 154 (for the idea of Entäusserung)

   Garaudy, Roger [1965] Karl Marx: The Evolution of his Thought, tr. 1967

   Lobkowicz, Nicholas (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx, pp. 300-2

   Mader, Johann (1968) Fichte, Feuerbach, Marx (in German)

   Becker, Franz J.E. (1972) Freiheit und Entfremdung bei Fichte, Marx und in der kritischen Theorie, University of Cologne dissertation

   Rockmore, Tom (1976) 'Activity In Fichte and Marx', Idealistic Studies 6(2) summary

   Rockmore, Tom (1980) Fichte, Marx and the German Philosophical Tradition summary

   Rockmore, Tom (2021) 'Marx the Fichtean', Ethics in Progress 12(2) abstract

 

@ Ricardo and Marx

   (Also Sraffa and Marx)

   Tucker, G.S.L. (1961) 'Ricardo and Marx', Economica 28(111)

   Pilling, Geoff (1972) 'The law of value in Ricardo and Marx', Economy and Society 1(3)

   de Brunhoff, Suzanne (1973) ' Marx as an a-Ricardian: value, money and price at the beginning of Capital', Economy and Society 2(4)

   Meek, Ronald M. (1973) 'The law of value in Ricardo and Marx: a reply to Mr. Pilling', Economy and Society 2(4)

   Steedman, Ian (1977) Marx After Sraffa

   Steedman, Ian (1982) 'Marx on Ricardo', in Ian Bradley and Michel Howard (eds) Classical and Marxian Political Economy: Essays in Honour of Ronald L. Meek

   Mandel, Ernest and Freeman, Alan (eds) (1984) Ricardo, Marx, Sraffa: The Langston Memorial Volume

   Fine, Ben (ed) (1986) The Value Dimension: Marx vs. Ricardo and Sraffa

   Murray, Patrick (1993) 'The necessity of money: how Hegel helped Marx surpass Ricardo's theory of value', in Fred Moseley (ed) Marx's Method in Capital: A Re-examination preview

   Feess, Eberhard (1998) 'Marx on Ricardo: an explanation of some important misunderstandings', The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 5(2) abstract

 

@ Schiller and Marx

   Kain, Philip J. (1982) Schiller, Hegel, and Marx: State, Society, and the Aesthetic Ideal of Ancient Greece summary

   van Herpen, Marcel H. (1983) 'Schiller und Marx. Die unbekannte, erste Entfremdungstheorie von Marx', Kant-Studien 74(3)

   Hartley, Daniel (2017) 'Radical Schiller and the young Marx', in Samir Gandesha and Johan F. Hartle (eds) Aesthetic Marx preview

   Kandiyali, Jan (2018) 'Schiller and Marx on specialization and self-realization', in Jan Kandiyali (ed) Reassessing Marx's Social and Political Philosophy: Freedom, Recognition and Human Flourishing site

   Rivero, Gabriel (2023) 'Schiller and Marx on alienation', in Antonino Falduto and Tim Mehigan (eds) The Palgrave Handbook on the Philosophy of Friedrich Schiller abstract

 

@ Hegel and Marx: general

   (For more specific aspects see 'Hegel: Marx's critiques of Hegel's philosophy as a whole', 'Critique of Hegel's Doctrine of the State (1843)', 'Hegel and Marx on history', 'Method of Capital: Hegelian interpretations', 'Logic of essence in Capital', 'Logic of the concept in Capital', 'Phenomenology of Spirit and Marx')

   (For alienation in Hegel vs. in Marx see A Hegel bibliography: 'Alienation')

   Engels, Friedrich [1886] Ludwig Feuerbach and the Outcome of Classical German Philosophy

   Cooper, Rebecca (1925) The Logical Influence of Hegel on Marx

   Marcuse, Herbert (1941) Reason and Revolution: Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory

   Kojève, Alexandre [1947] Introduction to the Reading of Hegel, tr. J.H. Nichols 1969

   Lukács, Georg [1948] The Young Hegel: Studies in the Relations Between Dialectics and Economics, tr. 1975, esp. chapter on 'Work and the problem of teleology'

   Avineri, Shlomo (1968) The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx

   Habermas, Jürgen [1968] Knowledge and Human Interests, tr. 1971, ch. 2 'Marx's metacritique of Hegel: social labor as synthesis'

   Colletti, Lucio [1969] Marxism and Hegel, tr. 1973

   Althusser, Louis [1965] For Marx, tr. 1969

   Althusser, Louis [1970] 'Marx's relation to Hegel' in his Politics and History: Montesquieu, Rousseau, Hegel, Marx 1972

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1986) Dialectics of Labour: Marx and his Relation to Hegel html

   Berki, R.N. (1990) 'Through and through Hegel: Marx's road to communism', Political Studies 38 abstract

   McCarney, Joseph (1990) Social Theory and the Crisis of Marxism, ch. 6 'The standpoint of evaluation' pdf

   Boger, George (1991) 'On the materialist appropriation of Hegel's dialectical method', Science & Society 55(1)

   MacGregor, David (1992) Hegel, Marx, and the English State

   Rosenthal, John (1998) The Myth of Dialectics: Reinterpreting the Hegel-Marx Relation

   Burns, Tony and Fraser, Ian (eds) (2000) The Hegel-Marx Connexion contents

   Fine, Robert (2001) 'The Marx-Hegel relationship: revisionist interpretations', Capital & Class 75 preview

   Postone, Moishe (2003) 'Lukács and the dialectical critique of capitalism', section 3, in Roger Albritton and John Simoulidis (eds) New Dialectics and Political Economy preview

   Cole, Andrew (2004) 'What Hegel's master/slave dialectic really means', Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 34(3) preview

   Finelli, Roberto [2004] A Failed Parricide: Hegel and the Young Marx, tr. 2016 summary

   Levine, Norman (2006) Divergent Paths: Hegel in Marxism and Engelsism summary

   Leopold, David (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, ch. 2 'German philosophy' summary

   Chitty, Andrew (2011) 'Hegel and Marx', in Stephen Houlgate and Michael Baur (eds) A Companion to Hegel

   Levine, Norman (2012) Marx's Discourse with Hegel contents

   Zhang Shuangli (2017) 'Marx and Hegel' in Dean Moyar (ed) The Oxford Handbook of Hegel abstract

   Chitty, Andrew (2018) 'Human solidarity in Hegel and Marx', in Jan Kandiyali (ed) Reassessing Marx's Social and Political Philosophy: Freedom, Recognition and Human Flourishing, section 6 of the article site

 

@ Hegel and Marx: Marx's critiques of Hegel's philosophy as a whole

   (For Marx's critique of Hegel's political philosophy see 'Critique of Hegel's Doctrine of the State (1843)'

   Marx [1844] Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, 'Critique of Hegel's dialectic'

   Marx and Engels [1844] The Holy Family, secs. on 'The mystery of speculative construction', 'Spirit and mass'

   Marx [1847] The Poverty of Philosophy, ch. 2 'The metaphysics of political economy', sec. 1 'The method'

   Marx [1873] Afterword (or Postface) to 2nd edition of Capital volume 1

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1986) Dialectics of Labour: Marx and his Relation to Hegel, chs. 4-6 html

   McCarney, Joseph (1999) 'Hegel's legacy', Res Publica 5(2), reprinted in T. Burns and I. Fraser (eds) The Hegel-Marx Connexion 2000 abstract

   McCarney, Joseph (2009) ''The entire mystery': Marx's understanding of Hegel', in Andrew Chitty and Martin McIvor (eds) Karl Marx and Contemporary Philosophy pdf

 

@ Savigny and the historical school of law: general

   (With thanks to James Furner)

   Savigny, Friedrich C. von (1802-03) Juristische Methodenlehre, ed. G. Wesenberg 1951 (Savigny's 1802-03 Marburg lecture notes)

   Savigny, Friedrich C. von (1803) Abhandlung des Lehre vom Besitz, 2nd and subsequent editions as Das Recht des Besitzes, 7th edition 1865, tr. Erskine Perry as Von Savigny's Treatise on Possession, or the Jus Possessionis of the Civil Law 1848

   Hugo, Gustav (1809) Lehrbuch des Naturrechts als einer Philosophie des positiven Rechts, esp. introductory chapter on 'Juristische Anthropologie'

* Savigny, Friedrich C. von (1814) Zum Beruf unser Zeit für Gesetzgebung und Rechtswissenschaft, 3rd edition 1840, tr. A. Hayward as On the Vocation of our Age for Legislation and Jurisprudence 1831, extract in Lloyd, Introduction to Jurisprudence 1994

   Savigny, Friedrich C. von (1815) 'Über den Zweck dieser Zeitschrift', Zeitschrift für geschichtliche Rechtswissenschaft 1

   Savigny, Friedrich C. von (1815-31) Geschichte des römischen Rechts im Mittelalter (Vol. 1 tr. E. Cathcart as The History of the Roman Law during the Middle Ages)

   Savigny, Friedrich C. von (1840-49) System des heutigen Römischen Rechts, 8 vols. (Vol. 1 tr. W. Holloway as System of the Modern Roman Law 1867; vol. 2 tr. W. H. Rattigan as Jural Relations: or The Roman law of Persons as Subjects of Jural Relations 1884, extract in Lloyd, Introduction to Jurisprudence 1994)

   Jhering, Rudolf von (1852) Der Geist des Römischen Rechts, preface tr. as 'The value of the Roman law to the modern world', Virginia Law Journal 4, 1880

   Kantorowicz, Hermann (1937) 'Savigny and the historical school of law', Law Quarterly Review 53 preview

   Wieacker, Franz (1952) Privatrechtsgeschichte der Neuzeit, 2nd ed. 1967

   Jones, J. Walter (1970) Historical Introduction to the Theory of Law, ch. on 'The historical school of law and codes'

   Kutner, Luis (1972) 'Legal philosophers: Savigny: German lawgiver', Marquette Law Review 55(2) pdf

   Blühdorn, J. (1973) 'Natturrechtkritik und 'Philosophie des Postiven Rechts' zur Begründung der Jurisprudenz als positiver Fachwissenshaft durch Gustav Hugo', Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis 41 preview

+ Stein, Peter (1980) Legal Evolution: The Story of an Idea, ch. 3 'The German historical school of law'

   Toews, John E. (1989) 'The immanent genesis and transcendent goal of law: Savigny, Stahl and the ideology of the Christian German state', American Journal of Comparative Law 37 preview

   Whitman, James Q. (1990) The Legacy of Roman Law in the German Romantic Era summary

+ Curzon, L.B. (1998) 'Savigny, the Volksgeist and historical jurisprudence', Student Law Review 23

   Rodes, Robert E. Jr. (2004) 'On the Historical School of Jurisprudence', American Journal of Jurisprudence 49(1) site

   Rückert, Joachim (2006) 'Friedrich Carl von Savigny, the legal method, and the modernity of law', Juridica International 11 preview

    Beiser, Frederick C. (2011) The German Historicist Tradition, ch. 5 'Savigny and the Historical School of Law' summary

   Toews, John E. (1989) 'The immanent genesis and transcendent goal of law: Savigny, Stahl and the ideology of the Christian German state', American Journal of Comparative Law 37 preview

 

@ Savigny on possession

   Savigny, Friedrich C. von (1803) Abhandlung des Lehre vom Besitz, 2nd and subsequent editions as Das Recht des Besitzes, 7th edition 1865, tr. Erskine Perry as Von Savigny's Treatise on Possession, or the Jus Possessionis of the Civil Law 1848

   Brutti, Massimo (1976-77) 'L'intuizione della proprietà nel systema dui Savigny', Quaderni Fiorentini 5-6(1)

 

   Kraus, Hans-Christof (1997) 'Historische Rechtsschule zwischen Philosophie und Geschichte', Der Staat 36(3) preview

 

@ Savigny and Hegel

   (See 'A Hegel bibliography: 'Savigny and Hegel')

 

@ Savigny and the Young Hegelians

   (See also 'Law in the early political writings (1842-43)')

   (For Savigny and Gans see 'Gans')

   Ruge, Arnold [1841] 'Zur Characteristik Savignys', in his Zur neuesten Geschichte des Deutschen Geistes

   Toews, John E. (1981) Hegelianism: The Path Toward Dialectical Humanism, 1805-1841, sections on Savigny

 

@ Savigny and Marx, Niebuhr and Marx

   (See also 'Law in the early political writings')

   Marx [Apr-Aug 1842] 'Philosophical manifesto of the Historical Law School', CW1

   Marx [Oct 1842] 'Debates on the law on theft of wood', CW1 (see section on customary right)

   Marx [Dec 1843 – Jan 1844] Contribution to a Critique Hegel's Philosophy of Right: Introduction

   Marx [1857-58] Grundrisse, Penguin, pp. 471-514 'Forms which precede capitalist production'

   Marx [1880-81] Ethnological Notebooks

   Vigouroux, Camille (1965) 'Karl Marx et la législation forestière rhénane de 1842', Revue d'histoire économique et sociale 43(2) preview

   Jaeger, Hasso (1967) 'Savigny et Marx', Archives de philosophie du droit 12

   Landa, Peter (1973) 'Karl Marx und die Rechtsgeschichte', Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis 41(3-4)

   Paul, Wolf (1974) Marxistische Rechtstheorie als Kritik des Rechts, section on the wood theft article

   Kelley, Donald R. (1978) 'The metaphysics of law: an essay on the very young Marx', American Historical Review 83(2) preview

   Paul, Wolf (1978-79) 'Marx versus Savigny', Anales de la Catedra Francisco Suarez 18-19 pdf

   Levine, Norman (1987) 'The German historical school of law and the origins of historical materialism', Journal of the History of Ideas 48(3) preview

   Furner, James (2018) Marx on Capitalism: The Interaction-Recognition-Antinomy Thesis, ch. 7 'Purchase and sale' preview

 

@ Stahl

   Stahl, Friedrich J. (1830-1837) Die Philosophie des Rechts nach geschichtlicher Ansicht, 3 vols

   Stahl, Friedrich J. [18?] 'Hegels Naturrecht und Philosophie des Geistes', in M. Riedel (ed) Materialien zu Hegels Rechtsphilosophie 1975

   Drucker, Peter F. [1933] 'Friedrich Julius Stahl: his conservative theory of the state', tr. in Society 39(5) site

   Wiegand, Christian (1981) Über Friedrich Julius Stahl (1801-1862): Recht, Staat, Kirche

   Nabrings, Arie (1983) Friedrich Julius Stahl: Rechtsphilosophie und Kirchenpolitik

   Füssl, Wilhelm (1988) Professor in der Politik: Friedrich Julius Stahl (1802-1861)

   Toews, John E. (1989) 'The immanent genesis and transcendent goal of law: Savigny, Stahl and the ideology of the Christian German state', American Journal of Comparative Law 37 (see part 3, 'Savigny and Stahl') preview

+ Breckman, Warren (1999) Marx, The Young Hegelians and the Origins of Radical Social Theory: Dethroning the Self, ch. 2 'The transcendent sovereign and the political theology of restoration' (esp. last section) summary

 

@ Gans

   (Including the Gans-Savigny relation)

   Gans, Eduard [1839] 'Über die Grundlage des Besitzes, eine Duplik', in H. Schröder (ed) Eduard Gans: Philosophische Schriften

   Schröder, Horst (ed) (1971) Eduard Gans: Philosophische Schriften

   Braun, Johann (1981) 'Der Besitzrechtsstreit zwischen F.C. von Savigny und Eduard Gans – Idee und Wirklichkeit einer juristischen Kontroverse', Quaderni Fiorentini 9, reprinted in Braun's Judentum, Jurisprudenz und Philosophie 1997

   Waszek, Norbert (1987) 'Eduard Gans on poverty: between Hegel and Saint-Simon', The Owl of Minerva 18(2) preview

   Waszek, Norbert (ed) (1991) Eduard Gans (1979-1839): Hegelianer-Jude-Europäer. Texte und Documente

   Hoffheimer, Michael H. (1995) Eduard Gans and the Hegelian Philosophy of Law preview

+ Breckman, Warren (1999) Marx, The Young Hegelians and the Origins of Radical Social Theory: Dethroning the Self, ch. 4 'The social and political discourse of personality, 1835–1840' summary

   Breckman, Warren (2001) 'Eduard Gans and the crisis of Hegelianism', Journal of the History of Ideas 62(3) preview

   Blänker, Reinhardt; Göhler, Gerhard; and Waszek, Norbert (eds) (2002) Eduard Gans (1797-1839). Politischer Professor zwischen Restauration und Vormärz

   Waszek, Norbert (2006) 'Eduard Gans on poverty and on the constitutional debate', in Douglas Moggach (ed) The New Hegelians: Politics and Philosophy in the Hegelian School summary

   Bienenstock, Myriam (2011) 'Between Hegel and Marx: Eduard Gans on the 'social question'', in Douglas Moggach (ed) Politics, Religion, and Art: Hegelian Debates pdf

   Waszek, Norbert (2015) ' War Eduard Gans (1797-1839) der erste Links – oder Junghegelianer?', in Michael Quante and Amir Mohseni, Amir (eds) Die linken Hegelianer. Studien zum Verhältnis von Religion und Politik im Vormärz preview

   Basso, Michele (2023) 'On possession and property: Marx, Gans and the law', in Matteo Battistini and others (eds) Global Marx: History and Critique of the Social Movement in the World Market preview

 

@ Pre-Marxist socialism and Marx, utopian socialism and Marx

   (See also 'Utopianism and Marx')

   (See also 'Socialism and communism, history of'')

   Engels [1843] 'The progress of social reform on the continent', in Marx and Engels Collected Works vol. 3

   Engels [c. 1850] 'On the slogan of the abolition of the state and the German 'Friends of anarchy'', in Marx and Engels Collected Works vol. 10

   Engels [1880] Socialism: Utopian and Scientific

   Tucker, Robert C. (1961) Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 1972, ch. 7

   Rihs, Charles. (1978) L'école des jeunes-Hégéliens et les penseurs socialistes français

   Moore, Stanley W. (1980) Marx on the Choice between Socialism and Communism

   Gregory, David (1983) 'Karl Marx's and Friedrich Engels' knowledge of French Socialism in 1842-43', Historical Reflections 10(1) preview

   Lovell, David W. (1992) 'Socialism, utopianism and the utopian socialists', History of European Ideas 14(2) preview

   Leopold, David (2005) 'The structure of Marx and Engels' considered account of utopian socialism', History of Political Thought 26(3) preview

   Leopold, David (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, ch. 5 'Epilogue' summary

 

@ Utopianism in Marx

   (See also 'Pre-Marxist socialism and Marx')

   Harris, Abram L. (1950) 'Utopian elements in Marx's thought', Ethics 60(2) preview

   Molnar, Thomas S. (1972) Utopia: The Perennial Heresy summary

   Altman, Andrew (1981) 'Is Marxism utopia?', Philosophy and Social Criticism 8(4) preview

   Geoghegan, Vincent (1987) 'Marxism and utopianism', Utopian Studies 1 preview

   Geoghegan, Vincent (1987) Utopianism and Marxism, summary, reissued 2008 summary

   Webb, Darren (2000) Marx, Marxism and Utopia summary

   Lovell, David W. (2004) 'Marx's utopian legacy', The European Legacy 9(5) abstract

   Levitas, Ruth (2004) 'Beyond bourgeois right: freedom, equality and utopia in Marx and Morris', The European Legacy 9(5) preview

 

@ Saint-Simon and Marx

   MacIver, Alice M. (1922) 'Saint-Simon and his influence on Karl Marx', Economica 6 preview

   Durkheim, Emil [1929] Socialism and Saint-Simon, tr. 1959 preview

   Gurvitch, Georges (1960) 'Saint-Simon et Karl Marx', Revue Internationale de Philosophie 14(3/4) preview

   Leopold, David (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, pp. 271-277 'Marx and Saint-Simon' site

 

@ Fourier and Marx

   Engels, Friedrich [1843] 'The progress of social reform on the continent'

   Hess, Moses [1843] 'Socialism and communism', review of L. von Stein, Der Sozialismus und Communismus des heutigen Frankreich 1842, in Hess, The Holy History of Mankind and Other Writings, ed. Shlomo Avineri 2004

   Beecher, Jonathan (2001) Charles Fourier: The Visionary and his World, ch. 14 'Work in harmony' summary

* Schmidt am Busch, Hans-Christophe (2013) ''The egg of Columbus'? How Fourier's social theory exerted a significant (and problematic) influence on the formation of Marx's anthropology and social critique', British Journal for the History of Philosophy 21(6) abstract

   Missé, Blanca (2920) 'Fourier, Marx and social reproduction', CLCWeb: Comparative Literature and Culture 22(2) abstract

 

@ Young Hegelians: general

   (See also Ralph Dumain's Young Hegelians bibliography)

* Stepelevich, Lawrence S. (ed) (1983) The Young Hegelians (texts by the major members of the group)

   Löwith, Karl [1941] From Hegel to Nietzsche

   Brazill, William J. (1970) The Young Hegelians

   Massey, James A. (1978) 'The Hegelians, the Pietists, and the nature of religion', Journal of Religion 58(2)

   Toews, John E. (1980) Hegelianism: the Path toward Dialectical Humanism, 1805‑1841

   Jaeschke, Walter [1986] Reason in Religion: The Foundations of Hegel's Philosophy of Religion, tr. 1990

+ Toews, John E. (1993) 'Transformations of Hegelianism, 1805-1846', in Frederick Beiser (ed) The Cambridge Companion to Hegel

   Quante, Michael and Mohseni, Amir (eds) (2015) Die linken Hegelianer. Studien zum Verhältnis von Religion und Politik im Vormärz contents

 

@ Young Hegelians: politics

   Engels [1886] Ludwig Feuerbach and the Outcome of Classical German Philosophy

   Macintosh, Robert (1903) Hegel and Hegelianism

   Stuke, Horst (1963) Philosophie der Tat. Studien zur Verwirklichung der Philosophie bei den Junghegelianern und wahren Sozialisten

   Cesa, Claudio (1972) Studi sulla sinistra hegeliana

   Pepperle, Heinz and Ingrid (1986) Die Hegelsche Linke: Dokumente zu Philosophie und Politik im deutschen Vormärz

   Sass, Hans-Martin (ed) (1978) 'Feuerbach, Marx and the Left Hegelians', special issue of Philosophical Forum 8(2-4) some articles available online

   Massey, Marilyn Chapin (1983) Christ Unmasked: The Meaning of the 'Life of Jesus' in German Politics

   Essbach, Wolfgang (1988) Die Junghegelianer. Soziologie enier Intellecktuellengruppe

   Hellman, Robert James (1990) Berlin - The Red Room and White Beer: The 'Free' Hegelian Radicals in the 1840s

   Breckman, Warren (1999) Marx, The Young Hegelians and the Origins of Radical Social Theory: Dethroning the Self summary

   Tomasoni, Francesco (2003) Modernity and the Final Aim of History: The Debate over Judaism from Kant to the Young Hegelians, ch. 3 'Atheism, progress and revolution' abstract

   Moggach, Douglas (ed) (2006) The New Hegelians: Politics and Philosophy in the Hegelian School contents

   Breckman, Warren (2019) 'The Young Hegelians: philosophy as critical praxis', In Warren Breckman and Peter E. Gordon (eds) The Cambridge History of Modern European Thought summary

 

@ Young Hegelians and Marx: general

   Kolakowski, Leszek (1978) Main Currents of Marxism vol. 1, ch. 6

   Marcuse, Herbert (1941) Reason and Revolution, part 2 ch. 1

   Hook, Sidney (1950) From Hegel to Marx, 2nd ed. 1962, chs. 1-4, 7-8

   Tucker, Robert (1961) Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 1972, chs. 2-7

* McLellan, David (1969) The Young Hegelians and Karl Marx

   Habermas, Jürgen [1985] The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity, ch. 3

   Mah, Harold (1987) The End of Philosophy, the Origin of 'Ideology': Karl Marx and the Crisis of the Young Hegelians

+ Nola, Robert (1993) 'The Young Hegelians, Feuerbach and Marx', in R.C. Solomon and K.M. Higgins (eds) Routledge History of Philosophy. Volume 6: The Age of German Idealism

   Wood, Allen W. (1993) 'Hegel and Marxism', in Beiser (ed) The Cambridge Companion to Hegel

   Brudney, Daniel (1998) Marx's Attempt to Leave Philosophy contents

   Breckman, Warren (1999) Marx, The Young Hegelians and the Origins of Radical Social Theory: Dethroning the Self, ch. 7 'Karl Marx: from social republicanism to communism' summary

   Leopold, David (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, ch. 2 'German philosophy' summary

 

@ Heine and Marx

   Marcuse, Ludwig (1955) 'Heine and Marx: a history and a legend', The Germanic Review 30(2) preview

   Reeves, Nigel (1973) 'Heine and the young Marx', Oxford German Studies 7(1) preview

   Mah, Harold (1990) 'The French Revolution and the problem of German modernity: Hegel, Heine, and Marx', New German Critique 50 preview

   Kouvelakis, Stathis (2003) Philosophy and Revolution: From Kant to Marx, reissued 2018, ch. 2 'Spectres of revolution: on a few themes in Heine' summary

 

@ Strauss

   Strauss, David F. [1835] The Life of Jesus Critically Examined, tr. George Eliot, ed. P. Hodgson 1994

   Strauss, David F. [1837] In Defense of My Life of Jesus against the Hegelians, tr. Marilyn C. Massey 1983

   Harris, Horton (1973) David Friedrich Strauss and his Theology

   Massey, Marilyn C. (1977) 'David Friedrich Strauss and his Hegelian critics', Journal of Religion 57(4) preview

 

@ Cieszkowski and Marx

   (See also 'Praxis and activity in Marx')

   Cieszkowski, August [1838] 'Prolegomena to historiosophy', chs. 1 and 2 in A. Liebich (ed) Selected Writings of August Cieszkowski 1979, also in Lawrence Stepelevich (ed) The Young Hegelians 1983

   Kubat, Daniel (1961) 'Marx and Cieszkowski', American Slavic and East European Review 20(1) preview

   Avineri, Shlomo (1968) The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx, ch. 5 'Praxis and revolution' summary

   Stepelevich, Lawrence S. (1974) 'August von Cieszkowski: from theory to praxis', History and Theory 13(1) preview

   Liebich, André (1979) Between Ideology and Utopia: The Politics and Philosophy of August Cieszkowski summary

   Tomba, Massimiliano (2006) 'A. von Cieszkowski: Philosophie der Praxis und Theorie der Geschichte', in L. Lambrecht (ed) Philosophie, Literatur und Politik vor den Revolution von 1848 summary

   Wainwright, Joel (2022) 'Praxis', Rethinking Marxism 34(1) abstract

 

@ Bauer, Bruno: texts

   Bauer, Bruno [1841] 'Der christliche Staat und unsere Zeit', in Hans-Martin Sass (ed) Bruno Bauer: Feldzüge der reinen Kritik

* Bauer, Bruno [Oct 1841] The Trumpet of the Last Judgement over Hegel, the Atheist and Antichrist [Die Posaune], tr. L. Stepelevich 1989. Two excerpts in Lawrence Stepelevich (ed) The Young Hegelians 1983

   Bauer, Bruno [spring 1842] Die gute Sache der Freiheit und meine eigene Angelegenheit [The good cause of freedom and my own affair]

   Bauer, Bruno [early 1843] The Jewish Problem, tr. H. Lederer 1958. Abridged as 'The Jewish question' in Lawrence Stepelevich (ed) The Young Hegelians 1983

   Bauer, Bruno [1843] 'The capacity of present-day Jews and Christians to become free', Philosophical Forum 8(2-4), 1978

   Bauer, Bruno [Oct 1843] Das Entdeckte Christentum, translated as An English Edition of Bruno Bauer's 1843 Christianity Exposed ed. Paul Trejo 2002 summary

   Bauer, Bruno [1844] 'The genus and the crowd' [Die Gattung und die Masse], in Lawrence Stepelevich (ed) The Young Hegelians 1983 (attack on Feuerbach)

   Bauer, Bruno (1845) 'Charakteristik Ludwig Feuerbachs', in Wigand's Vierteljahrschrift, vol. 3

   Bauer, Bruno [1877] Christ and the Caesars: The Origin of Christianity from Romanized Greek Culture, tr. Frank E. Schacht 1998

   Bauer, Bruno (1968) Bruno Bauer: Feldzüge der reinen Kritik [Campaigns of pure criticism], ed. Hans-Martin Sass (a collection of Bauer's articles from 1841 to 1844)

 

@ Bauer, Bruno and Marx

   (For the relation to Bauer in the Doctoral Dissertation specifically, see 'Doctoral dissertation and preparatory writings')

   (For Marx's 'On the Jewish Question', see that)

   Marx and Engels [1844] The Holy Family

   Bauer, Bruno (1845) 'Charakteristik Ludwig Feuerbachs', in Wigand's Vierteljahrschrift, vol. 3 (last section attacks The Holy Family)

   Marx and Engels [1845-46] The German Ideology, chapter on 'Saint Bruno'

   Rosen, Zvi (1970) 'The influence of Bruno Bauer on Marx' concept of alienation', Social Theory and Practice 1(2) preview

   Barnikol, Ernst (1972) Bruno Bauer: Studien und Materialien

   Rosen, Zvi (1977) Bruno Bauer and Karl Marx: The Influence of Bruno Bauer on Marx's Thought

   Sass, Hans-Martin (1978) 'Bruno Bauer's critical theory', Philosophical Forum 8

   Baronovitch, Laurence (1978) 'Two appendices to a doctoral dissertation: some light on the origin of Karl Marx's dissociation from Bruno Bauer and the Young Hegelians', Philosophical Forum 8(2)

   Pepperle, Ingrid (1978) Junghegelianische Geschichtsphilosophie und Kunsttheorie

* Moggach, Douglas (1989) 'Absolute spirit and universal self-consciousness: Bruno Bauer's revolutionary subjectivism', Dialogue: Canadian Philosophy Review, 28(2) extract

+ Stepelevich, Lawrence (1989) 'Translator's introduction' to Bruno Bauer, The Trumpet of the Last Judgement over Hegel, the Atheist and Antichrist, Edwin Mellon Press 1989 site

   Moggach, Douglas (1992) 'Nation, Volk, Masse: left-Hegelian perspectives on the rise of nationalism', History of European Ideas 15(1-3) preview

   Peled, Yoav (1992) 'From theology to sociology: Bruno Bauer and Karl Marx on the question of Jewish emancipation', History of Political Thought 13(3) preview

   Waser, Ruedi (1994) Autonomie des Selbstbewußtseins. Eine Untersuchung zum Verhältniss von Bruno Bauer und Karl Marx (1835-1843)

   Moggach, Douglas (1996) 'Bruno Bauer's political critique, 1840-41', Owl of Minerva 27(2) preview

   Brudney, Daniel (1998) Marx's Attempt to Leave Philosophy, ch. 3 'Bruno Bauer' preview

   Leopold, David (1999) 'The Hegelian antisemitism of Bruno Bauer', History of European Ideas 25(4) introduction

   Moggach, Douglas (2002) The Philosophy and Politics of Bruno Bauer summary

+ Moggach, Douglas (2002) 'Bruno Bauer', Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy html

   Tomba, Massimiliano (2005) Krise und Kritik bei Bruno Bauer. Kategorien des Politischen im nachhegelschen Denken summary

   Tomba, Massimiliano (2006) 'Exclusiveness and political universalism in Bruno Bauer', in Douglas Moggach (ed) The New Hegelians: Philosophy and Politics in the Hegelian School summary

   Moggach, Douglas (2006) 'Republican rigorism and emancipation in Bruno Bauer', in Douglas Moggach (ed) The New Hegelians: Philosophy and Politics in the Hegelian School summary

   Stedman Jones, Gareth (2016) Karl Marx: Greatness and Illusion, chs. 4-6 site

   Heinrich, Michael [2018] Karl Marx and the Birth of Modern Society (The Life of Marx and the Development of His Work Volume I: 1818-1841), tr. Alex Locascio 2019, chs. 2-3 site

 

@ Bauer, Edgar

   Bauer, Edgar [1844] Critique's Quarrel with Church and State [Der Streit der Kritik mit Kirche und Staat], 2nd ed., tr. Eric v.d. Luft 2019 summary

   De Vriese, Herbert (2018) 'Not a man of solid principles The relevance of Edgar Bauer's polemical portrait of Karl Marx in his 1843 novella Es leben feste Grundsätze!' The European Journal of the History of Economic Thought 25(5) abstract

 

@ Ruge and Marx

   Ruge, Arnold [1840] 'Zur Kritik des gegenwärtigen Staats – und Volkerrechts', in G.W.F. Hegel. Philosophie des Rechts, ed. H. Reichelt 1972

   Ruge, Arnold [1842] 'Hegel's Philosophy of Right and the politics of our times' in Lawrence Stepelevich (ed) The Young Hegelians 1983

   Marx [Aug 1844] 'Critical marginal notes on 'The King of Prussia and social reform''

   Walter, Stephan (1995) Demokratisches Denken zwischen Hegel und Marx: die politische Philosophie Arnold Ruges summary

   Breckman, Warren (1999) Marx, The Young Hegelians and the Origins of Radical Social Theory: Dethroning the Self, ch. 7 'Karl Marx: from social republicanism to communism' summary

   Breckman, Warren (2015) 'Arnold Ruge and the Machiavellian Moment', Michael Quante and Amir Mohseni, Amir (eds) Die linken Hegelianer. Studien zum Verhältnis von Religion und Politik im Vormärz preview

 

@ Feuerbach: texts

   Feuerbach internet archive has a collection of Feuerbach texts in English

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1828] De ratione, una, universali, infinita (Über die Vernunft) (doctoral dissertation) in Werke, ed. E. Thies, Frankfurt 1975, vol. 1

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1828] Letter to Hegel, 22 November 1828, in C. Butler (ed) Hegel: The Letters

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1830] Thoughts on Death and Immortality, tr. J. Massey 1980

   Feuerbach, Ludwig (1833) Geschichte der neuen Philosophie von Bacon von Verulam bis Benedikt Spinoza [History of Modern Philosophy from Bacon to Spinoza]

   Feuerbach, Ludwig (1834) Abelard and Heloise, or: The Writer and the Human: A Series of Humorous Philosophical Aphorisms, tr. Eric v.d. Luft site

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1835] 'Die Philosophie des Rechts nach Geschichtliche Ansicht'' (review of J. Stahl, The Philosophy of Right in Historical Perspective, vol. 2)

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1837] Darstellung, Entwicklung und Kritik der Leibnitz'schen Philosophie (Presentation, Development and Critique of Leibniz's Philosophy)

   Feuerbach, Ludwig (1838) Pierre Bayle

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1838] 'Zur Kritik der Christlichen oder 'positiven' Philosophie' (review of J. Sengler, On the Essence and Meaning of Speculative Philosophy and Theology in the Present Time)

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1838] 'Die Idee der Freiheit und der begriff des Gedankens, von. Dr. K. Bayer' (review of K. Bayer, The Idea of Freedom and the Concept of Thought)

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1839] 'Philosophie und Christentum'

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1839] 'Towards a critique of Hegel's philosophy' in Lawrence Stepelevich (ed) The Young Hegelians 1983, also in Zawar Hanfi (ed) The Fiery Brook 1972

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1840] 'Dr. Karl Bayer, Betrachtungen über den Begriff des sittlichen Geistes und über das Wesen der Tugend', in Gesammelte Werke vol. 9 (review of K. Bayer, Considerations on the Concept of Ethical Spirit and the Essence of Virtue)

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1841] The Essence of Christianity

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1841] 'On 'The Beginning of Philosophy' (review of J.F. Reiff, The Beginning of Philosophy), in Zawar Hanfi (ed) The Fiery Brook 1972

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1841?] 'The necessity of a reform of philosophy', in Zawar Hanfi (ed) The Fiery Brook 1972 (date uncertain)

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1843] 'Provisional theses for the reform of philosophy', in Lawrence Stepelevich (ed) The Young Hegelians, also in Zawar Hanfi (ed) The Fiery Brook 1972

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1843] Principles of the Philosophy of the Future, tr. M. Vogel 1966, reprinted with introduction by T. Wartenberg 1986; also in Zawar Hanfi (ed) The Fiery Brook 1972 html

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1844] The Essence of Faith According to Luther: A Supplement to the Essence of Christianity, tr. M. Cherno 1967

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1845] The Essence of Religion

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1845] 'The Essence of Christianity in relation to The Ego and its Own', Philosophical Forum 8(2-4), 1978 (Feuerbach's review of The Ego and its Own)

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1851] Lectures on the Essence of Religion, tr. R. Manheim 1967 html

   Hanfi, Zawar (ed) (1972) The Fiery Brook: Selected Writings of Ludwig Feuerbach, tr. Z. Hanfi

 

@ Feuerbach: general

   Ralph Dumain's Feuerbach bibliography has some items not included here

   Ludwig-Feuerbach-Gesellschaft (Ludwig Feuerbach Society) website has links and a bibliography of recent German-language literature on Feuerbach

   Chamberlain, William B. (1941) Heaven Wasn't His Destination: The Philosophy of Ludwig Feuerbach

   Althusser, Louis [1960] 'Feuerbach's philosophical manifestoes', in his For Marx

   Tucker, Robert C. (1961) Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx, ch. 4

* Kamenka, Eugene (1970) The Philosophy of Ludwig Feuerbach

* Wartofsky, Marx W. (1977) Feuerbach, esp. chs. 7,11

+ Massey, James A. (1980) Introduction', to Feuerbach, Thoughts on Death and Immortality, University of California Press

   Toews, John E. (1980) Hegelianism, ch. 10

+ Wartenberg, Thomas (1986) 'Introduction' to Ludwig Feuerbach, Principles of the Philosophy of the Future, ed. Thomas Wartenberg

   Wilson, Charles Alan (1989) Feuerbach and the Search for Otherness

   Philonenko, Alexis (1990) La jeunesse de Feuerbach. 1828-1841. Introduction à ses positions fondamentales, vol. 1, Paris

   Johnston, Larry W. (1995) Between Transcendence and Nihilism: Species-Ontology in the Philosophy of Ludwig Feuerbach

 

@ Feuerbach and Hegel

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1828] Letter to Hegel, in Hegel: The Letters, tr. C. Butler and C. Seiler 1984, pp. 547-550

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1839] 'Towards a critique of Hegel's philosophy' in Lawrence Stepelevich (ed) The Young Hegelians 1983, also in Zawar Hanfi (ed) The Fiery Brook 1972

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1841] The Essence of Christianity, ch. 23

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1843] 'Provisional theses for the reform of philosophy' in Lawrence Stepelevich (ed) The Young Hegelians, also in Zawar Hanfi (ed) The Fiery Brook 1972

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1843] Principles of the Philosophy of the Future, tr. M. Vogel, ed. T. Wartenberg 1986, also in Zawar Hanfi (ed) The Fiery Brook 1972 (§§1-31 are on Hegel)

   Löwith, Karl (1971) 'Mediation and immediacy in Hegel, Marx, and Feuerbach', in W.E. Steinkraus (ed) New Studies in Hegel's Philosophy

   Wartofsky, Marx W. (1977) Feuerbach, chs. 6-7

   Williams, Howard L. (1978) 'Feuerbach and Hegel', Idealistic Studies 8(2)

   Dahlstrom, Daniel (1984) 'Marxist ideology and Feuerbach's critique of Hegel', Philosophical Forum 15

   Duquette, David A. (1988) 'From disciple to antagonist: Feuerbach's critique of Hegel', Philosophy and Theology 3

   Brudney, Daniel (1998) Marx's Attempt to Leave Philosophy, chs. 1-2 site

 

@ Feuerbach and religion

   Glasse, John (1972) 'Why did Feuerbach concern himself with Luther?', Revue Internationale de Philosophie 26(101)

   Fiorenza, Francis S. (1979) 'Feuerbach's interpretation of religion and Christianity', Philosophical Forum 11(2)

   Wartofsky, Marx W. (1977) Feuerbach, chs. 8-10

   Dickey, Lawrence (1993) 'Hegel on religion and philosophy', in F. Beiser (ed) The Cambridge Companion to Hegel

   Hipwell, V.B. (1993) 'Taking 'things as they are': the basis of Ludwig Feuerbach's objection to the Christian religion', History of Political Thought 14(3)

   Thornton, Stephen P. (1996) 'Facing up to Feuerbach', International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 39(2)

   Harvey, Van A. (1996-97) 'The re-discovery of Ludwig Feuerbach', Free Inquiry 17(1) preview

   Harvey, Van A. (1997) Feuerbach and the Interpretation of Religion

   Moggach, Douglas (2006) 'Ludwig Feuerbach's critique of religion and the end of moral philosophy', in Douglas Moggach (ed) The New Hegelians: Politics and Philosophy in the Hegelian School summary

 

@ Feuerbach's anthropology, species-being and anti-individualism in Feuerbach

   (See also 'Feuerbach's political thought')

   Rotenstreich, Nathan (1972) 'Anthropology and sensibility', Revue Internationale de Philosophie 26

   Schmidt, Alfred (1973) Emanzipatorische Sinnlichkeit: Ludwig Feuerbachs anthropologischer Materialismus

   Massey, James A. (1976) 'Feuerbach and religious individualism', Journal of Religion 54

   Wartofsky, Marx W. (1977) Feuerbach, chs. 2, 11-12

   Gordon, Frederick M. (1978) 'The contradictory nature of Feuerbachian humanism', Philosophical Forum 8

   Christensen, Kit R. (1985) 'Individuation and commonality in Feuerbach's 'philosophy of man'', Interpretation 13(3) site

   Braun, Hans-Jürg (ed) (1990) Ludwig Feuerbach und die Philosophie der Zukunft (articles by Robert Baroni and Gabrielle Amengual)

 

@ Feuerbach's political thought, his humanism and civic humanism

   (For the Theses on Feuerbach, see 'Theses on Feuerbach')

   Gordon, Frederick M. (1978) 'The contradictory nature of Feuerbachian humanism', Philosophical Forum 8

* Breckman, Warren (1992) 'Ludwig Feuerbach and the political theology of restoration', History of Political Thought 13(3)

   Johnston, Larry W. (1995) Between Transcendence and Nihilism: Species-Ontology in the Philosophy of Ludwig Feuerbach

   Breckman, Warren (1999) Marx, The Young Hegelians and the Origins of Radical Social Theory: Dethroning the Self, ch. 3 'Ludwig Feuerbach and Christian Civil Society' summary, ch. 5 'Pantheism, social question, and the third age' summary

 

@ Feuerbach and Marx

   (Including the 'true socialists')

   (For the Theses on Feuerbach, see 'Theses on Feuerbach')

   Engels [1888] Ludwig Feuerbach and the End of Classical German Philosophy

   Tucker, Robert C. (1961) Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx, chs. 4-6

   Schuffenhauer, Werner (1972) Feuerbach und der junge Marx, Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, Berlin

   Lukács, Georg (1954) 'Zur philosophischen Entwicklung des jungen Marx', Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 2(2)

   Rancière, Jacques [1965] 'The concept of critique and the critique of political economy', Theoretical Practice 1,2,6 (Jan 1971, Apr 1971, May 1972)

   Lobkowicz, Nicholas (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx, chs. 17, 20

   Gagern, Michael (1971) 'The puzzling pattern of the Marxist critique of Feuerbach', Studies in Soviet Thought 11(3) preview

   Sass, Hans-Martin (1983) 'The 'transition' from Feuerbach to Marx: a re-interpretation', Studies in Soviet Thought (now Studies in East European Thought) 26(2)

   Harvey, Van A. (1985) 'Ludwig Feuerbach and Karl Marx', in N. Smart and others (eds) Nineteenth Century Religious Thought in the West

   Elster, Jon (1985) Making Sense of Marx, sec. 8.2.1 'Inversion'

* Arthur, Christopher J. (1986) Dialectics of Labour, ch. 9 html

   Breckman, Warren (1992) 'Ludwig Feuerbach and the political theology of restoration', History of Political Thought 13(3)

   Geoghegan, Vincent (2004) 'Religion and communism: Feuerbach, Marx and Bloch', The European Legacy 9(5)

   Wittmann, David (2008) 'Les sources du concept d'aliénation', in Emmanuel Renault (ed) Lire les Manuscrits de 1844

 

@ Feuerbach and Stirner

   Feuerbach, Ludwig [1845] 'The Essence of Christianity in relation to The Ego and its Own', Philosophical Forum 8(2-4), 1978 (Feuerbach's review of The Ego and its Own)

   Stirner, Max [1845] 'Stirner's critics', Philosophical Forum 8, 1978 (Stirner's response to Feuerbach's review) html

   Stepelevich, Lawrence S. (1978) 'Max Stirner and Ludwig Feuerbach' Journal of the History of Ideas 39

   Gordon, Frederick M. (1978) 'The debate between Feuerbach and Stirner: an introduction', Philosophical Forum 8(2-4)

 

@ Stirner

   Stirner, Max [1842] 'Art and religion', in Lawrence Stepelevich (ed) The Young Hegelians html

   Stirner, Max [1844] The Ego and its Own, ed. S. Parker 1982, or ed. David Leopold 1995

   Stirner, Max [1845] 'Stirner's critics', Philosophical Forum 8, 1978 (Stirner's response to Feuerbach's review of The Ego and its Own) html

   Stirner, Max Kleiner Schriften, Stuttgart 1976

   Carer, Paul (1911) 'Max Stirner, the predecessor of Nietzsche', The Monist 21

   Camus, Albert [1951] The Rebel, section on Stirner (not included in Penguin Modern Classics edition)

   Arvon, Henri (1954) Aux Sources de L'Existentialisme: Max Stirner

   McLellan, David (1969) The Young Hegelians and Karl Marx, ch. 3 'Max Stirner' html

   Carroll, John (1974) Break-out from the Crystal Palace: The Anarcho-Psychological Critique; Stirner, Nietzsche, Dostoevsky

   Paterson, Ronald W.K. (1971) The Nihilistic Egoist: Max Stirner

   Clark, John P. (1976) Max Stirner's Egoism

   Stepelevich, Lawrence S. (1985) 'Stirner as Hegelian' Journal of the History of Ideas 46

   Browning, Gary K. (1999) Hegel and the History of Political Philosophy, ch. 4 'Stirner's critique of Hegel: Geist and the egoistic exorcist' abstract

   De Ridder, Widukind (2008) 'Max Stirner, Hegel and the Young Hegelians: a reassessment', History of European Ideas 34(3) abstract

   Leopold, David (2003) 'A Left-Hegelian anarchism', The European Legacy 8(6) abstract

   Welsh, John F. (2010) Max Stirner's Dialectical Egoism: A New Interpretation summary

 

@ Stirner and Marx

   (See also 'German Ideology', 'Anti-moralism in Marx and Marxism', 'Fetishism and hypostatisation')

   Lobkowicz, Nicholas (1969) 'Karl Marx and Max Stirner' in F.J. Adelmann (ed) Demythologizing Marxism

   Thomas, Paul (1975) 'Karl Marx and Marx Stirner', Political Theory 3(2)

   Dematteis, Philip B. (1976) Individuality and the Social Organism: The Controversy between Max Stirner and Karl Marx

   Arvon, Henri (1978) 'Concerning Marx's 'epistemological break'', Philosophical Forum 8

   Thomas, Paul (1980) Karl Marx and the Anarchists, ch. 3

   Derrida, Jacques (1994) Spectres of Marx, chs. 4-5

 

@ Hess and Marx

   (With thanks to James Furner)

   Hess, Moses [1843] 'The philosophy of the act', in A. Fried and R. Saunders (eds) Socialist Thought: A Documentary History 1964 html

   Hess, Moses [1843] 'Socialism and communism', review of L. von Stein, Der Sozialismus und Communismus des heutigen Frankreich 1842, in Hess, The Holy History of Mankind and Other Writings, ed. S. Avineri 2004

   Hess, Moses [1843, published 1845] 'On the essence of money', in J. Kovesi, Values and Evaluations: Essays on Ethics and Ideology 1998 html

   Hess, Moses [1844] 'On the socialist movement in Germany', in his Philosophische und sozialistische Schrifte 1837-1850

   Hess, Moses [1844] 'A communist credo: questions and answers', in Hess, The Holy History of Mankind and Other Writings, ed. S. Avineri 2004

   Hess, Moses [1845] 'The recent philosophers' in Lawrence Stepelevich (ed) The Young Hegelians 1983

   Hess, Moses (1921) Sozialistische Aufsätze 1841-1847, ed. T. Zlocisti

   Hess, Moses (1961) Philosophische und sozialistische Schrifte 1837-1850, 2nd ed. 1980

   Hess, Moses (2004) The Holy History of Mankind and Other Writings, ed. S. Avineri

* Lukács, Georg [1926] 'Moses Hess and the problems of idealist dialectics', in his Political Writings 1919-1929, 1973 html

   Mielcke, Karl (1931) Deutsche Fruhsozialismus. Gesellschaft und Geschichte in den Schriften Wilhelm Weitling und Moses Hess

   Goitein, Irma (1931) Probleme der Gesellschaft und der Staates bei Moses Hess

   Hook, Sidney (1934) 'Karl Marx and Moses Hess', New International 1(5) html

   Cornu, Auguste (1934) Moses Hess et la Gauche Hegelienne

   Silberner, Edmund (1951) Moses Hess, An Annotated Bibliography

   Weiss, John (1960) Moses Hess, Utopian Socialist

   Carlebach, Julius (1973) 'The problem of Moses Hess's influence on the Young Marx', Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 18(1)

   Frei, Bruno (1977) 'Hess und Marx', in Im Schatten von Karl Marx. Moses Hess – Hundert Jahre nach seinem Tode

   Lange, Ernst M. (1980) Das Prinzip Arbeit, pp. 96-105

   Avineri, Shlomo (1981) The Making of Modern Zionism: The Intellectual Origins of the Jewish State, ch. 3 'Moses Hess'

   Rosen, Zvi (1983) Moses Hess und Karl Marx: Ein Beitrag zur Entstehung der Marxschen Theorie

   Avineri, Shlomo (1985) Moses Hess: Prophet of Communism and Zionism

* Kovesi, Julius (1998) 'Moses Hess, Marx and money', in his Values and Evaluations: Essays on Ethics and Ideology

   Koltun-Fromm, K. (2001) Moses Hess and Modern Jewish Identity

   Kouvelakis, Stathis (2003) Philosophy and Revolution: From Kant to Marx, reissued 2018, ch. 3 'Moses Hess, prophet of a new revolution?' summary

   Bensussan, Gerard (2004) Moses Hess: la philosophie, le socialisme (1836-1845)

   Wittmann, David (2008) 'Les sources du concept d'aliénation', in Emmanuel Renault (ed) Lire les Manuscrits de 1844

   Derpmann, Simon (2015) 'Eigentumskritik bei Moses Hess', in Michael Quante and Amir Mohseni, Amir (eds) Die linken Hegelianer. Studien zum Verhältnis von Religion und Politik im Vormärz preview

 

@ Proudhon and Marx

   (For a fuller bibliography on Proudhon see Dana Ward's Proudhon bibliography)

   Marx [1847] The Poverty of Philosophy

   Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph [1840] What is Property?

   Proudhon, Pierre-Joseph [1846] The System of Economic Contradictions or the Philosophy of Poverty

   Jackson, J. Hampden (1957) Marx, Proudhon, and European Socialism

   Haubtmann, Pierre (1980) Le Philosophie Sociale de P.J. Proudhon

 

@ VERY EARLY WRITINGS

   (1837-43)

 

@ Marx's early development as a whole

   (Work not focusing on the Young Hegelians or on specific texts)

   (For development of Marx's specifically political views, see 'Early political writings as a whole (1842-43)')

   Macmurray, John (1935) 'The early development of Marx's thought' in J. Lewis, K. Polanyi and D. Kitchin (eds) Christianity and the Social Revolution

   Adams, Henry P. (1940) Karl Marx in His Earlier Writings, 2nd edition 1965

* Cornu, Auguste (1958) Karl Marx et Friedrich Engels: Leur vie et oeuvre, PUF, Paris, vol. 2

   Althusser, Louis [1965] For Marx, chs. 1-2

   Garaudy, R. [1965] Karl Marx: The Evolution of his Thought, tr. 1967

   Lobkowicz, Nicholas (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx

* McLellan, David (1970) Marx before Marxism

   O'Malley, Joseph (1970) 'Introduction' to K. Marx, Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, ed. O'Malley

   Meszaros, Istvan (1970) Marx's Theory of Alienation, 4th edition 1975, ch. 2

   van Leeuwen, Arend T. (1972) Critique of Heaven

   Monz, H. and others (1973), Der unbekannte junge Marx, Neue Studien zur Entwicklung des Marxschen Denkens 1835-1847

   van Leeuwen, Arend T. (1975) Critique of Earth

+ Colletti, Lucio (1975) 'Introduction' to Karl Marx: Early Writings, ed. Colletti

   van der Hoeven, Johan (1976) Karl Marx: The Roots of his Thought

   Oizerman, Teodor I. [1977] The Making of the Marxist Philosophy

* Kolakowski, Leszek (1978) Main Currents of Marxism, vol. 1: The Founders, chs. 2-8

   Markus, George (1980) 'Four forms of critical theory: some theses on Marx's intellectual development', Thesis Eleven

   Sherover-Marcuse, Erica (1986) Emancipation and Consciousness: Dogmatic and Dialectical Perspectives in the Early Marx

   Burnham, Douglas and Lamb, Peter (2019) The First Marx: A Philosophical Introduction

 

@ Letter to his father (1837)

   Kelley, Donald R. (1978) 'The metaphysics of law: an essay on the very young Marx', American Historical Review 83

   Mah, Harold (1986) 'Karl Marx in love: The enlightenment, romanticism and Hegelian theory in the young Marx', History of European Ideas 7(5)

 

@ Doctoral Dissertation and preparatory writings (1839-41): general

   (General commentaries on the dissertation, and commentaries that focus on the materialism/idealism issue)

   Bailey, Cyril (1928) 'Karl Marx on Greek atomism', The Classical Quarterly 22(3-4)

   Mins, Henry F. (1948) 'Marx's doctoral dissertation', Science & Society 12(1)

   Mehring, Franz (1955) 'La thèse de Karl Marx sur Democrite et Epicure' La Nouvelle Critique 61

   Cornu, Auguste (1955) Karl Marx et Friedrich Engels: Leur vie et oeuvre, vol. 1, ch. 3

   Sannwald, Rolf (1957) Marx und die Antike

   Livergood, Norman D. (1967) Activity in Marx's Philosophy (a translation of the doctoral dissertation, with introductory essay)

   Gabaude, Jean-Marc (1970) Le Jeune Marx et le matérialisme antique

   van Leeuwen, Arend T. (1972) Critique of Heaven, chs. 4-9

   Markovits, Francine (1974) Marx dans le jardin d'Epicure

   Sass, Hans-Martin (1978) 'The concept of revolution in Marx's dissertation: the non-Hegelian origin of Karl Marx's early concept of dialectics', Philosophical Forum 8(2-4)

   Baronovitch, Laurence (1978) 'Two appendices to a doctoral dissertation: some light on the origin of Karl Marx's dissociation from Bruno Bauer and the Young Hegelians', Philosophical Forum 8(2)

   Lange, Erhard (1983) Die Promotion von Karl Marx. Jena 1841. Eine Quellenedition

   Baronovitch, Laurence (1984) 'German idealism, Greek materialism and the young Marx', International Philosophical Quarterly 24(3)

   Fenves, Peter (1986) 'Marx's doctoral thesis on two Greek atomists and the post-Kantian interpretations', Journal of the History of Ideas, 47(3), Jul-Sep 1986 (Stanley)

   Thomas, Paul (1988) 'Nature and artifice in Marx', History of Political Thought 9(3)

   Murray, Patrick (1988) Marx's Theory of Scientific Knowledge, ch. 1

   Balaban, Oded (1989) 'The hermeneutics of the young Marx: according to Marx's approach to the philosophy of Democritus and Epicurus', Diogenes 37(148)

   McCarthy, George E. (1990) Marx and the Ancients: Nineteenth Century German Social Theory and Classical Antiquity

   Mielke, Dietmar (1991) 'Zur inhaltlichen Bedeutung des Hegelschen 'Schemas der Naturphilosophie' in den Epikurstudien des jungen Marx', Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 39(3)

   Stanley, John L. (1995) 'The Marxism of Marx's doctoral dissertation', Journal of the History of Philosophy 33(1)

   Browning, Gary (2000) 'Marx's doctoral dissertation: the development of a Hegelian thesis', in Tony Burns and Ian Fraser (eds) The Hegel-Marx Connexion

   Cingoli, Mario (2001) Il primo Marx, 1835-1841

   Schafer, Paul M. (2003) 'The young Marx on Epicurus: dialectical atomism and human freedom', in D.R. Gordon (ed) Epicurus: His Continuing Influence and Contemporary Relevance

   Giouras, Thanasis (2014) 'The critic and the sophist: the doctoral dissertations of Karl Marx and Wilhelm Roscher', Science & Society 78(2) abstract

   Heinrich, Michael [2018] Karl Marx and the Birth of Modern Society (The Life of Marx and the Development of His Work Volume I: 1818-1841), tr. Alex Locascio 2019 summary

   Barbour, Charles (2022) ''Last of the schoolmen': The Young Marx, Latin culture, and the Doctoral Dissertation', The European Legacy 28(1) abstract

   Schuringa, Christoph (2022) 'Thought and reality in Marx's early writings on ancient philosophy', European Journal of Philosophy 30(4) abstract

 

@ Doctoral dissertation and preparatory writings: political interpretations

   Sass, Hans-Martin (1978) 'The concept of revolution in Marx's dissertation', Philosophical Forum 8(2)

   Baronovitch, Laurence (1978) 'Two appendices to a doctoral dissertation: some new light on the origin of Karl Marx's dissociation from Bruno Bauer and the Young Hegelians', Philosophical Forum 8(2)

   Teeple, Gary (1984) Marx's Critique of Politics 1842-1847, Introduction 'Marx's starting point: Epicurus and the ontology of mind'

   Teeple, Gary (1990) 'The doctoral dissertation of Karl Marx', History of Political Thought 11(1)

   Jeannot, Thomas M. (1994) 'After 'The Darkness at Noon': a biographical study of Marxism as critical theory' International Journal of Social Economics, 21(2/3/4) abstract

   Breckman, Warren (1999) Marx, The Young Hegelians and the Origins of Radical Social Theory: Dethroning the Self, ch. 7 'Karl Marx: from social republicanism to communism', section on the Doctoral Dissertation summary

   Finelli, Roberto [2004] A Failed Parricide: Hegel and the Young Marx, tr. 2015, ch. 1 'Between the ancient and the modern' preview

* McIvor, Martin (2008) 'The young Marx and German Idealism: revisiting the Doctoral Dissertation', Journal of the History of Philosophy 46(3) abstract

   Lamb, Peter (2020) 'The political implications of Marx's Doctoral Dissertation: reflexivity in the early 1840s', Studies in Marxism 15

 

@ Early political writings as a whole (1832-43)

   (For work on particular texts and topics see below)

   Gurvitch, G. (1948) 'La sociologie du jeune Marx', Cahiers Internationales de Sociologie 4, reprinted in his La Vocation actuelle de la sociologie 1950

   Voegelin, E. (1950) 'The formation of the Marxian revolutionary idea', Review of Politics 12(3)

   McCoy, C.N.R. (1954) 'The logical and the real in political theory: Plato, Aristotle and Marx', American Political Science Review 48

   Cornu, Auguste (1958) Karl Marx et Friedrich Engels: Leur vie et leur oeuvre, vol. 2 Du libéralisme démocratique au communisme

* Avineri, Shlomo (1968) The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx

   McLellan, David (1970) Marx before Marxism, chs. 3-6

   Löwy, Michael (1970) La théorie de la révolution chez le jeune Marx

+ O'Malley, Joseph (1970) 'Introduction' to Karl Marx, Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, ed. O'Malley

   Hunt, Richard N. (1974) The Political Ideas of Marx and Engels, vol. 1: Marxism and Totalitarian Democracy,1818-1850

   Gilbert, A. (1976) 'Salvaging Marx from Avineri', Political Theory 4(1) (critique of Avineri 1968)

   Teeple, Gary (1984) Marx's Critique of Politics 1842-1847

   Sherover-Marcuse, Erica (1986) Emancipation and Consciousness: Dogmatic and Dialectical Perspectives in the Early Marx

   Berki, R.N. (1990) 'Through and through Hegel: Marx's road to communism', Political Studies 38 abstract

   Kouvelakis, Stathis (2003) Philosophy and Revolution: From Kant to Marx, reissued 2018, ch. 5 'Karl Marx: From the public sphere to revolutionary democracy, 1842–1844' summary

   Leopold, David (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing summary

+ O'Malley, Joseph (2012) 'Introduction' to Marx, Early Political Writings, CUP

 

@ Rheinische Zeitung articles (1842-43)

   (And other contemporary political writings)

   (For the idea of law in these articles, see 'Right and law in the early political writings (1837-46)')

   'Comments on the latest Prussian censorship' [Jan-Feb 1842], CW1 pp. 109-131

   'Debates on freedom of the press' [Apr 1842], CW1 pp. 132-181

   'Philosophical manifesto of the Historical Law School' [Apr-Aug 1842], CW1 pp. 203-210

   'The leading article in no. 179 of the Kölinische Zeitung' [Jul 1842], CW1 pp. 184-202

   'The divorce bill' [Dec 1842], CW1 pp. 307-310

   Letter to Ruge of 13 March 1843, CW1 pp. 398-400

   Pascal, R. (1942?) Karl Marx: His Apprenticeship to Politics

   Cornu, Auguste (1958) Karl Marx et Friedrich Engels: Leur vie et oeuvre, PUF, Paris, vol. 2, ch. 1

* Kamenka, Eugene (1962) The Ethical Foundations of Marxism, 2nd ed. 1972, part 1 'The primitive ethic of Karl Marx' html

   Vigouroux, C. (1965) 'Karl Marx et la législation forestière rhénane de 1842', Revue d'histoire économique et sociale 43 (222-233, D. Kelley)

* McGovern, A.F. (1969) 'Marx's first political writings: the Rheinsiche Zeitung, 1842-43', in F.J. Adelman (ed) Demythologizing Marxism

   Draper, Hal (1971) Karl Marx's Theory of Revolution, vol. 1: State and Bureaucracy, chs. 1-2

   Howard, Dick (1972) The Development of the Marxian Dialectic, ch. 2

   van Leeuwen, Arend T. (1975) Critique of Earth, chs. 2-3

   Lubasz, H. (1976) 'Marx's initial problematic: the problem of poverty', Political Studies 24(1)

   Lascoumes, Pierre and Zander, Hartwig (1984) Marx: du 'vol de bois' à la critique du droit. Karl Marx à la 'Gazette rhénane' naissance d'une méthode. Edition critique de 'Débats sur la loi relative au vol. de bois' et 'Justification du correspondant de la Moselle' (French translations of these texts with extensive commentary)

   Teeple, Gary (1984) Marx's Critique of Politics 1842-1847, ch. 1' The State as Rational and Real: articles from the Rheinische Zeitung, 1842-43'

   Hardt, H. (2000) 'Communication is freedom: Karl Marx on press freedom and censorship', Javnost – The Public 7(4)

* Kouvelakis, Stathis (2003) Philosophy and Revolution: From Kant to Marx, reissued 2018, pp. 237-275 'Fighting for freedom with pinpricks' summary

   Chitty, Andrew (2006) 'The basis of the state in the Marx of 1842', in Douglas Moggach (ed) The New Hegelians: Politics and Philosophy in the Hegelian School summary

 

@ Law in the early political writings (1842-43)

   (See also 'Law in Marx: general')

   (For Marx's critique of human rights see 'Rights and Marx')

   (For relations to his law teachers see 'Savigny and Marx', 'Gans')

   Marx [1843] Critique of Hegel's Doctrine of the State

   Marx [1843] On the Jewish Question, part 1

   Marx and Engels [1845-46] The German Ideology ch. 1 'Feuerbach', CW5

   Schefold, C. (1972) Die Rechtsphilosophie des jungen Marx von 1842

   Hirst, P.Q. (1972) 'Marx and Engels on law, crime and morality', Economy and Society 1(1)

   Guastini, R. (1974) Marx dall filosofia del diritto alla scienza della società: il lessico giuridico marxismo, 1842-1851

   Paul, W. (1974) Marxistische Rechtstheorie als Kritik des Rechts

   Szabo, I. (1981) Karl Marx und das Recht

* Chen, X. (1983) 'An inquiry into Marx's early views on philosophy of law and his early legal thinking', Social Sciences in China 4(2)

   Kain, Philip J. (1988) Marx and Ethics, ch. 1 sec. 1

   Taiwo, O. (1996) Legal Naturalism: A Marxist Theory of Law, ch. 1

 

@ Critique of Hegel's Doctrine of the State (1843)

   (Or 'Kreuznach Notebooks')

   (Also Contribution to a Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right: Introduction (1843-44))

   (Including comparisons between Hegel and the early Marx on civil society)

   (For particular topics in this manuscript see 'State in the early political writings' and 'Democracy and republicanism in the early political writings')

   Marx [1843] Critique of Hegel's Doctrine of the State

   Marx [1843-44] Contribution to a Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right: Introduction

   Adams, H. (1940) Karl Marx in His Earlier Writings, 2nd ed. 1965, ch. 4

   Hyppolite, J. [1947] 'The Hegelian conception of the state and its critique by Marx', in his Studies on Hegel and Marx (NB not included in the French edition of this book)

   Lapine, N. [1959] 'La première critique approfondie la philosophie de Hegel par Marx', Recherches internationales à la lumière du Marxisme', Cahier no. 19 (originally published in Russian)

   Dupré, Louis K. (1966) The Philosophical Foundations of Marxism, ch. 4 'Marx's critique of Hegel's philosophy of the state'

   Avineri, Shlomo (1966) 'Marx's critique of Hegel's 'Philosophy of Right' in its systematic setting', Cahiers de l'Institut de Science Economique Appliqué, Série Philosophie – Sciences Sociales – Economie, August 1966

   Dupré, Louis K. (1966) The Philosophical Foundations of Marxism, ch. 4 'Marx's critique of Hegel's philosophy of the state'

   Avineri, Shlomo (1967) 'The Hegelian origins of Marx's political thought', Review of Metaphysics 21(1)

   Lefebvre, Henri (1968) The Sociology of Marx, London, pp. 123 ff. (McLellan)

   Avineri, Shlomo (1968) Karl Marx's Social and Political Thought, ch. 1 'Hegel's political philosophy reconsidered'

   Lobkowicz, Nicholas (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx, ch. 18 'Civil society'

* O'Malley, Joseph (1970) 'Introduction' to Karl Marx, Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right, ed. Joseph O'Malley

   O'Malley, Joseph (1970) 'Methodology in Karl Marx', Review of Politics 32(2)

   Berki, R.N. (1971) 'Perspectives in the Marxian critique of Hegel's political philosophy', in Z.A. Pelczynski (ed) Hegel's Political Philosophy

   Colletti, Lucio (1975) 'Introduction' to Marx, Early Writings, ed. Lucio Colletti

   Mikkelsen, Jon M. (1981) 'Marx's critique of Hegel's Rechtsphilosophie', Auslegung 8(3) pdf

   Benhabib, Seyla (1981) 'The 'logic' of civil society: a reconsideration of Hegel and Marx', Philosophy and Social Criticism 8 (2)

   Liebich, André (1982) 'On the origins of a Marxist theory of bureaucracy in the Critique of Hegel's 'Philosophy of Right', Political Theory 10(1) preview

   Wolff, Michael [1984] 'Hegel's organicist theory of the state: on the concept and method of Hegel's 'science of the state'', in R. Pippin and O. Höffe (eds) Hegel on Ethics and Politics 2004 summary

   Campbell, David (1985) 'Rationality, democracy, and freedom in Marxist critiques of Hegel's Philosophy of Right', Inquiry 28(1) abstract

* Duquette, David A. (1989) 'Marx's idealist critique of Hegel's theory of society and politics', Review of Politics 51(2) abstract

   Jackson, M.W. (1990) 'Marx's 'Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right'', History of European Ideas 12(6) preview

   Planinc, Zdravko (1991) 'Family and civil society in Hegel's Philosophy of Right', History of Political Thought, 12(2) preview

   Depew, David J. (1992) 'The polis transfigured: Aristotle's Politics and Marx's critique of Hegel's 'Philosophy of Right', in G.E. McCarthy (ed) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth Century German Social Theory and Classical Antiquity pdf

* Kouvelakis, Stathis (2003) Philosophy and Revolution: From Kant to Marx, reissued 2018, pp. 275-336 'The roads of exile' summary

* Leopold, David (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, ch. 2 'German philosophy' summary

   Fine, Robert (2009) 'An unfinished project: Marx's critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right', in Andrew Chitty and Martin McIvor (eds) Karl Marx and Contemporary Philosophy abstract

   Schuringa, Christoph (2021) 'Marx's Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right', Crisis and Critique 8(2) pdf

 

@ On the Jewish Question (1843)

   (Discussions of On the Jewish Question as a whole. For particular topics see 'Judaism and Marx', 'State in the early political writings', 'French Revolution in Marx', 'Rights and Marx', 'Subject, subjectivity and identity in Marx', 'Supersession of the state')

   Bauer, Bruno [1843] 'the Jewish problem', in L.S. Stepelevich (ed) The Young Hegelians: An Anthology 1983

   Bauer, Bruno [1843] 'The capacity of the present-day Jews and Christians to become free', Philosophical Forum 8, 1978

   Marx, On the Jewish Question [1843]

   Peled, Yoav (1992) 'From theology to sociology: Bruno Bauer and Karl Marx on the question of Jewish emancipation', History of Political Thought 13(3) preview

   Kouvelakis, Stathis (2005) 'The Marxian critique of citizenship: for a rereading of On the Jewish Question', South Atlantic Quarterly 104(4) preview

* Leopold, David (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, ch. 3 'Modern politics' summary

   Tomba, Massimiliano (2015) 'Emancipation as therapy. Bauer and Marx on the Jewish Question', in Michael Quante and Amir Mohseni, Amir (eds) Die linken Hegelianer. Studien zum Verhältnis von Religion und Politik im Vormärz preview

 

@ State in the early political writings (1842-43)

   (Including separation of state and civil society)

   (Mainly in Critique of Hegel's Doctrine of the State and On the Jewish Question)

   (See also 'State in the later Marx', 'Supersession of the state', 'Civil society in the early writings')

   (For this in relation to individual's identity as private/public person, see 'Individual, identity, subject and subjectification in Marx')

   Marx [1843] Critique of Hegel's Doctrine of the State

   Marx [1843] On the Jewish Question, part 1

   Marx [1844] 'Critical marginal notes on 'The King of Prussia and social reform''

* McGovern, A.F. (1970) 'The young Marx on the state', Science & Society 34(4), reprinted in J. Cunningham Wood (ed) Karl Marx's Economics: Critical Assessments, Volume 1, 1988

   van Leeuwen, Arend T. (1972) Critique of Heaven, ch. 3

   Thomas, Paul (1980) Karl Marx and the Anarchists, RKP, pp. 56-64

   Wood, Ellen Meiksins (1981) 'The separation of the economic and the political in capitalism', New Left Review 127, revised as ch. 1 of her Democracy Against Capitalism: Renewing Historical Materialism 1995

   Sayer, Derek (1985) 'The critique of politics and political economy: capitalism, communism and the state in Marx's writings of the mid-1840s', Sociological Review 33(2)

   Leopold, David (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, ch. 3 'Modern politics' summary

   Flohr, Mikkel (2021) 'From the critique of the heavens to the critique of the earth: a contribution to the reconstruction of Karl Marx's unfinished critique of political theology', Theory and Event 24(2) preview

 

@ Democracy and republicanism in the early political writings (1842-43)

   (See also 'Democracy and republicanism in the later Marx', 'Domination in Marx')

   Marx [1843] Critique of Hegel's Doctrine of the State, two passages on democracy: Colletti (ed) Early Writings pp. 87-90, 185-91; CW3 pp. 29-32, 115-21; Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right ed. J. O'Malley pp. 29-33, 115-121

   Marx [1843] 'Letters to Ruge from the Franco-German Yearbook', CW3 pp. 133-146, see first letter

   Marx [1843] 'Critical marginal notes on 'The King of Prussia and social reform'', CW3 pp. 189-210

   Rubel, Maximilien (1962) 'Notes on Marx's conception of democracy', New Politics Winter 1962

   Feuer, Lewis S. (1963) The North American origin of Marx's socialism', The Western Political Quarterly 16(1)

   Hunt, Richard N. (1974) The Political Ideas of Marx and Engels, vol. 1: Marxism and Totalitarian Democracy, 1818-1850

   Fischer, Norman (1981) 'Marx's early concept of democracy and the ethical bases of socialism', in John P. Burke and others (eds) Marxism and the Good Society site

   Luc, Laurent-Paul (1982) 'Le concept de démocratie dans la critique du droit politique Hegelien', Philosophiques 9 abstract

   Campbell, David (1985) 'Rationality, democracy, and freedom in Marxist critiques of Hegel's Philosophy of Right', Inquiry 28(1-4) abstract

   Isaac, Jeffrey C. (1990) 'The lion's skin of politics: Marx on republicanism', Polity 22(3) abstract

   Abensour, Miguel [1997] Democracy against the State: Marx's Machiavellian Moment, tr. 2011

   Kouvelakis, Stathis (2003) Philosophy and Revolution: From Kant to Marx, reissued 2018, pp. 275-336 'Fighting for freedom with pinpricks' summary

   Pogrebinschi, Thamy (2007) 'Democracy against law: a Marxian standpoint', paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Political Science Association pdf

   Daremas, Georgos (2009) 'Marx's theory of democracy and his critique of Hegel's philosophy of the state', in Andrew Chitty and Martin McIvor (eds) Karl Marx and Contemporary Philosophy preview

   Niemi, William L. (2011) 'Karl Marx's sociological theory of democracy: civil society and political rights', The Social Science Journal 48(1) abstract

   Leipold, Bruno (2017) 'Citizen Marx: the relationship between Karl Marx and republicanism', PhD thesis, University of Oxford pdf

   Roundtree, Jacob (2021) 'Marx's democratization of Hegel's Philosophy of Right', Critical Review: A Journal of Politics and Society 33(3-4) abstract

   Schuringa, Christoph (2021) 'Marx's Critique of Hegel's Philosophy of Right', Crisis and Critique 8(2) pdf

   Shoikhedbrod, Igor (2022) 'Marx and the democratic struggle over the constitution in 1848–9', History of Political Thought 43(2)

 

@ French Revolution in Marx

   Marx [1843] On the Jewish Question

   Furet, Francois [1986] Marx and the French Revolution, tr. 1988

   Kouvelakis, Stathis (2003) Philosophy and Revolution: From Kant to Marx, reissued 2018, pp. 337-352 'Conclusion: self-criticism of the revolution' summary

 

@ Judaism and Marx

   Marx [1843] On the Jewish Question, esp. part 2

   Marx [1844] The Holy Family, 'The Jewish Question no. 3', in CW4 pp. 106-124

   Avineri, Shlomo (1964) 'Marx and Jewish emancipation', Journal of the History of Ideas 25(3)

   Wistrich, R.S. (1976) Revolutionary Jews: From Marx to Trotsky

   Carlebach, J. (1978) Karl Marx and the Radical Critique of Judaism

   Hirsch, H. (1980) Marx und Moses: Karl Marx zur 'Judenfrage' und zu Juden

   Wolfson, M. (1982) Marx: Economist, Philosopher, Jew Trotsky

   Blanchard, W.H. (1984) 'Karl Marx and the Jewish question', Political Psychology 5(3)

   Maidan, M. (1987) 'Marx on the Jewish question: a meta-critical analysis', Studies in Soviet Thought (now Studies in East European Thought) 33(1)

   Fischman, D. (1989) 'The Jewish question', Polity 21(4)

   Fischman, D. (1991) Political Discourse in Exile: Karl Marx and the Jewish Question

   Rose, P.L. (1992) German Question / Jewish Question: Revolutionary Anti-Semitism from Kant to Wagner

   Peled, Yoav (1992) 'From theology to sociology: Bruno Bauer and Karl Marx on the question of Jewish emancipation', History of Political Thought 13(3) preview

   Leopold, David (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, pp. 163-180 'Anti-semitism and Jewish self-hatred' site

 

@ Religion: Marx's critique

   (For Judaism see 'Judaism and Marx')

   (See also 'Money, capital and God', '~Religious and mythological themes in Marx's thought')

   MacIntyre, Alasdair (1955) Marxism: An Interpretation, revised as Marxism and Christianity 1968, 2nd ed. 1995

   Wackenheim, C. (1963) La faillite de la religion d'après Karl Marx (McLellan)

   Lobkowicz, Nicholas (1964) 'Marx's attitude towards religion', Review of Politics 26(3), reprinted in Lobkowicz (ed) Marx and the Western World 1967

   Aptheker, H. (1968) Marxism and Christianity

   Post, W. (1969) Kritik der Religion bei Karl Marx

   Gollwitzer, H. (1970) The Christian Faith and the Marxist Criticism of Religion

   van Leeuwen, Arend T. (1972) Critique of Heaven

   Schuller, P.M. (1974) 'Karl Marx's atheism', Science & Society 39

   Clarkson, K.L. and Hawkin, D.J. (1978) 'Karl Marx on religion: the influence of Bruno Bauer and Ludwig Feuerbach on his thought and its implications for the Christian-Marxist dialogue', Scottish Journal of Theology 31 (533-555)

   Ling, T. (1980) Karl Marx and Religion: In Europe and India

   Woznicki, A.N. (1981) 'Marx on religious alienation', Dialectics and Humanism 8

   Oniang'o, C. (1982) 'A theory of religion, ideology and utopia in Marx', Philosophy and Social Action 8 (7-14)

   Dupre, L. (1984) 'Religion as alienation, ideology, and utopia in Marx', Logos 5

   Cloeren, H.J. (1987) 'Marx on religion: a new perspective', International Studies in Philosophy 19

   McLellan, David (1987) Marxism and Religion: A Description and Assessment of the Marxist Critique of Christianity

   Raines, J. (ed) (2002) Marx on Religion (an anthology)

   Toscano, Alberto (2010) 'Beyond abstraction: Marx and the critique of the critique of religion', Historical Materialism 18(1)

 

@ Marxist sociology of religion

   McKown, D.B. (1975) The Classical Marxist Critiques of Religion: Marx, Engels, Lenin, Kautsky

   Goldstein, W.S. (2005) 'Religion and Marxism', special issue of Critical Sociology 31(1-2)

   Goldstein, W.S. (ed) (2009) Marx, Critical Theory, and Religion: A Critique of Rational Choice

 

@ Religious, mythological and spiritual themes in Marx's thought

   (See also 'Alienation: sources for Marx's concept in religious thinkers')

   (See also 'Money, capital and God', '~Religion: Marx's critique')

   (For the themes of idolatry and fetishism, see 'Fetishism and idolatry')

   (For Judaic themes see 'Judaism and Marx')

   Weil, S. [1933-38] 'On the contradictions of Marxism', in her Oppression and Liberty

   Lewis, J., Polanyi, K. and Kitchin, D.K. (eds) (1935) Christianity and the Social Revolution

   Löwith, Karl [1941] From Hegel to Nietzsche

   Weil, S. [1943] 'Is there a Marxist doctrine?', in her Oppression and Liberty

   Löwith, Karl (1949) Meaning in History: The Theological Implications of the Philosophy of History

   Jacobson, N.P. (1949) 'Marxism and religious naturalism', Journal of Religion 29(2)

   Tillich, P. (1952) Protestantische Vision

   Voegelin, Eric (1952) The New Science of Politics, Order and History, and Science, Politics and Gnosticism

   Tucker, Richard (1961) Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 1972

   Habermas, Jürgen [1963] 'Between philosophy and science: Marxism as critique', in Theory and Practice, reprinted in S. Seidman ed. Jürgen Habermas on Society and Politics: A Reader 1992

   Parsons, Howard L. (1964) 'The prophetic mission of Karl Marx', Journal of Religion 44(1)

   O'Neill, John (1966) 'Marxism and mythology', Ethics 77(1)

   Aptheker, H. (1968) Marxism and Christianity

   van Leeuwen, Arend T. (1972) Critique of Heaven

   Gilman, S. and Saeger, R. (1973) 'Marx and the religious: the Gnostic perspective', Philosophy Today 17

   van Leeuwen, Arend T. (1975) Critique of Earth

   Sorel, G. (1976) Essays in Socialism and Philosophy

   Wessell, L.P. Jr. (1979) Karl Marx, Romantic Irony and the Proletariat

   Lash, N. (1981) A Matter of Hope: A Theologian's Reflections of the Thought of Karl Marx

   Wolfson, M. (1982) Marx: Economist, Philosopher, Jew: Steps in the Development of a Doctrine

   Wesell, L.P. Jr. (1984) Prometheus Bound: The Mythic Structure of Karl Marx's Scientific Thinking

   Allen, R.T. (1993) 'Flew, Marx and Gnosticism', Philosophy 68(263)

   Jeannot, T.M. (1990) Marx's use of religious metaphors', International Philosophical Quarterly 30(2)

   Kovel, Joel (1994) 'Marxism and spirituality' in A. Calari (ed) Marxism in the Postmodern Age

   O'Brien, Kevin M. (1996) 'Marx and the spiritual dimension, Topoi 15(2)

   Barner-Barry, C. and Hody, C. (1994) 'Soviet Marxism-Leninism as mythology', Political Psychology 15(4)

   Brentlinger, J. (2000) 'Revolutionizing spirituality: reflections on Marxism and religion', Science & Society 64(2)

   Goldstein, W.S. (2001) 'Messianism and Marxism: Walter Benjamin and Ernst Bloch's dialectical theories of secularization', Critical Sociology 27(2)

   Collier, Andrew (2001) Christianity and Marxism: A Philosophical Contribution to their Reconciliation

   Geoghegan, Vincent (2002) 'Let the dead bury their dead': Marx, Derrida and Bloch', Contemporary Political Theory 1(1)

   Geoghegan, Vincent (2004) 'Religion and communism: Feuerbach, Marx and Bloch', The European Legacy 9(5)

   Neocleous, Marx (2004) 'Let the dead bury their dead – Marxism and the politics of redemption', Radical Philosophy 182

 

@ SPECIES-BEING AND ALIENATION

   (1844)

 

@ Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts and Comments on James Mill: general

   Marx [1844] Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts

   Marx [1844] Comments on James Mill

   Marx [1844-47] 'Exzerpte und Notizen: Sommer 1844 bis Anfang 1847', in MEGA 4(3), 1998

   Marcuse, Herbert [1932] 'The foundation of historical materialism', in his Studies in Critical Philosophy 1972

   Lukács, Georg (1954) 'Zur philosophischen Entwicklung des jungen Marx', Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 2(2), pp. 288ff

   Maguire, John M. (1972) Marx's Paris Writings: An Analysis

   Meszaros, Istvan (1970) Marx's Theory of Alienation, 4th ed. 1975

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1986) Dialectics of Labour: Marx and his Relation to Hegel html

 

@ Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts and Comments on James Mill: text-critical accounts and reception histories

   Evans, Michael (1984) 'Karl Marx's first confrontation with political-economy - the 1844 manuscripts', Economy and Society 13(2), reprinted in A. Rattansi (ed) Ideology, Method and Marx 1989

   Rojahn, Jürgen (1985) 'Die Marxschen Manuskripte aus dem Jahre 1844 in ner neuen Marx-Engels-Gesamtausgabe', Archive für Sozialgeschichte 25

   Maidan, Michael (1990) 'The Rezeptionsgeschichte of the Paris manuscripts', History of European Ideas 12

   Rojahn, Jürgen (2002) 'The emergence of a theory: The importance of Marx's notebooks exemplified by those from 1844', Rethinking Marxism 14(4)

   Chattopadhyay, Paresh (2004) 'Karl Marx - Exzerpte und Notizen: Sommer 1844 bis Anfang 1847', in Gesamtausgabe (MEGA), vierte Abteilung. Band 3' Historical Materialism 12(4)

 

@ Civil society in the early writings (1843-44)

   Löwith, Karl (1967) From Hegel to Nietzsche pt. 2 ch. 1 'The problem of bourgeois society'

   Mandel, Ernest (1971) The Formation of the Economic Thought of Karl Marx

   Oakley, Allen (1984) Marx's Critique of Political Economy: Intellectual Sources and Evolution. Volume 1: 1844 to 1860

 

@ Species-being: general

   (For recognition-centred accounts of species being see 'Recognition and solidarity in Marx')

   Marx [1843] 'On the Jewish question'

   Marx [1844] Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts

   Marx [1844] 'Comments on James Mill'

   Lobkowicz, Nicholas (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx, ch. 23

* Colletti, Lucio [1969] Marxism and Hegel, tr. 1973, chs. 11-12

   Meszaros, Istvan (1970) Marx's Theory of Alienation, 4th edition 1975

   Ilyenkov, Evald V. [1974] 'The universal', in F.J. Adelmann (ed) Philosophical Investigations in the USSR 1975, reprinted in Vesa Oittinen (ed) The Ideal in Human Activity 2009 (another version of this article is published as ch. 11 of his Dialectical Logic)

   Santilli, Paul (1973) 'Marx on species-being and social essence', Studies in Soviet Thought (now Studies in East European Thought) 13

   Mahowald, Mary B. (1973) 'Marx's Gemeinschaft: another interpretation', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 33

   Parekh, Bhikhu (1975) 'Marx's theory of man' in B. Parekh (ed) The Concept of Socialism

   Conly, Craig A. (1978) 'Alienation, sociality, and the division of labor: contradictions in Marx's ideal of 'social man'', Ethics 89(1)

* Wood, Allen W. (1981) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 2004, ch. 2 'The human essence', ch. 3 'Human production'

   Chitty, Andrew (1993) 'The early Marx on needs', Radical Philosophy 64

   Chitty, Andrew (1997) 'First person plural ontology and praxis', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 97(1)

* Leopold, David (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, ch. 4 'Human flourishing' summary

   Chitty, Andrew (2011) 'Hegel and Marx', in S. Houlgate and M. Baur (eds) A Companion to Hegel, see section 2 of the essay      

   Schmidt am Busch, Hans-Christophe (2013) ''The egg of Columbus'? How Fourier's social theory exerted a significant (and problematic) influence on the formation of Marx's anthropology and social critique', British Journal for the History of Philosophy 21(6) abstract

   Christensen, Careton B. (2016) 'What is species-being? – towards a full rehabilitation of the concept of alienation', cbchristensen.net abstract

   Morgan, Jamie (2018) 'Species being in the twenty-first century', Review of Political Economy 30(3)

   Korsgaard, Christine (2018) 'Species-being and the badness of extinction and death', ZEMO 1

 

@ Species-being as a normative ground, perfectionism in Marx, normativity in the young Marx

   (Including the good life in Marx)

   (Including accounts of species-being as in the process of becoming)

   (Including humanism in early Marx)

   (See also 'Species-being and alienation/estrangement in Marx's later writings', 'Individuality and community in communism' (accounts of individual self-realisation in Marx are here), 'History as human self-realisation', 'Aristotle and Marx')

   (For Marx's later views see 'Anti-moralism in Marx and Marxism', 'Morality and normativity in Marx: general', 'Justice of capitalism in Marx')

   Schaff, Adam (1963) A Philosophy of Man

   Fromm, Erich (ed) (1965) Socialist Humanism: An International Symposium, especially articles by Schaff and Fritzhand

   Dupré, Louis K. (1966) The Philosophical Foundations of Marxism

* Avineri, Shlomo (1968) The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx

   Parsons, Howard L. (1971) Humanism and Marx's Thought

   Toan, Tran van (1971) 'Note sur le concept de 'Gattungswesen' dans la pensée de Karl Marx', Revue Philosophique de Louvain 69

   Wood, Allen W. (1972) 'Marx's critical anthropology', Review of Metaphysics 26(1)

   Nasser, Alan G. (1975) 'Marx's ethical anthropology', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 35(4)

   Von Magnis, F. (1975) Normative Voraussetzungen im Denken des jungen Marx (1843-1848)

   Clarke, Simon (1979) 'Socialist humanism and the critique of economism', History Workshop 8

* Wood, Allen W. (1981) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 2004, ch. 2 'The human essence'

   Elster, Jon (1986) 'Self-realization in work and politics: the Marxist conception of the good Life', Social Philosophy and Policy 3(2)

   Archard, David (1988) 'The Marxist ethic of self-realization: individuality and community', in J.D.G. Evans (ed) Moral Philosophy and Contemporary Problems, supplement to Philosophy vol. 22

   Goldstick, Danny (1991) 'The 'humanism' and the humanism of Karl Marx', in David Goicoechea and others (eds) The Question of Humanism: Challenges and Possibilities

   Wilde, Lawrence (1994) 'Marx's concept of human essence and its radical critics', Studies in Marxism 1

   Wilde, Lawrence (1998) Ethical Marxism and its Radical Critics

* Leopold, David (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, ch. 4 'Human flourishing' summary

   Evans, M. (2007) Self-realization: Politics and the Good Life in Modern Times, chs. 4-5

   Henning, Christoph (2015) 'Political economy with perfectionist premises: three types of criticism in Marx', in Michael J. Thompson (ed) Constructing Marxist Ethics

   Struhl, Karsten J. (2016) 'Marx and human nature: the historical, the trans-historical, and human flourishing', Science & Society 80(1)

   Moggach, Douglas (2018) 'Perfectionism, alienation and freedom: From the German Idealists to Marx', in Jan Kandiyali (ed) Reassessing Marx's Social and Political Philosophy

   Quante, Michael (2020) 'Karl Marx – ein postkantischer Perfektionist?' in Moggach, Mooren, and Quante (eds) Der Perfektionismus der Autonomie

 

@ Good life in Marx

   (See 'Communism', 'Species-being as a normative ground')

 

@ Humanism in Marx

   (For humanism in early Marx see 'Species-being as a normative ground')

   (For his later critique of humanism see 'Anti-moralism and anti-humanism in Marx and Marxism')

 

@ Species-being and Aristotle

   (See also 'Aristotle and Marx')

   Wartenberg, Thomas (1982) ''Species-being' and 'human nature' in Marx', Human Studies 5(2)

   Depew, David J. (1982) 'Aristotle's De Anima and Marx's theory of man', Graduate Faculty Philosophy Journal 8(1/2)

   McCarthy, George E. (ed) (1992) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth-Century German Thought and Classical Antiquity, articles by Miller, Gilbert

   Margolis, Joseph (1992) 'Praxis and meaning: Marx's species-being and Aristotle's political animal', in G.E. McCarthy (ed) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth-Century German Thought and Classical Antiquity (second entry)

   Sweet, R.T. (2002) Marx, Morality and the Virtue of Beneficence

   Leopold, David (2007) The Young Karl Marx: German Philosophy, Modern Politics, and Human Flourishing, pp. 234-242 'A zoon politikon' site

   Groff, Ruth (2015) 'On the ethical contours of thin Aristotelian Marxism', in Michael J. Thompson (ed) Constructing Marxist Ethics

   Jaffe, Aaron (2016) 'From Aristotle to Marx: a critical philosophical anthropology', Science & Society 80(1) abstract

 

@ Species-being as self-creation, Marx and the posthuman and transhuman

   (Including poststructuralist versions of species-being)

   (See also 'Postmodernism and Marx', 'Modernism and Marx', 'Freedom as an ideal')

   Petrovic, Gajo (1967) 'Marx's concept of man' in his Marx in the Mid-Twentieth Century, reprinted in T. Bottomore (ed) Modern Interpretations of Marx 1981 (Margolis 1992 also recommends 'Praxis and being' in the same book)

   Kosik, Karel [1967] Dialectics of the Concrete, sec. 4 (Margolis 1992)

* Margolis, Joseph (1992) 'Praxis and meaning: Marx's species-being and Aristotle's political animal', in G.E. McCarthy (ed) Marx and Aristotle: Nineteenth-Century German Thought and Classical Antiquity

   Mulhall, Stephen (1993) 'Species-being, teleology and individuality. Part 1. Marx on species-being', Angelaki 3(1) (9-21)

   Smith, Cyril (2004) Karl Marx and the Future of the Human, ch. 9 (html of early draft)

   Rikowski, Glen (2003) 'Alien life: Marx and the future of the human', Historical Materialism 11(2)

   Dyer-Witheford, Nick (2004) 'Species-being resurgent', Constellations 11(4)

* Dyer-Witheford, Nick (2004) '1844/2004/2044: the return of species-being', Historical Materialism 12(4)

   Khurana, Thomas (2022) 'Genus-being: on Marx's dialectical naturalism', in Luca Corti and Johannes Georg Schülein (eds) Nature and Naturalism in Classical German Philosophy abstract

 

@ Species-being and consciousness

   Markus, George (1975) 'The Marxian concept of consciousness', Philosophy and Social Criticism 13(1)

 

@ Species-being and collective intentionality

   Korsgaard, Christine (2018) 'Species-being and the badness of extinction and death', Zeitschrift für Ethik und Moralphilosophie 1

 

@ Species-being and human biology, life in Marx

   O'Manique, J. (1994) 'A Marxian view of the fundamentals of political development', Political Psychology 15(2)

   Chitty, Andrew (2006) 'The basis of the state in the Marx of 1842', in Douglas Moggach (ed) The New Hegelians: Politics and Philosophy in the Hegelian School summary

   Fox, John G. (2015) 'Species Being', in his Marx, the Body, and Human Nature

   Brown, Chris (2015) 'The Marxist perspective from 'species-being' to natural justice', in D. Jacobi and A. Freyberg-Inan (eds) Human Beings in International Relations

   Ng, Karen (2015) 'Ideology critique from Hegel and Marx to critical theory', Constellations 22(3) abstract

 

@ Species-being and Hess

   Hess, Moses [1845] 'On the socialist movement in Germany', in his Philosophische und sozialistische Schrifte 1837-1850

 

@ Species-being and Hegel

   (See A Hegel bibliography: 'Life and teleology in the later writings')

 

@ Species-being and Feuerbach

   (See 'Feuerbach's anthropology')

 

@ Species-being and earlier thinkers

* Colletti, Lucio [1969] Marxism and Hegel, tr. 1973, ch. 11 'The concept of the 'social relations of production'

 

@ Species-being: critiques

   Ereshefsky, M. (2002-10) 'Species', Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, online

  

@ Species-being and feminism

   Grant, Judith (2005) 'Gender and Marx's radical humanism in the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts', Rethinking Marxism 17(1)

 

@ Species-being and non-human animals

   Dubeau, Mathieu (2018) 'Reclaiming species-being: toward an interspecies historical materialism', Rethinking Marxism 30(2)

   Butler, Judith (2019) 'The inorganic body in the early Marx: a limit-concept of anthropocentrism', Radical Philosophy 2.06

 

@ Human nature in Marx after 1844

   (See also 'Feuerbach and Marx', 'Individuality and community in communism', 'Aristotle and Marx', 'Kantian ethics and Marx', 'Labour in Marx', 'Labour theory of value and species-being', 'Anti-moralism in Marx and Marxism')

   Engels [1876] 'The part played by labour in the transition from ape to man', in Dialectics of Nature

   Venable, V. (1945) Human Nature: The Marxian View

   Strauss, Leo (1960) 'Seminar on Karl (not Groucho) Marx', available online

   Petrovic, Gajo (1967) 'Marx's concept of man' in his Marx in the Mid-Twentieth Century, reprinted in T. Bottomore (ed) Modern Interpretations of Marx 1981

   Fetscher, I. (1970) Hegel's Lehre vom Menschen

   Ollman, Bertold (1971) Alienation: Marx's Conception of Man in Capitalist Society, chs. 7-17

   Fetscher, I. [1973] 'Karl Marx on human nature' in J. Cunningham Wood ed., Karl Marx's Economics: Critical Assessments, vol. 1

   Plamenatz, John (1975) Karl Marx's Philosophy of Man, chs. 2-3

   McMurty, John (1978) The Structure of Marx's World View

   Seve, Lucien (1978) Man in Marxist Theory

   Markus, George (1978) Marxism and Anthropology: The Concept of Human Essence in the Philosophy of Marx (Centred on GI)

   Zoolalian, D.E. (1980) 'Marx, man, and methodology: some remarks on Marx's theory of human nature', Social Praxis 7

   Geras, Norman (1983) Marx and Human Nature: Refutation of a Legend (attack on historicist views of Marx on human nature; distinguishes permanent and historically specific aspects of human nature)

   Bien, J. (1984) History, Revolution and Human Nature: Marx's Philosophical Anthropology

+ Markovic, M. (1991) 'Human nature' in T. Bottomore (ed) A Dictionary of Marxist Thought

   Sayers, Sean (1998) Marxism and Human Nature

   Held, Jacob M. (2009) 'Marx via Feuerbach: species-being revisited', Idealistic Studies 39(1-3)

   Tabak, Mehmet (2012) Dialectics of Human Nature in Marx's Philosophy

 

@ Human nature in Marx after 1844: relationalist conceptions

   (Including 6th Thesis on Feuerbach)

   Bloch, Ernst (1953) 'Keim und Grundlinie. Zu den Elf Thesen von Marx über Feuerbach', Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 1(2)

   Althusser, Louis [1964] 'Marxism and humanism', in his For Marx

   Kühne, L. (1979) 'Zu Marx' Bestimmung des Menschichen Wesens in der sexten Feuerbachthese', Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 27(7)

   Cunningham, Frank (1989) 'Community, tradition, and the 6th thesis on Feuerbach', Canadian Journal of Philosophy 19(sup 1)

   Balibar, Étienne (2012)'From philosophical anthropology to social ontology and back: what to do with Marx's sixth thesis on Feuerbach?' Postmodern Culture 22(3)

 

@ Labour in Marx

   (Thanks to Sean Sayers for suggestions for this and the following sections)

   (Including the rational or emancipatory or expressivist content of labour in Marx, and critiques of Marx as productivist; also labour in contemporary Marxist critical social theory)

   (See also 'Abstract labour', 'Unalienated labour', 'Praxis group', 'Habermas's critique of Marx', 'Marcuse and labour')

   Engels, Friedrich [1876] 'The part played by labour in the transition from ape to man', in Dialectics of Nature

   Cohen, G.A. (1974) 'Marx's dialectic of labour', Philosophy and Public Affairs 3, slightly revised as ch. 10 of Cohen's History, Labour and Freedom

   Taylor, Charles (1975) Hegel, ch. 3, ch. 20 sec. 2

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1978) 'Labour: Marx's concrete universal', Inquiry 21(1)

   Heller, Agnes [1978] Everyday Life [das Alltagsleben]

   Berki, R.N. (1979) 'On the nature and origins of Marx's concept of labour', Political Theory 7(1)

   Markus, George [1980] 'Die Welt menschliche Objekte', in Arbeit, Handlung, Normativität

   Lange, E.M. (1980) Das Prinzip Arbeit

   Wood, Allen W. (1981) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 2004, ch. 3 'Human production'

   Ware, R. (1982) 'Marx, the division of labor and human nature', Social Theory and Practice 8

   Arthur, Christopher J. (1986) Dialectics of Labour: Marx and his Relation to Hegel html

   Wildt, Andreas (1987) Die Anthropologie des frühen Marx

   Ripstein, Arthur (1989) 'Rationality and alienation', Canadian Journal of Philosophy 19(1)

   Postone, Moishe (1993) Time, Labour and Social Domination: A Reinterpretation of Marx's Critical Theory

   Sayers, Sean (1998) Marxism and Human Nature

   Moggach, Douglas (1994) 'Marx and German Idealism: labour and the transcendental synthesis', History of European Ideas 19(1-3)

   Dinerstein, Ana C. and Neary, M. (eds) (2002) The Labour Debate: An Investigation into the Theory and Reality of Capitalist Work

   Sayers, Sean (2003) 'Creative activity and alienation in Hegel and Marx', Historical Materialism 11(1)

   Paolucci, Paul (2005) 'Assumptions of the dialectical method: the centrality of labor for the human species, its history, and individuals', Critical Sociology 31(4)

   Sayers, Sean (2005) 'Why work? Marx and human nature', Science & Society 69(4)

   Dejours, Christophe (2006) 'Subjectivity, work, action', Critical Horizons 7(1)

   Sayers, Sean (2007) 'The concept of labor: Marx and his critics', Science & Society 71(4)

   Deranty, Jean-Philippe (2008) 'Work and the precarisation of existence', European Journal of Social Theory 11(4)

   Dejours, Christophe and Deranty, Jean-Philippe (2010) 'The centrality of work', Critical Horizons 11(2)

   Renault, Emmanuel (2011) 'Comment Marx se réfère-t-il au travail et à la domination?', Actuel Marx 49 (Deranty 2012: on the multiple concepts of work in Marx)

   Moggach, Douglas (2013) 'German Idealism and Marx', in J. Walker (ed) The Impact of Idealism: The Legacy of Post-Kantian German Thought, volume 2, Historical, Social and Political Thought

 

@ Labour in Marx: critiques

   (Including critiques of the idea that labour is constitutive of the human good, i.e. of Marx's 'productivism')

* Arendt, Hannah (1958) The Human Condition, chs. 3-4

   Suchting, Wol A. (1962) 'Marx and Hannah Arendt's 'The Human Condition'', Ethics 73

* Habermas, Jürgen [1967] 'Labour and interaction: remarks on Hegel's Jena Philosophy of Mind', in his Theory and Practice, tr. J. Viertel 1973

* Baudrillard, Jean [1973] The Mirror of Production, tr. 1975

   Gorz, Andre (1975) Critique of Economic Reason

   Lange, E.M. (1980) Das Prinzip Arbeit

   Honneth, Axel (1982) 'Work and instrumental action: on the normative basis of critical theory', Thesis 11 5/6, also in New German Critique 26, 1982, reprinted in his The Fragmented World of the Social: Essays in Social and Political Philosophy 1995

 

@ Marx and automation, the fragment on machines

   (For digital automation see 'Digital technology and capitalism', also '~Post-work socilaism and communism')

   Marx [1857-58] Grundrisse, Penguin, 'Fragment on machines', pp. 690-710

   Marx [1867] Capital vol. 1, ch. 15 'Machinery and modern industry'

   Mackenzie, Donald (1984) 'Marx and the machine', Technology and Culture 25(3)

   Dyer-Witheford, Nick (1999) Cyber-Marx: Cycles and Circuits of Struggle in High-Technology Capitalism

   Wendling, Amy (2009) Karl Marx on Technology and Alienation

   Heinrich, Michael (2013) 'The 'fragment on machines': a Marxian misconception in the Grundrisse and its overcoming in Capital', in Riccardo Bellofiore and others, In Marx's Laboratory: Critical Interpretations of the Grundrisse preview

   Pitts, Frederick H. (2017) 'Beyond the Fragment: postoperaismo, postcapitalism and Marx's 'Notes on machines', 45 years on', Economy and Society 46(3-4) abstract

 

@ Domestic labour and Marx

   (See also 'Social reproduction theory')

   Kain, Philip J. (1993) 'Marx, housework and alienation', Hypatia 8(1)

 

@ Contemporary theory of work

   (See An egalitarian political philosophy bibliography: 'Work')

 

@ Needs (Bedürfnisse) in Marx and Marxism

   (See also 'Needs principle', 'Degrowth and antigrowth theory')

   (For the concept of needs in general and needs in political philosophy see An egalitarian political philosophy bibliography: 'Needs, the concept' and 'Needs in political philosophy')

   Marx [1857-58] Grundrisse, Penguin, pp. 527-8

   Marx [1864-65] Capital vol. 3, Penguin, pp. 279-94

   Marx [1867] Capital vol. 1, first two pages

   O'Malley, Joseph (1966) 'History and man's 'nature' in Marx', Review of Politics 28

   Heller, Agnes [1974] The Theory of Need in Marx, tr. 1976

   Lebowitz, Michael A. (1977-78) 'Capital and the production of needs', Science & Society 41(4) preview

   Lebowitz, Michael A. (1979) 'Heller on Marx's concept of needs', Science & Society 43(3) (review of Heller 1974) pdf

   Springborg, Patricia (1979) 'Karl Marx on human needs' in Ross Fitzerald (ed) Human Needs and Politics

   Soper, Kate (1981) On Human Needs: Open and Closed Theories in a Marxist Perspective

   Stillman, Peter (1983) 'Scarcity, sufficiency and abundance: Hegel and Marx on material needs and satisfactions', International Political Science Review 4(3)

   Heller, Agnes (1985) The Power of Shame: A Rational Perspective, ch. 5 'Can 'true' and 'false' needs be posited?' abstract

   Berry, Christopher J. (1987) 'Need and egoism in Marx's early writings', History of Political Thought 8(3), Winter 1987, reprinted in Cowling and Wilde (eds) Approaches to Marx

   Leiss, William (1988) Limits to Satisfaction: An Essay on the Problem of Needs and Commodities

   Heller, Agnes (1993) 'A theory of needs revisited', Thesis Eleven 35(1)

   Chitty, Andrew (1993) 'The early Marx on needs', Radical Philosophy 64

   Braybrooke, David (1998) Moral Objectives, Rules, and the Forms of Social Change, ch. 2 'Two conceptions of needs in Marx's writings' preview

   Grumley, John (1999) 'A utopian dialectic of needs? Heller's theory of radical needs', Thesis Eleven 59(1)

   Hughes, Jonathan (2000) Ecology and Historical Materialism, ch. 7 'Capitalism, socialism and the satisfaction of needs'

   Fraser, Ian (1998) Hegel and Marx: The Concept of Need

   Sayers, Sean (1998) Marxism and Human Nature

   Fraser, Ian (2000) 'Hegel and Marx on needs: the making of a monster', in Tony Burns and Ian Fraser (eds) The Hegel-Marx Connection

  

@ Alienated labour

   (See 'Alienation in Marx's early writings')

 

@ Alienation in Marx's early writings: general

   (NB Marx in 1844 says labour is both entäusserte and entfremdete. See the Appendix to C.J. Arthur, Dialectics of Labour (available online) for discussions of the meaning of the two German terms. The Marx and Engels Collected Works and L. Colletti (ed) Karl Marx: Early Writings editions both translate Entäusserung as 'alienation' and Entfremdung as 'estrangement'. However A.V. Miller's translation of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit translates Entäusserung as 'externalisation' and Entfremdung as 'alienation', and recent English-language commentary has tended to use 'alienation' to refer to Marx's Entfremdung, or else as a catch-all term to cover both Entäusserung and Entfremdung. The section headings in this bibliography use 'alienation' in this last way, as a catch-all term. For Entäusserung in particular see 'Alienation as self-subordination')

   Marx [1843] On the Jewish Question

   Marx [1844] Comments on James Mill (also known as Excerpt-notes of 1844 etc.)

   Marx [1844] Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts (esp. section on 'estranged labour')

   Marx [1845] Theses on Feuerbach

   Marx [1856-57] Grundrisse pp. 450-455, 459-463, 469-471

   Marcuse, Herbert (1941) Reason and Revolution, part 2 ch. 1

   Popitz, H. (1953) Der entfremdete Mensch. Zeitkritik und Geschichtsphilosophie des Jungen Marx

   Löwith, Karl (1954) 'Man's self-alienation in the early writings of Marx', Social Research 21, reprinted in Löwith's Nature, History and Existentialism, and in Jessop and Malcolm-Brown (eds) Karl Marx's Social and Political Thought: Critical Assessments

   Tucker, Robert C. (1961) Philosophy and Myth in Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 1972, chs. 2-7, esp. ch. 3

   Bloch, Ernst [1962] 'Entfremdung, Verfremdung: alienation, estrangement', TDR: The Drama Review 15(1) 1970

   Rotenstreich, Nathan (1965) Basic Problems of Marx's Philosophy, ch. 7

   Petrovic, Gajo (1967) 'Alienation and de-alienation', in his Marx in the Mid-Twentieth Century

   Lobkowicz, Nicholas (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx, chs. 20-22

   Avineri, Shlomo (1968) The Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx, ch. 4

   Cohen, G.A. (1968) 'Bourgeois and proletarians', Journal of the History of Ideas 29(2)

   West, E.G. (1969) 'The political economy of alienation: Karl Marx and Adam Smith', Oxford Economic Papers 21(1) preview

   Meszaros, Istvan (1970) Marx's Theory of Alienation, 4th ed., chs. 3, (4-7)

+ Giddens, Anthony (1971) Capitalism and Modern Social Theory, ch. 1

   Ollman, Bertold (1971) Alienation: Marx's Conception of Man in Capitalist Society, chs. 18-24

   Schacht, Richard (1971) Alienation, ch. 3

   Maguire, John M. (1972) Marx's Paris Writings: An Analysis

   Plamenatz, John (1975) Karl Marx's Philosophy of Man, chs. 4-6

   Kolakowski, Leszek (1978) Main Currents of Marxism vol. 1, ch. 6

   Agassi, Judith B. (1978-79) 'Alienation from work: a conceptual analysis', Philosophical Forum 10

   Wood, Allen W. (1981) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 2004, chs. 1-3

   Clarke, Simon (1982) Marx, Marginalism and Modern Sociology: From Adam Smith to Max Weber

   Markus, George (1982) 'Alienation and reification in Marx and Lukács', Thesis Eleven 5/6

   Elster, Jon (1985) Making Sense of Marx, secs. 2.2, 2.3, ch. 9

* Arthur, Christopher J. (1986) Dialectics of Labour: Marx and his Relation to Hegel, chs. 1-2 html

   Ripstein, Arthur (1989) 'Rationality and alienation', Canadian Journal of Philosophy 19(1)

   Churchich, Nicholas (1990) Marxism and Alienation

* Wolff, Jonathan (1992) 'Playthings of alien forces: Karl Marx and the rejection of the market economy', Cogito 6(1), reprinted in N. Warburton, J. Pike and D. Matravers (eds) Philosophy: Basic Readings 1999

   Honneth, Axel [1994] 'Pathologies of the social: the past and present of social philosophy', in D. Rasmussen (ed) The Handbook of Critical Theory 1996, also in Honneth's Disrespect: The Normative Foundations of Critical Theory 2007

   Kymlicka, Will (2000) 'Alienation' in N. Warburton, J. Pike and D. Matravers (eds) Reading Political Philosophy: Machiavelli to Mill

   Sayers, Sean (2003) 'Creative activity and alienation in Hegel and Marx', Historical Materialism 11(1)

   Wendling, Amy (2009) 'Karl Marx's concept of alienation', in her Karl Marx on Technology and Alienation

   Sayers, Sean (2011) Marx and Alienation

   Chitty, Andrew (2011) 'Hegel and Marx', in S. Houlgate and M. Baur (eds) A Companion to Hegel

   Christensen, Careton B. (2016) 'What is species-being? – towards a full rehabilitation of the concept of alienation', cbchristensen.net abstract

   Brudney, Daniel (2015) 'The young Marx and the middle-aged Rawls', in Jon Mandle and David A. Reidy (eds) A Companion to Rawls

   Raekstad, Paul (2015) 'Human development and alienation in the thought of Karl Marx', European Journal of Political Theory 17(3)

   Brudney, Daniel (2018) 'Two Marxian themes: the alienation of labour and the linkage thesis' in J. Kandiyali (ed) Reassessing Marx's Social and Political Philosophy: Freedom, Recognition and Human Flourishing

   Kandiyali, Jan (2020) 'The importance of others: Marx on unalienated production', Ethics 130

   Lazarus, Michael (2022) 'Alienation and action in the young Marx, Aristotle, and Arendt', Constellations 29(4)

   Maguire, Barry (2022) 'Efficient markets and alienation', Philosophical Topics 22(14)

   Rivero, Gabriel (2023) 'Schiller and Marx on alienation', in Antonino Falduto and Tim Mehigan (eds) The Palgrave Handbook on the Philosophy of Friedrich Schiller

 

@ Alienation as self-subordination, autonomisation and inversion in the early writings

   (This is the theme of humans' subordination to the system of their own activity. NB In this literature 'alienation' usually stands for Marx's Entäusserung)

   (For Entäusserung in Fichte see 'Fichte and Marx')

   (For this theme in Grundrisse and Capital see 'Capital as subject')

   Marx and Engels [1845-46] The German Ideology, in Collected Works, vol. 5, pp. 46-52, 77-81, 245-6

* Levine, Andrew (1978) 'Alienation as heteronomy', Philosophical Forum 8

   Gray, John (1986) 'Marxian freedom, individual liberty, and the end of alienation', Social Philosophy and Policy 3(2), section 1

+ Wolff, Jonathan (1992) 'Playthings of alien forces: Karl Marx and the rejection of the market economy', Cogito 6(1), reprinted in N. Warburton (ed) Philosophy: Basic Readings 1999

   Schmitt, Richard (1996) 'Marx's concept of alienation', Topoi, 15(2)

   Sensat, Julius (1996) 'Marx's inverted world', Topoi 15(2)

* Holloway, John (1997) 'A note on alienation', Historical Materialism 1(1) (disalienation as present in the struggle against capital)

   Sensat, Julius (1997) 'Reification as dependence on extrinsic information', Synthese 109(3)

   Gilabert, Pablo (2020) 'Alienation, freedom, and dignity', Philosophical Topics 48(2)

   Sensat, Julius (2016) The Logic of Estrangement: Reason in an Unreasonable Form

   Mau, Søren (2023) Mute Compulsion: A Marxist Theory of the Economic Power of Capital abstract

 

@ Alienation as a psychological condition

   (E.g. as meaninglessness, as anomie, as a contemplative attitude, etc.)

   Braybrooke, David (1958) 'Diagnosis and remedy in Marx's doctrine of alienation', Social Research

   Parsons, Howard L. (1964) 'Value and mental health in the thought of Marx', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 24

   Lukes, Stephen (1967) 'Alienation and anomie', in P. Laslett and W. Runciman (eds) Philosophy, Politics and Society, also in A.W. Finifter (ed) Alienation and the Social System 1972

   Wood, Allen W. (1981) Karl Marx, 2nd ed. 2004, ch. 1

   Bronfenbrenner, Martin (1973) 'A harder look at alienation', Ethics 83(4)

   Fischbach, Franck (2009) Sans objet: capitalisme, subjectivité, aliénation

 

@ Psychoanalysis and Marx

   (See also 'Marcuse')

   Fromm, Erich (1961) 'Preface' to Marx's Concept of Man

   O'Neill, Norman (1985) 'Marxism and psychology', in Martin Shaw (ed) Marxist Sociology Revisited

 

@ Phenomenology of Spirit and Marx

   (For alienation in Hegel vs. in Marx, see A Hegel bibliography: 'Alienation')

   (For early Marx's critique of Hegel in general see 'Hegel and Marx')

   (For the later Marx on Hegel see 'Method of Capital: Hegelian interpretations')

   Marx [1844] Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, final section: 'Critique of Hegel's dialectic'

   Marx [1844] 'Hegel's construction of the Phenomenology', Marx and Engels, Collected Works, vol. 4, p. 665

   Harris, Errol [1978] 'Marxist interpretations of Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit', in M. Westphal (ed) Method and Speculation in Hegel's Phenomenology 1982

* Arthur, Christopher J. (1983) 'Hegel's master/slave dialectic and a myth of Marxology', New Left Review 142, reworked as ch. 7 of Arthur's Dialectics of Labour: Marx and his Relation to Hegel, available online

   Burns, Tony (2015) 'The idea of the 'struggle for recognition' in the ethical thought of the young Marx and its relevance today', in Michael J. Thompson (ed) Constructing Marxist Ethics: Critique, Normativity, Praxis

   Pulgar Moya, Pablo (2021) 'Self-consciousness and alienation: the young Marx's reception on Hegel's master-slave dialectic', in Ivan Boldyrev and Sebastian Stein (eds) Interpreting Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit: Expositions and Critique of Contemporary Readings

 

@ Alienation and market exchange

   (Including alienation as instrumentalisation of the other)

   Marx [1844] Comments on James Mill

   Baudrillard, Jacques [1976] Symbolic Exchange and Death, tr. 1993

   Chitty, Andrew (1993) 'The early Marx on needs', Radical Philosophy 64

   Brudney, Daniel (1998) Marx's Attempt to Leave Philosophy, ch. 5 'The 1844 Marx II: the structure of community', see pp. 171-173 site

 

@ Alienation: sources for the concept

   (This is mainly on sources in religious thinkers. For sources in Rousseau, Fichte and Feuerbach see 'Rousseau and Marx', 'Fichte and Marx', 'Feuerbach and Marx'. For sources in Hegel see A Hegel bibliography: 'Alienation')

   (See also 'Religious, mythological and spiritual themes in Marx's thought')

   Tillich, Paul (1953) Der Mensch im Christentum und im Marxismsus

   Habermas, Jürgen [1963] 'Between philosophy and science: Marxism as critique', in Theory and Practice, reprinted in S. Seidman ed. Jürgen Habermas on Society and Politics: A Reader 1992

   Rotenstreich, Nathan (1965) Basic Problems of Marx's Philosophy, ch. 7

   Lobkowicz, Nicholas (1967) Theory and Practice: History of a Concept from Aristotle to Marx, chs. 20-22

   Meszaros, Istvan (1970) Marx's Theory of Alienation, 4th edition 1975, ch. 1

   Schacht, Richard (1971) Alienation, ch. 1

* Inwood, Michael (1992) A Hegel Dictionary pp. 35-38