AN ETHICS BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Andrew Chitty, University of Sussex, England (home page)

 

Navigation: The bibliography is all on one page. After the list of contents, it is divided into 12 main sections, each with up to 20 heading in each. Each heading is preceded by '@' plus a space. To find a heading, use the 'find' facility on your browser, and search for '@' + space + the first words of the heading. To return to the top of the page, press Ctrl-Home.

 

[ ] = date of writing or original publication    * = recommended    + = introductory

 

Other useful bibliographies:

A bibliography of metaethics, by James Lenman

PhilPapers bibliographies of online papers: Meta-ethics, Normative ethics, Practical reason, Free will

 

Last updated 3 Mar 2015

 

@ GENERAL

 

@ Classic Texts

   Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics

   Hume [1740] A Treatise of Human Nature

   Hume [1751] Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals

   Kant [1785] Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, tr. Beck

   Mill [1861] Utilitarianism

 

@ Introductions and surveys

   Warnock, M. (1978) Ethics Since 1900, 3rd. (ed.)

   Warnock, G.J. (1967) Contemporary Moral Philosophy

   Williams, B. (1972) Morality: An Introduction to Ethics

   Olson, R.G. (1978) Ethics: A Short Introduction

   Finnis, J. (1983) The Fundamentals of Ethics

   Hudson, W.D. (1983) Modern Moral Philosophy, 2nd ed

   Nelson, W.M. (1991) Morality: What's in it for me?

   Benn, P. (1997) Ethics

 

@ Handbooks

   Singer, P. (ed.) (1991) A Companion to Ethics

   Copp, D. (ed.) (2005) The Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory

   Dreier, J. (ed.) (2005) Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory

   Baron, M., Pettit, P. and Slote, M. (1997) Three Methods of Ethics: A Debate

 

@ Important monographs

   Hare, R.M. (1952) The Language of Morals

   Hare, R.M. (1981) Moral Thinking

   Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong

   Harman, G. (1977) The Nature of Morality

   Williams, B. (1985) Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy

   Nagel, T. (1986) The View From Nowhere, chs. 7-10

   McNaughton, D. (1988) Moral Vision

   Gibbard, A. (1992) Wise Choices, Apt Feelings

   Gibbard, A. Thinking How to Live

   Blackburn, S. Ruling Passions

   Smith, M. (1994) The Moral Problem

   Shafer-Landau, R. (2003) Moral Realism

 

@ Anthologies

   Foot, P. (ed.) (1977) Theories of Ethics

   Raz, J. (ed.) (1978) Practical Reasoning

   Sayre-McCord G., (ed.) (1988) Essays on Moral Realism

   Darwall, S., Gibbard, A. and Railton, P. (eds) (1997) Moral Discourse and Practice: Some Philosophical Approaches

   Rachels, J. (ed.) (1998) Ethical Theory 1: The Question of Objectivity

   Sterba, J. (1998) Ethics

   Shafer-Landau, R. and Cuneo, T. (eds) (2006) Foundations of Ethics: An Anthology, 3rd edition

   Shafer-Landau, R. (ed.) (forthcoming, 2007) Ethical Theory: An Anthology

 

@ ARISTOTLE AND VIRTUE ETHICS

(See also A social and political philosophy bibliography: 'Aristotle')

 

@ Aristotle: general

* Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics esp. bks 1, (2.6, 6.7, 6.13, 9.9), 10

+ Hardie, W.F.R. (1968) Aristotle's Ethical Theory, 2nd ed. 1980

+ Williams, B. (1972) Morality, chs. on 'Good', 'Goodness and roles', 'Moral standards and the distinguishing mark of man'

+ Barnes, J. (1976) 'Introduction' to Aristotle: Ethics (Penguin)

   Barnes, J. et al (eds) (1977) Articles on Aristotle vol 2: Ethics and Politics

   Rorty, A. (ed.) (1980) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

+ Ackrill, J.L. (1981) Aristotle the Philosopher, ch. 10

   MacIntyre, A. (1983) 'Moral rationality, tradition and Aristotle', Inquiry 26

   Norman, R. (1983) The Moral Philosophers, chs. 3-4

   Irwin, T. (1988) Aristotle's First Principles

+ Urmson, J.O. (1988) Aristotle's Ethics, introduction, ch. 1

* Broadie, S. (1991) Ethics with Aristotle

   Annas, J. (1993) The Morality of Happiness

+ Hutchison, D.S. (1995) 'Ethics' in J.Barnes (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Aristotle

   Bostock, D. (2000) Aristotle's Ethics

   Hughes, G.J. (2001) Aristotle on Ethics

 

@ Aristotle: Eudaimonia, happiness and the good

   Geach, P. (1956-57) 'Good and evil'

   Williams, B. (1962) 'Aristotle on the good - a formal sketch', Philosophical Quarterly 12

* Kenny, A. (1965-66) 'Happiness', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 66, revised as 'Aristotle on happiness', in J. Feinberg (ed.) Moral Concepts, and in Barnes, Schofield and Sorabji

* Ackrill, J.L. (1974) 'Aristotle on eudaimonia' Proceedings of the British Academy 60, reprinted in A. Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

* McDowell, J. (1980) 'The role of eudaimonia in Aristotle's ethics', in A. Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

   Cooper, J.M. (1975) Reason and Human Good in Aristotle

   Kraut, R. (1979) 'Two conceptions of happiness', Philosophical Review 88

   Irwin, T. (1980) 'The metaphysical and psychological basis of Aristotle's ethics', in A. Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

   Nussbaum, M. (1985) The Fragility of Goodness, ch. 11

   Korsgaard, C. (1986) 'Aristotle and Kant on the source of value', Ethics 96

   Kraut, R

 

@ Aristotle: function argument

   Aristotle, De Anima, at http://classics.mit.edu/soul.2.ii.html

   Sorabji, R. (1964) 'Function' Philosophical Quarterly 14

* Nagel, T. (1972) 'Aristotle on eudaimonia', Phronesis 17, reprinted in A. Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

   Clark, S. (1972) 'The use of 'man's function' in Aristotle', Ethics 82(4)

+ Williams, B. (1972) Morality: An Introduction to Ethics, pp. 69-76

* Wilkes, K.V. (1978) 'The good man and the good for man in Aristotle's Ethics', Mind 87, reprinted in A. Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

   Clark, S.R.L. (1975) Aristotle's Man ll.1

   Kraut, R. (1979) 'The peculiar function of human beings', Canadian Journal of Philosophy 9

   Gill, C. (1990) 'The human being as an ethical norm', in C. Gill (ed.) The Person and the Human Mind

   Tuozzo, T.M. (1996) 'The function of human beings and the rationality of the universe: Aristotle and Zeno on parts and wholes', Phoenix 50(2) [Jstor]

   Kitcher, P. (1999) 'Essence and perfection', Ethics 110

* Korsgaard, C.M. (2008) The Constitution of Agency: Essays on Practical Reason and Moral Psychology, ch. 4 'Aristotle's function argument', available online

 

@ Aristotle: essentialism vs. relativism

   Williams, B. (1985) Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, ch. 3 'Foundations: well-being' [4]

   Nussbaum, M. (1988) 'Non-relative virtues: an Aristotelian approach', Midwest Studies in Philosophy 13, reprinted in J.P. Sterba (ed.) Ethics: The Big Questions, 1998

   Nussbaum, M. (1988) ''Nature, function, and capability: Aristotle on political distribution', Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, suppl. vol. 1988

   Nussbaum, M.C. (1992) 'Human functioning and social justice: in defense of Aristotelian essentialism', Political Theory 20(2)

   Hurley, S. (1993) 'Objectivity and forms of life', in A. Sen and M. Nussbaum (eds.) The Quality of Life, available online

   Nussbaum, M.C. (1997) 'Aristotle on human nature and the foundations of ethics",  in J.E.G. Altham and R. Harrison (eds.) World, Mind, and Ethics: Essays on the Philosophy of Bernard Williams [1]

 

@ Virtue in Aristotle

   Rorty, A. (ed.) (1980) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

   Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics, 2, 6.1, 6.13, (9.4), (9.6)

   Irwin, T. (1975) 'Aristotle on reason, desire and virtue', Journal of Philosophy 72

   Kosman, L.A. (1980) 'Being properly affected: virtues and feelings in Aristotle's Ethics', in A. Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

   Irwin, T. (1980) 'The metaphysical and psychological basis of Aristotle's ethics', in A. Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

+ Urmson, J.O. (1988) Aristotle's Ethics, ch. 2

   Sherman, N. (1991) The Fabric of Character: Aristotle's Theory of Virtue

 

@ Virtue ethics

* Anscombe, G.E. (1958) 'Modern moral philosophy' Philosophy 33, reprinted in W.D. Hudson (ed.) The Is/Ought Question 1969, reprinted in G. Wallace and A.D.M. Walker (eds) The Definition of Morality 1970, reprinted in Anscombe, Ethics, Religion and Politics: Collected Papers Vol 3 1981

   Becker, L. (1975) 'The neglect of the virtues', Ethics 85

   Geach, P. (1977) The Virtues, ch. 1 'Why men need the virtues'

   Wallace, J.D. (1978) Virtues and Vices, chs. 1,2

   Foot, P. (1978) Virtues and Vices, ch. 1 'Virtues and Vices'

   McDowell, J. (1979) 'Virtue and Reason', The Monist 62

   Williams, B. (1980) 'Justice as a virtue', in A. Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

   MacIntyre, A. (1981) After Virtue, chs. (10), (11), 12, 14, (15), (16)

   Schneewind, J.B. (1982) 'Virtue, narrative and community: MacIntyre and morality', Journal of Philosophy 79(11)

   Pence, G.D. (1984) 'Recent work on virtues', American Philosophical Quarterly 21(4)

* Foot, P. (1985) 'Utilitarianism and the virtues', Mind 94, reprinted in Scheffler (ed.) Consequentialism and its Critics

   Nussbaum, M. (1988) 'Non-relative virtues: an Aristotelian approach', Midwest Studies in Philosophy 13, reprinted in J.P. Sterba (ed.) Ethics: The Big Questions, 1998

   Casey, J. (1990) Pagan Virtue

   Trianosky, G. (1990) 'What is virtue ethics all about?', American Philosophical Quarterly 27(4)

+ Pence, G.D. (1991) 'Virtue theory', in P. Singer (ed.) A Companion to Ethics

   Pincoffs, E. (1998) 'Quandary ethics' in R. James (ed.) Ethical Theory 2: Theories About How We Should Live

   Hursthouse, R. (1999) On Virtue Ethics

   Foot, P. (2001) Natural Goodness

   Copp, D. and Sobel, D. (2004), 'Morality and virtue: an assessment of some recent work in virtue ethics', Ethics 114

 

@ Virtue ethics: critiques

   Williams, B. (1972) Morality, ch. on 'Moral standards and the distinguishing mark of man'

   Williams, B. (1985) Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, ch. 3

   Loudon, R.B. (1984) 'On some vices of virtue ethics', American Philosophical Quarterly; reprinted in Crisp R. and Slote M. (eds) Virtue Ethics

   Kitcher, P. (1999) 'Essence and perfection', Ethics, 100

   Fowers, B.J. (2003) 'Reason and human finitude: in praise of practical wisdom', American Behavioral Scientist 47(415)

 

@ Virtue ethics and psychological situationism

   (The claim that behaviour is a function of the situation rather than of stable character traits)

   Putman, D. (1997) 'The intellectual bias of virtue ethics', Philosophy, Vol. 72, No.280, pp. 303-311

   Doris, J.M. (1998) 'Persons, situations and virtue ethics', Nous 32(4)

   Harman, G. (1999) 'Moral philosophy meets social psychology: virtue ethics and the fundamental attribution error', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 99

   Harman, G. (2000) 'The nonexistence of character traits', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 100

   Kupperman, J.J. (2001) 'The indispensability of character', Philosophy 76(296)

   Kamtekar, R. (2004) 'Situationism and virtue ethics on the content of our character', Ethics 114

   Sabini, J. and Silver, M. (2005) 'Lack of character? Situationism critiqued', Ethics 115

   Kristjansson, K. (2008) 'An Aristotelian critique of situationism', Philosophy 83

   Prinz, J. (2009) 'The normativity challenge: cultural psychology provides the real threat to virtue ethics', Journal of Ethics 13(2-3)

 

@ HUME AND SENTIMENTALISM

 

@ Hume: general

   Glossop, R.J. (1967) 'The nature of Hume's ethics', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 27

   Broiles, R.D. (1969) The Moral Philosophy of David Hume

   Harrison, J. (1976) Hume's Moral Epistemology, esp. chs. 1,4,5,6

   Mackie, J.L. (1980) Hume's Moral Theory

   Snare, F. (1991) Morals, Motivation and Convention: Hume's Influential Doctrines

   Brandt, M. (1992) Hume's Theory of Moral Judgment

+ Norton, D.F. (1993) 'Hume, human nature and the foundations of morality', in D.F. Norton (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Hume

 

@ Hume's motivation argument (argument from internalism)

   (cf. trilemma argment, of which this is the first formulation)

* Hume Treatise, 2.3.3, 3.1.1, 3.1.2

* Hume 'On the standard of taste', in Essays Moral Political and Literary, also in On the Standard of Taste and Other Essays

* Foot, P. (1963) 'Hume on moral judgment', in D. Pears (ed.) David Hume, reprinted in Virtues and Vices, ch. 5

   Falk, W. (1975) 'Hume on practical reason' Philosophical Studies 27

   Stroud, B. (1977) Hume, ch. 7 pp. 154-170, ch. 8

   McDowell, J. (1981) 'Non-cognitivism and rule following' in Holtzman and Leich (eds) Wittgenstein: To Follow a Rule, sec. 4 of this article

   Mackie, J.L. (1980) Hume's Moral Theory, ch. 3 'Hume's psychology of action', ch. 4 'Morality not based on reason', ch. 5 'Variants of sentimentalism'

 

@ Hume's law ('no ought from is' thesis)

   (NB Hume's law is basically a statement of non-cognitivism)

* Hume Treatise, 3.1.1 [#]

   Hudson, W.D. (ed.) (1969) The Is-Ought Question

   Grice, G.R. (1970) 'Hume's law' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplementary Vol. 44

   Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, ch. 3 sec. 1 'Is and ought'

+ Cohon, R. (2003) 'Hume's moral philosophy', Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, section 5 'Is and ought', at http://www.seop.leeds.ac.uk/entries/hume-moral

 

@ Hume: self-interest, sympathy and moral psychology

   (Hume's social psychology of morals)

* Hume Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, secs. 5, 9, appendix 2

   Hume Treatise, 2.2.1 'Of the love of fame', 3.3.1 'Of the origin of the natural virtues and vices', 3.2.1 'Justice whether natural', 3.2.2 'Origin of property and justice'

   Smith [17?] Theory of the Moral Sentiments, in D.D. Raphael (ed.) British Moralists 1650-1800 vol. 2

   Morrow, G.R. (1923) 'The significance of the doctrine of sympathy in Hume and Adam Smith', Philosophical Review 32(1)

   Wand, B. (1955) 'A note on sympathy in Hume's moral theory', Philosophical Review 64(2)

   Williams, B. (1973) 'Egoism and altruism', Problems of the Self, ch. 15

   Stroud, B. (1977) Hume, ch. 9

   Harrison, J. (1976) Hume's Moral Epistemology, ch. 7, secs. A,B

   Mackie, J.L. (1980) Hume's Moral Theory chs. 1, 7

   Ardal, P.S. (1989) Passion and Value in Hume's Treatise

   Cohen, M.F. (1990) 'Obligation and human nature in Hume's philosophy', Philosophical Quarterly 40(160)

   Vitz, R. (2004) 'Sympathy and benevolence in Hume's moral pscyhology', Journal of the History of Philosophy 42(3)

   Hardin, R. (2007) David Hume: Moral and Political Theorist, ch. 2 'Moral psychology'

 

@ Hume: justice and artificial virtues

(See A social and political philosophy bibliography: 'Hume')

 

@ Hume: universalizability

   Hume Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, sec. 9

   Leibniz New Essays 1.2 §4

   Smith Theory of the Moral Sentiments 3.3.3

   Kant Groundwork, ch. 2

 

@ KANT AND ETHICAL RATIONALISM

(See also A social and political philosophy bibliography: 'Kant')

 

@ Deontological theories

   Ross, W.D. (1930) The Right and the Good, chs. 1-2, reprinted in Sellars and Hospers (eds) Readings in Ethical Theory

   Nagel, T. (1980) 'The limits of objectivity', esp. lecture 2, in S. McMurrin (ed.) Tanner Lectures on Human Values 1

   Nagel, T. (1986) The View from Nowhere, ch. 9 'Ethics'

 

@ Kant's ethics: bibliographies

   Guyer, P. (ed.) (1998) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays

 

@ Kant's ethics: texts

   Kant [1780-81] Lectures on Ethics

   Kant [1785] Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, trans. M. Gregor, 1998 (pb). Alternative translations are under the titles: Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals, trans. L.W. Beck, 1959 (pb in US, Library of Liberal Arts) (This translation is also included in a volume edited by R.P. Wolff entitled  Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals with Critical Essays); The Moral Law, trans. H.J. Paton, 1948, also published as Groundwork of the Metaphysic of Morals (pb). Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Ethics, tr.T.K. Abbott

   Kant [1788] Critique of Practical Reason, esp. pt. 1 bk. 1 'Principles of pure practical reason'

   Kant [1793]  Religion Within the Limits of Reason Alone, books 1 and 2

   Kant [1797] The Metaphysics of Morals, part 2 'The Doctrine of Virtue'

 

@ Kant's ethics: introductions

   Körner, S. (1955) Kant, chs. 6-7

   Kemp, J. (1968) The Philosophy of Kant, ch. 3

   Mackie, J. (1975) Ethics, pp. 27-30, chs. 3,4

   Walker, R.C.S. (1978) Kant, ch. 11 'The moral law'

   Scruton, R. (1982) Kant, ch. 5 'The categorical imperative' (pb)

   van der Linden, H. (1988) Kantian Ethics and Socialism, chs. 1-2

   Nelson, W.M. (1991) Morality: What's In It For Me?, ch. 3

* Schneewind, J.B. (1992) 'Autonomy, obligation and virtue: an overview of Kant's moral philosophy', in P. Guyer (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Kant

   Korsgaard, C. (1998) 'Introduction' to Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, tr. M. Gregor

   Walker, R.C.S. (1998) Kant: Kant and the Moral Law, The Great Philosophers (pb, @2)

   Guyer, P. (1998) 'Introduction' to Guyer, P. (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays

 

@ Kant's ethics: commentaries

+ Acton, H.B. (1970) Kant's Moral Philosophy

   Nell, O. [O'Neill] (1975) Acting on Principle: An Essay on Kantian Ethics

   Darwall, S. (1983) Impartial Reason

   Atwell, J. (1986) Ends and Principles in Kant's Moral Thought

* O'Neill, O. (1989) Constructions of Reason: Explorations of Kant's Moral Philosophy

   Sullivan, R.J. (1989) Immanuel Kant's Moral Theory, part 1

   Allison, H.E. (1990) Kant's Theory of Freedom

   Teale, A.E. (19?) Kantian Ethics

   Guyer, P. (2000) Kant on Freedom, Law and Happiness

   Wood, A. (1999) Kant's Ethical Thought

 

@ Kant's ethics: collections of essays

   Henrich, D. [1955?] The Unity of Reason: Essays on Kant's Philosophy, tr. 1994

   Wolff, R.P. (1967) Kant: A Collection of Critical Essays

   Wolff, R.P. (ed.) (1969) Kant's Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals: Text and Commentary (=  Wolff, R.P. (ed.) (1973) Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals with Critical Essays?) (the essays appear to all be from Wolff 1967)

   Wood, A. (ed.) (1984) Self and Nature in Kant's Philosophy

   Höffe, O. (ed.) (1989) Grundlegung der Metaphysik der Sitten: Ein kooperativer Kommentar

   Yovel, Y. (ed.) (1989) Kant's Practical Philosophy Reconsidered

* O'Neill, O. (1989) Constructions of Reason: Explorations of Kant's Moral Philosophy [3]

   Hill, T.E. Jr. (1992) Dignity and Practical Reason in Kant's Moral Theory (compilation)

   Chadwick, R. (ed.) (1992) Immanuel Kant: Critical Assessments, Vol. 3: Kant's Moral and Political Philosophy

   Herman, B. (1993) The Practice of Moral Judgment

   Korsgaard, C. (1996) Creating the Kingdom of Ends

* Guyer, P. (ed.) (1998) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays

 

@ Groundwork: commentaries

   Paton, H.J. (1947) The Categorical Imperative: A Study in Kant's Moral Philosophy

+ Paton, H.J. (1948) The Moral Law, pp. 13-49, 'Analysis of the argument' (pb)

   Ross, D. (1954) Kant's Ethical Theory: A Commentary on the Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals

   Duncan, A.R.C. (1957) Practical Reason and Morality: A Study of Immanual Kant's 'Foundations for the Metaphysics of Morals

   Williams, T.C. (1968) The Concept of the Categorical Imperative: A Study of the Place of the Categorical Imperative in Kant's Moral Theory

   Hutchings, P.A. (1972) Kant on Absolute Value

* Aune, B. (1979) Kant's Theory of Morals

+ Sullivan, R.J. (1994) An Introduction to Kant's Ethics

   Timmerman, J. (2007) Kant's Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals: A Commentary

 

@ Good and the good will in Kant

   (See also 'Happiness and well-being in Kant')

   Harbison, W.G. (1980) 'The good will', Kant-Studien 71

   Korsgaard, C. (1983) 'Two distinctions in goodness' Philosophical Review 92, secs. 1,2,4, reprinted in her Creating the Kingdom of Ends 1996

   Korsgaard, C. (1986) 'Aristotle and Kant on the source of value', Ethics 96

   Ameriks, K

   Hill, T.E., Jr. (1995) 'Is a good will overrated?' Midwest Studies in Philosophy 20, reprinted in his  Human Welfare and Moral Worth, 2002

 

@ Kant on moral motivation and moral worth, Schiller's criticism, overdetermination

   (See also 'Virtue and emotion in Kant')

   Kant Groundwork, 387-401

   Schiller, F. [1793] 'On grace and dignity'

   Wilm, C. (1906) 'The relation of Schiller's ethics to Kant', Philosophical Review 15(3)

   Dietrichson, P. (1967) 'What does Kant mean by "acting from duty?"', in Wolff, R.P. (ed.) Kant: A Collection of Critical Essays 1967 (For a comment see Wood Kant's Theory of Freedom pp. 189, 274)

+ Acton, H.B. (1970) Kant's Moral Philosophy, ch. 3

   Foot, P. (1972) 'Morality as a system of hypothetical imperatives', Philosophical Review 81, reprinted in her Virtues and Vices, ch. 11

   Stocker, M. (1976) 'The schizophrenia of modern ethical theories', Journal of Philosophy 73

   Williams, B. (1976) 'Moral luck' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplementary Vol. 50, reprinted in Moral Luck, ch. 2

   Nagel, T. (1976) 'Moral luck' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplementary Vol. 50, reprinted in Mortal Questions, ch. 3

+ Aune, B. (1979) Kant's Theory of Morals, ch. 1 secs. 1-2

   Henson, R.G. (1979) 'What Kant might have said: moral worth and the overdetermination of dutiful action', Philosophical Review 88

* Herman, B. (1981) 'On the value of acting from the motive of duty', Philosophical Review 90 , reprinted in her The Practice of Moral Judgment

   Reiner, H. (1983) Duty and Inclination

* Baron, M. (1984) 'The alleged moral repugnance of acting from duty', Journal of Philosophy 81(4)

   Baker, J. (1986) Do one's motives have to be pure?' in R. Grandy and R. Warner (eds) Philosophical Grounds of Rationality

   Benson, P. (1987) 'Moral worth' Philosophical Studies 51

   Sorell, T. (1987) 'Kant's good will and our good nature' Kant-Studien 78, reprinted in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998

   Reath, A. (1989) 'Kant's theory of moral sensibility: respect for the moral law and the influence of inclination', Kant-Studien 80

   O'Neill, O. (1989) 'Kant after Virtue', in her Constructions of Reason: Explorations of Kant's Moral Philosophy

   Allison, H.E. (1990) Kant's Theory of Freedom, ch. 6

   Galvin, R. (1991) 'Does Kant's psychology of morality need basic revision?', Mind 100

+ Schneewind, J.B. (1992) 'Autonomy, obligation and virtue: an overview of Kant's moral philosophy', sec. 7, in The Cambridge Companion to Kant, (ed.) P. Guyer

   Stratton-Lake, P. (2000) Kant, Duty and Moral Worth

   Guevara, D. (2000) Kant's Theory of Moral Motivation

   Stratton-Lake, P. (2006) ' Moral motivation in Kant', in G. Bird (ed.) A Companion to Kant

 

@ The argument from acting from duty to reverence for law

   Potter, N. (1974) 'The argument of Kant's Groundwork, chapter 1', Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supp. Vol. 1, Part 1, reprinted in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998

   Korsgaard, C. (1989) 'Kant's analysis of obligation: the argument of Groundwork I', The Monist 72, reprinted in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998

 

@ Will as practical rationality

   Audi, R. (1989) Practical Reasoning, ch. 3

   Galvin, R. (1991) 'Does Kant's psychology of morality need basic revision?', Mind 100

 

@ Hypothetical and categorical imperatives

   Acton, H.B. (1970) Kant's Moral Philosophy, pp. 27-30

   Mackie, M. (1975) Ethics, pp. 27-30

   Aune, B. (1979) Kant's Theory of Morals ch. 2 sec. 1

   Hill, T.E. Jr. (1973) 'The hypothetical imperative', Philosophical Review 82, reprinted in Hill's Dignity and Practical Reason in Kant's Moral Theory 1992

 

@ Formula of universal law, the 'emptiness', 'formalism' and 'heteronomy' criticisms

   (Formalism – we have no motivation to act on the categorical imperative; emptiness – the categorical imperative lacks content; Heteronomy – it smuggles in egoistic or utilitarian or theocentric motivations and content)

   (For 'Universalisability' in other philosophers see that)

   Groundwork 420-425 (cf. 402-403)

   Hegel [1807] Phenomenology of Spirit, ch. 5C sec. c 'Reason as testing laws' (emptiness criticism)

   Hegel [1821] Philosophy of Right §§135, 135R (emptiness, and emptiness of rationality, criticisms)

   Schopenhauer, A. [1841] On the Basis of Morality, ch. 2

   Mill, J.S. [1863] Utilitarianism, ch. 1 (heteronomy criticism)

   Bradley, F.H. [1876] Ethical Studies, 2nd ed. 1927, essay 4 'Duty for duty's sake'

   Broad, C.D. (1930) Five Types of Ethical Theory, ch. 5

   Singer, M.G. (1963) Generalisation in Ethics, chs. 8-9

   Goldman, A. (1988) Moral Knowledge ch. 3 'Kant: objective rationality and obligation', pp. 112-130

+ Acton, H.B. (1970) Kant's Moral Philosophy, ch. 5

   Nell, O. [O'Neill] (1975) Acting on Principle: An Essay on Kantian Ethics, relevant chs

   Aune, B. (1979) Kant's Theory of Morals, ch. 2

   Herman, B. (1985) 'The practice of moral judgment', The Journal of Philosophy 82, reprinted in her The Practice of Moral Judgment

* Korsgaard, C. (1985) 'Kant's formula of universal law', Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 66 (defence against emptiness criticism; the contradiction excluded by FUL is between willing the purpose of the maxim and willing the universalisation of the maxim) [#]

* O'Neill, O. (1985) 'Consistency in action', in N. Potter and N. Timmons (eds) Universality and Morality: Essays on Ethical Universalizability, reprinted with slight revisions as ch. 5 of O'Neill's Constructions of Reason: Explorations of Kant's Moral Philosophy 1989, and (apparently with the same revisions) in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998

   Rotenstreich, N. (1986) 'On the formalism of Kant's ethics', in Y. Yovel (ed.) Kant's Practical Philosophy Reconsidered

   Wood, A. (1990) Hegel's Ethical Thought, ch. 9 'The emptiness of the moral law'

   Nagel, T. (1991) Equality and Partiality, ch. 5 'Kant's test' (exegesis)

+ Schneewind, J.B. (1992) 'Autonomy, obligation and virtue: an overview of Kant's moral philosophy', sec. 5, in The Cambridge Companion to Kant, (ed.) P. Guyer

+ Patten, A. (1999) Hegel's Theory of Freedom, ch. 3 sec. 2

 

@ Happiness and well-being in Kant

   Wike, V.S. (1994) Kant on Happiness in Ethics

   Engstrom, S. and Whiting, J. (eds) (1998) Aristotle, Kant, and the Stoics: Rethinking Happiness and Duty

   Guyer, P. (2000) Kant on Freedom, Law, and Happiness

   Hill, T.E. Jr. (2002) Human Welfare and Moral Worth: Kantian Perspectives

 

@ Consequences and consequentialism in Kant

   (This is on the role of consequences and consequential thinking in Kant's ethics, vs. the idea that his ethics is purely deontological)

   Hill, T.E. (199?) 'Happiness and human flourishing in Kant's ethics', Social Philosophy and Policy

   Pettit, P. (1989) 'Consequentialism and respect for persons', Ethics 100(1)

   Cumminsky, D. (1990) 'Kantian consequentialism', Ethics 100(3)

   Hare, R. (1997) Sorting Out Ethics

 

@ Maxims, Kant's maxim-based account of action, and criticisms of it

   Nell, O. (1975) Acting on Principle, 34-42

* O'Neill, O. (1985) 'Consistency in action', in N. Potter and N. Timmons (eds) Universality and Morality: Essays on Ethical Universalizability, reprinted with slight revisions as ch. 5 of O'Neill's Constructions of Reason: Explorations of Kant's Moral Philosophy 1989, and (apparently with the same revisions) in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998; the section on 'maxims and moral categories'

   Audi, R. (1989) Practical Reasoning, ch. 3 sec 1

* Allison, H. (1986) 'Morality and freedom: Kant's reciprocity thesis', sec. 2, Philosophical Review 95, reprinted in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998

   Allison, H. (1990) Kant's Theory of Freedom, ch. 5 sec. 1 (pp. 85-94)

 

@ Universalizability (in general and in Hare) and the golden rule

   Hare, R.M. (1955) 'Universalisability' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 55, reprinted in Essays on the Moral Concepts 1972

   Singer, M.G. (1961) Generalization in Ethics

   Hare, R.M. (1963) Freedom and Reason, chs. 2,3, (6,9,11)

   Winch, P. (1965) 'The universalizability of moral judgments' in Ethics and Action

   Locke, D. (1968) 'The trivialisability of universalizability' Philosophical Review 77, reprinted in W. Sellars and J. Hospers (eds) Readings in Ethical Theory

* Hare, R.M. (1971) 'The practical relevance of philosophy' in Essays on Philosophical Method , ch. 6

   Winch, P. (1972) 'Universalizability', in Ethics and Action

   Locke, D. (1972) 'The universalizability of moral judgments' Philosophical Review 81

   Hare, R.M. (1972) 'Rules of war and moral reasoning' Philosophy and Public Affairs 1, reprinted in M. Cohen et al. (eds) War and Moral Responsibility

   Hare, R.M. (1972) 'Wrongness and harm', in Essays on the Moral Concepts

* Hare, R.M. (1976) 'Ethical theory and utilitarianism', in H.D. Lewis (ed.) Contemporary British Philosophy IV, reprinted in A. Sen & B. Williams (eds) Utilitarianism and Beyond

+ Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, ch. 4 'Universalization'; 130-1, 151-4, 242-3

   Hare, R.M. (1981) Moral Thinking, ch. 6 'Universalisation'

   Locke, D. (1981) 'The principle of equal interests', Philosophical Review

   Lovibond, S. (1983) Realism and Imagination in Ethics, §31

   Williams, B. (1985) Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, ch. 5 'Styles of ethical theory'

   Wiggins, D. (1987) 'Universalizability, impartiality, truth', Needs, Values and Truth, ch. 2

   Wiggins, D. (1987) 'Truth as predicated of moral judgments'

   Gibbard, A. (1988) in D. Seanor & N. Fotion (eds) Hare and his Critics

 

@ Formula of humanity (or of ends), and on reason as an unconditional end

   (Inlcuding the question of what exactly it is that for Kant is an end in itself, and that of the relation between the value of ordinary ends and the value of the end in itself)

   (Also Kant's humanism)

   Groundwork 425-430

   Derrida, J. (1971) 'The ends of man', in P. Kurtz (ed.) Language and Human Nature: A French-American Philosophers Dialogue

   Nell, O. [O'Neill] (1975) Acting on Principle: An Essay on Kantian Ethics, relevant ch

   McCloskey, M.A. (1976) 'Kant's kingdom of ends', Philosophy 51(198), 391-389

   Aune, B. (1979) Kant's Theory of Morals, ch. 3, secs. 1-2

   Riley, P. (1979) 'Kant on persons as "ends in themselves"', Modern Schoolman 57, 45-55

* Hill, T.E. Jr. (1980) 'Humanity as an end in itself' Ethics 91, 84-99, reprinted in Hill's Dignity and Practical Reason in Kant's Moral Theory 1992

* Korsgaard, C. (1986) 'Kant's formula of humanity', Kant-Studien 7, reprinted in her Creating the Kingdom of Ends 1996

* O'Neill, O. (1989) 'Universal laws and ends-in-themselves', The Monist 72, also as ch. 7 of O'Neill's Constructions of Reason: Explorations of Kant's Moral Philosophy, 1989

   Herman, B. (1993) 'Leaving deontology behind', in her The Practice of Moral Judgment

   Wood, A. (1995) 'Humanity as an end in itself' Proceedings of the Eighth International Kant Congress, vol. 1 part 1, reprinted in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998

   Guyer, P. (1996) 'The value of agency', Ethics 106, 404-423

   Dean, R. (1996) 'What should we treat as an end in itself?', Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 77, 268-285

   Guyer, P. (1998) 'The value of reason and the value of freedom', Ethics 109, 22-35

   Wood, A. (1999) Kant's Ethical Thought, ch. 4

   Regan, D.H. (2002) 'The value of rational nature', Ethics 112, 267-291

   Sussman, D

   Hills, A. (2005) 'Rational nature as the source of value', Kantian Review 10, 60-81

   Timmermann, J. (2006) 'Value without regress: 'Kant's "formula of humanity" revisited', European Journal of Philosophy 14(1), 69-93

   Dean, R. (2006) The Value of Humanity in Kant's Moral Theory, chs. 1-2

   Martin, A. (2006) 'How to argue for the value of humanity', Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 87(1)

   Denis, L. (2007) 'Kant's formula of the end in itself: some recent debates', Philosophy Compass 2(2), 244-257

   Nelson, W. (2008) 'Kant's formula of humanity', Mind 117(465)

 

@ Conferral account of value

* Korsgaard, C. (1986) 'Kant's formula of humanity', Kant-Studien 7, reprinted in her Creating the Kingdom of Ends 1996

   Korsgaard, C. (1986) 'Aristotle and Kant on the source of value', Ethics 96

   Pippin, R. B. (2001) 'Rigorism and the 'New Kant', in V. Gerhardt et al. (eds) Kant und die Berliner Aufklaerung. Akten des IX. Internationalen Kant-Kongresses, Vol. 1

   Regan, D.H. (2002) 'The value of rational nature', Ethics 112(2)

   Timmermann, J. (2006) 'Value without regress: 'Kant's "formula of humanity" revisited', European Journal of Philosophy 14(1), 69-93

 

@ Respect in Kantian ethics

   Darwall, S. (1977) 'Two kinds of respect', Ethics 88(1),  36-49

   Teuber, A. (1983) 'Kant's respect for persons', Political Theory 11(3)

   Watson, S. (1986) 'Reason and the face of the other', Journal of the American Academy of Religion 54(1)

   Hill, T.E. Jr. (19?) 'Servility and self-respect', reprinted in his Autonomy and Self Respect 1991

   Hill, T.E. Jr. (1992) Dignity and Practical Reason in Kant's Moral Theory

   Sokoloff, W.W. (2001) 'Kant and the paradox of respect', American Journal of Political Science 45(4)

 

@ Kingdom of ends

   Hill, T.E. (1972) 'The kingdom of ends' in L.W. Beck (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd International Kant Congress, 307-315

   McCloskey, M.A. (1976) 'Kant's kingdom of ends', Philosophy 51(198), 391-389

   Hill, T.E. (1989) 'Kantian constructivism in ethics', Ethics 99, 752-770; reprinted in his Dignity and Practical Reason 1992

   Holtman, S. (2009) 'Autonomy and the kingdom of ends'. In E.H. Thomas (ed.) Ethics

 

@ Community and ethical community in Kant

   Fischer, N. (1978) The concept of community in Kant's architectonic', Man and World 11, 372-391

   Rossi, P. (1984) 'Autonomy and community: the social character of Kant's moral faith', Modern Schoolman 61(3), 169-186

   Thompson, A. (1986) 'Kant and community', Philosophy of Education 42, 299-303

   Samples, J. (1987) 'Kant, Toennies and the liberal idea of community in early German sociology', History of Political Thought 8, 245-262

   Moore, J. (1992) 'Kant's ethical community', Journal of Value Inquiry 26(1), 51-71

   Shell, S. (1993) 'Commerce and community in Kant's early thought' in R. Beiner and W.J. Booth (eds) Kant and Political Philosophy

   Axinn, S. (1994) The Logic of Hope: Extensions of Kant's View of Religion

   Shell, S.M. (1996) The Embodiment of Reason: Kant on Spirit, Generation, and Community

   Pogge, T. (1998) 'Public argument and social responsibility: the moral dimensions of citizenship in Kant's ethical commonwealth' in J. Kneller and S. Axinn (eds) Autonomy and Community: Readings in Contemporary Kantian Social Philosophy

   Morrison, M. (1998) 'Community and coexistence: Kant's third analogy of experience', Kant-Studien 89, 257-77

   Gehrke, P.J. (2002) 'Turning Kant against the priority of autonomy: communication ethics and the duty to community', Philosophy and Rhetoric 35(1), 1-21

  Stroud, S.R. (2005) 'Rhetoric and moral progress in Kant's ethical community', Philosophy and Rhetoric 38(4), 328-354

  Stroud, S.R. (2006) 'Kant on community: a reply to Gehrke', Philosophy and Rhetoric 39(2), 157-165

 

@ Examples of the categorical imperative in Kant

   Harrison, J. (1957) 'Kant's examples of the first formulation of the categorical imperative', Philosophical Quarterly 7, reprinted in R.P. Wolff (ed.) Kant: A Collection of Critical Essays 1967, and in R.P. Wolff (ed.) Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals with Critical Essays 1973

   Kemp, J. (1967) 'Kant's examples of the categorical imperative', in R.P. Wolff (ed.) Kant: A Collection of Critical Essays 1967, reprinted in R.P. Wolff (ed.) Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals with Critical Essays 1973

   Herman, B. (1984) 'Mutual aid and respect for persons', Ethics 94, reprinted in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998

* O'Neill, O. (1985) 'Consistency in action', in N. Potter and N. Timmons (eds) Universality and Morality: Essays on Ethical Universalizability, reprinted as ch. 5 of O'Neill's Constructions of Reason: Explorations of Kant's Moral Philosophy, and in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998

 

@ Formula of autonomy, and the relation between the formulas

+ Acton, H.B. (1970) Kant's Moral Philosophy, ch. 7

* Aune, B. (1979) Kant's Theory of Morals, ch. 3, secs. 3-4; ch. 4 secs. 1-3

   O'Neill, O. (1989) 'Universal laws and ends-in-themselves', Monist 72, 341-361

   Pogge, T.W. (1989) 'The categorical imperative', O. Höffe (ed.) Grundlegung der Metaphysik der Sitten: Ein kooperativer Kommentar, reprinted in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998

+ Schneewind, J.B. (1992) 'Autonomy, obligation and virtue: an overview of Kant's moral philosophy', sec. 6, in The Cambridge Companion to Kant, (ed.) P. Guyer

   Guyer, P. (1995) 'The possibility of the categorical imperative' Philosophical Review 104, reprinted in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998

 

@ Conflicting duties in Kant

   Goldman, A. (1988) Moral Knowledge ch. 3 'Kant: objective rationality and obligation', pp. 121ff

   Herman, B. (1985) 'The practice of moral judgment', The Journal of Philosophy 82, pp. 420-422, reprinted in her The Practice of Moral Judgment, c. pp. 78-80

   Herman, B. (1990) 'Obligation and performance: a Kantian account of moral conflict', in O. Flanaan and A.O. Rorty eds Identity, Character, and Morality

 

@ Autonomy and freedom in Kant

   (This is on the general idea of self-determination and self-orientation in Kant)

   (For the connection of freedom with morality see 'Derivation of morality in Groundwork 3, the reciprocity thesis')

   (For autonomy in general see 'Autonomy, authenticity and integrity')

   Kant [1784] 'An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?', in H. Reiss (ed.) Kant: Political Writings, 1970

   Taylor, C. (1984) 'Kant's theory of freedom' in Z.A. Pelczynski and J. Gray (eds) Conceptions of Liberty in Political Philosophy, reprinted in Taylor's Philosophy and the Human Sciences: Philosophical Papers Volume 2, 1985

   Strawson, G. (1986) Freedom and Belief, ch. 3 'Kant and commitment'

   Wood, A. (1990) Hegel's Ethical Thought, ch. 2

   Allison, H. (1996) 'Autonomy and spontaneity in Kant's conception of the self', in his Idealism and Freedom

   Allison, H. (1997) 'We can only act under the idea of freedom', Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 71:2

 

@ Derivation of morality in Groundwork 3, the reciprocity thesis

   (There are two stages of the argument: 1. derivation of freedom from reason, 2. derivation of CI from freedom. Here material on either stage or both is included)

   (See also more specifically 'Derivation of the formula of universal law from rationality as such')

   (The 'reciprocity thesis' (Allison) is that morality and freedom are reciprocal concepts)

   (For quasi-Kantian derivations of morality from rational agency or freedom see 'ethical rationalism 1 and 2')

   Kant Groundwork, 446-453

   Kant Critique of Practical Reason, tr. Beck,  pp. 28-30, 17-42, 42-50, 92-110

   Paton, H.J. (1947) The Categorical Imperative: A Study in Kant's Moral Philosophy, ch. 24

   Liddel, B. (ed.) (1970) Kant on the Foundation of Morality

+ Acton, H.B. (1970) Kant's Moral Philosophy, ch. 8

   Rawls, J. (1971) A Theory of Justice, sec. 40

* Henrich, D. [1975] 'The deduction of the moral law: the reasons for the obscurity of the final section of Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998

   Aune, B. (1979) Kant's Theory of Morals, ch. 3 sec. 4

   Bittner, R, [198?] What Reason Demands, tr. 1989

* Hill, T.E. Jr. (1985) 'Kant's argument for the rationality of moral conduct', Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 66, reprinted in Hill's Dignity and Practical Reason in Kant's Moral Theory 1992, and in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998

   Williams, B. (1985) Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, ch. 2 'Foundations: practical reason', esp. pp. 64-69

* Allison, H. (1986) 'Morality and freedom: Kant's reciprocity thesis' Philosophical Review 95, reprinted in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998

   O'Neill, O. (1989) Constructions of Reason, chs. 3,4

   Sullivan, R.J. (1989) Immanuel Kant's Moral Theory, ch. 7, pp. 153-157

   Korsgaard, C. (1989) 'Morality as freedom', in Y. Yovel (ed.) Kant's Practical Philosophy Reconsidered

* Allison, H.E. (1990) Kant's Theory of Freedom, chs. 11-12

   Wiggins, D. (1991) 'Categorical requirements: Kant and Hume on the idea of duty' The Monist

+ Schneewind, J.B. (1992) 'Autonomy, obligation and virtue: an overview of Kant's moral philosophy', sec. 8, in The Cambridge Companion to Kant, (ed.) P. Guyer

   Wallace, R.B. (1995) 'Mutual recognition and ethics: A Hegelian reformulation of the Kantian argument for the rationality of morality', section 1 'The Kantian argument and a problem with it', American Philosophical Quarterly 32(3)

 

@ Derivation of the formula of universal law from rationality as such, ambiguity of universalisability objection

   (On the specific problem of getting from the universalability inherent in reason to an ethical universalisability, including the counter-claim that one can rationally will egoism as a universal law)

   Kant Groundwork, 402-3, 420-1

   Aune, B. (1979) Kant's Theory of Morals, ch. 1 sec. 5

   Goldman, A. (1988) Moral Knowledge ch. 3 'Kant: objective rationality and obligation'

* Allison, H.E. (1990) Kant's Theory of Freedom, ch. 11 sec. 4

* Wood, A. (1990) Hegel's Ethical Thought, ch. 9 secs. 6-8

   Allison, H.E. (1991) 'On a presumed gap in the derivation of the categorical imperative', Philosophical Topics 19(1)

+ Patten, A. (1999) Hegel's Theory of Freedom, ch. 3 sec. 3 'Kant and the reciprocity thesis'

 

@ Practical and transcendental freedom

   Allison, H. (1983) Kant's Transcendental Idealism, ch. 15

* Allison, H. (1986) 'Morality and freedom: Kant's reciprocity thesis' Philosophical Review 95, sec. 4, reprinted in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998

 

@ Schopenhauer's critique of Kant

* Schopenhauer, A. [1841] On the Basis of Morality, ch. 2, §§4-6

   Mestrovic, S.G. (1989) 'Moral theory based on the "heart " versus the "mind " : Schopenhauer's and Durkheim's critiques of Kantian ethics', Sociological Review 37(3)

   Cartwright, D.E. (1995) 'Introduction' to Schopenhauer, On the Basis of Morality, ed. Cartwright (see parts 1 and 2)

   Young, J. (1984) 'Schopenhauer's critique of Kantian ethics', Kant-Studien 75

 

@ Ethical rationalism 1: quasi-Kantian derivations of morality from idea of rational action

   ('Impersonality of reasons' arguments: a reason for me is also a reason for another in same circumstances, so I must think my reasoned actions rational for everyone in same circumstances and must therefore will that everyone do the same as me. These derive from a superficial reading of 402-3 and 420-1. They ground morality in rationality as such, specifically in external reasons, specifically in agent-neutral reasons.They do not use freedom. See also 'Ethical rationalism 2')

   Sartre, J.-P. (1946) Existentialism and Humanism

   Paton, H.J. (1947) The Categorical Imperative: A Study in Kant's Moral Philosophy, pp. 245-6

   Baier, K. [1958] The Moral Point of View, 3rd. ed. 1965, ch. 8 'The moral point of view' [#]

+ Williams, B. (1972) Morality, ch. 1

   Williams, B. (1973) 'Egoism and altruism' Problems of the Self, ch. 15 (see pp. 256-258)

   Sturgeon, N. (1974) 'Altruism, solipsism and the objectivity of reasons' Philosophical Review 83

   Harman, G. (1977) The Nature of Morality, ch. 6

   Donagan, A. (1977) The Theory of Morality, ch. 7

   Singer, P. (1979) Practical Ethics, ch. 10 (see pp. 204-208)

   Darwall, S. (1983) Impartial Reason

   Darwall, S. (1985) 'Kantian practical reason defended', Ethics 96(1)

* Allison, H. (1986) 'Morality and freedom: Kant's reciprocity thesis', sec. 3, Philosophical Review 95, reprinted in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998 or Kant's Theory of Freedom, ch. 11 sec. 2

   Goldman, A. (1988) Moral Knowledge ch. 3 'Kant: objective rationality and obligation' (see pp. 97-112 on rationality and impartiality)

 

@ Ethical rationalism 2: quasi-Kantian derivations of morality from idea of freedom

   ('Autonomy' arguments. These derive from Groundwork 402-3, 420-1, 446-448. They use freedom, whether or not this is first derived, as it is in Kant, from rational agency. See also 'Ethical rationalism 1')

   (For Gewirth see 'Gewirth')

   Nagel, T. (1970) The Possibility of Altruism, chs. 1-5, 11-12

* Williams, B. (1985) Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, ch. 4 'Foundations: practical reason' (pace Gewirth rational agency cannot get you from wanting your freedom to thinking as a legislator-citizen deciding on laws that protect everyone's; pace Kant the reflectiveness built into rational agency cannot get you to such an impartial standpoint either – thinking it can comes from conflating theoretical and practical deliberation)

   Nagel, T. (1986) The View from Nowhere, chs. 7-10

* Allison, H.E. (1990) Kant's Theory of Freedom, ch. 11

 

@ Kant's 'reversal' in CPrR, and the fact of reason

   Beck, L.W. (1960) A Commentary on Kant's 'Critique of Practical Reason'', pp. 166-175

   Beck, L.W. (1965) 'The fact of reason : an essay on justification in ethics', in Studies in the Philosophy of Kant

   Williams, T.C. (1968) The Concept of the Categorical Imperative, pp. 103-111

   Henrich, D. [1975] 'The deduction of the moral law: the reasons for the obscurity of the final section of Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998

   Ameriks, K. (1981) 'Kant's deduction of freedom and morality', Journal of the History of Philosophy 19 reprinted in his Interpreting Kant's Critiques, 2003

   Ameriks, K. (1982) Kant's Theory of Mind  ch. 6

   Rawls, J. (1989) 'Themes in Kant's moral philosophy', in E. Förster (ed.) Kant's Transcendental Deductions

   Allison, H.E. (1989) 'Justification and freedom in the Critique of Practical Reason, in E. Förster (ed.) Kant's Transcendental Deductions

   Herman, B. (1989) 'Justification and objectivity: comments on Rawls and Allison', in E. Förster (ed.) Kant's Transcendental Deductions

* Allison, H.E. (1990) Kant's Theory of Freedom, ch. 13

 

@ Virtue in Kant, emotion in Kant, Aristotle and Kant

   O'Neill, O. (1983) 'Kant after virtue', Inquiry 26

   Loudon, R. (1986) 'Kant's virtue ethics', Philosophy 61

   Korsgaard, C. (1986) 'Aristotle and Kant on the source of value', Ethics 96

   O'Neill, O. (1993) 'Duties and virtues', Philosophy 35 (supp. vol.)

   O'Neill, O. (1996) 'Kant's virtues', in R. Crisp (ed.) How Should One Live?

   Sherman, N. (1997) Making a Necessity of Virtue

   Baron, M. (1997) 'Kantian ethics' in Pettit, Baron and Slote (eds) Three Methods of Ethics: A Debate

   Sherman, N. (1990) 'The place of the emotions in Kantian morality' in O. Flanagan and A.O.Rorty (eds) Identity, Character and Morality

 

@ Responsibility in Kant (the Sidgwick problem, Wille and Willkür

* Sidgwick, H. [1888] The Methods of Ethics, 7th ed., appendix: 'The Kantian conception of free will'

* Silber, J. (1960) 'The ethical significance of Kant's Religion', introduction to Kant Reason within the Bounds of Reason Alone, tr. T.M. Greene and H.H. Hudson

   Beck, L.W. (1965) Studies in the Philosophy of Kant

   Hochberg, G. (1982) Moral Legislation and the Two Senses of Will in Kant's Moral Philosophy

   Allison, H. (1986) 'Morality and freedom: Kant's reciprocity thesis' Philosophical Review 95, esp. sec. 6, reprinted in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998

   Allison, H.E. (1990) Kant's Theory of Freedom, ch. 7 sec. 1

 

@ Kant and the natural law tradition

   Schneewind, J.B. (1993) 'Kant and natural law ethics', Ethics 104(1)

   Nussbaum, M. (1997) 'Kant and Stoic cosmopolitanism', Journal of Political Philosophy 5(1)

 

@ Kant and the Judaeo-Christian religious tradition

   (Kant as a 'secularised' or 'disguised' version of this tradition; also on Kant's relation to Lutheranism and Pietism)

   Schopenhauer, A. [1841] On the Basis of Morality, ch. 2

   Marcuse, H. (1972) 'A study of authority', in Studies in Critical Philosophy (also published as From Luther to Popper)

 

@ God in Kant

   (Two ideas of God in Kant: (1) as postulate of practical reason, to unite happiness and virtue, (2) as somehow immanent in practical reason or the categorical imperative itself so that morally worthy acts are the acts of God)

   Critique of Practical Reason

   Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone

   Opus Posthumum, 1st and 7th fascicles

 

@ Gewirth: texts

   Gewirth, A. (1964) 'The generalization principle', Philosophical Review 73, 229-242

   Gewirth, A. (1967) 'Categorial consistency in ethics', Philosophical Quarterly 17, 288-299

   Gewirth, A. (1969) 'The non-trivializability of universalizability', Australasian Journal of Philosophy 47(2), 123-131

   Gewirth, A. (1970a) 'Must one play the moral language game?', American Philosophical Quarterly 7, 107-118, reprinted as essay 2 of his Human Rights, 1982

   Gewirth, A. (1970b) 'Obligation: political, legal, moral', in J.R. Pennock and J.W. Chapman eds. Nomos XII: Political and Legal Obligation, 55-88, reprinted as essay 8 of his Human Rights

   Gewirth, A. (1971a) 'The justification of egalitarian justice', American Philosophical Quarterly 8, 331-341

   Gewirth, A. (1971b) 'The normative structure of action', Review of Metaphysics 25, 238-261

   Gewirth, A. (1974) 'The 'is-ought' problem resolved', Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 47, 34-61, reprinted as essay 3 of his Human Rights, 1982

   Gewirth, A. (1976) 'Moral rationality' in R.B Brandt et al. (J. Bricke ed.) Freedom and Morality

* Gewirth, A. (1978) Reason and Morality, Chicago and London, chs. 1-3

   Gewirth, A. (1979) 'Starvation and human rights', in K.M. Sayre and K.E.Goodpaster eds. Ethics and Problems of the 21st Century, reprinted as essay 8 of his Human Rights, 1982

   Gewirth, A. (1980) 'Comments on Bond's article', Metaphilosophy 11(1), 54-69

   Gewirth, A. (1980) 'Reason and morality: rejoinder to E.J. Bond', Metaphilosophy 11(2), 138-142

   Gewirth, A. (1981) 'The Basis and Content of Human Rights', in J.R. Pennock and J.W. Chapman eds. Nomos XXIII: Human Rights (see esp. secs. 2-3), reprinted as essay 1 of his Human Rights, 1982,

   Gewirth, A. (1981) 'Are there any absolute rights?', Philosophical Quarterly 31, reprinted in Waldron ed. Theories of Rights

   Gewirth, A. (1982) 'Introduction' to Human Rights: Essays on Justification and Application

   Gewirth, A. (1982) Human Rights: Essays on Justification and Application

   Gewirth, A. (1982) 'On rational agency as the basis of moral equality: reply to Ben-Zeev', Canadian Journal of Philosophy 12

   Gewirth, A. (1982) 'Why agents must claim rights: a reply', Journal of Philosophy 79(7)

* Gewirth, A. (1983) 'The epistemology of human rights', Social Philosophy and Policy 1(2), 1-24, reprinted in E.F. Paul J. Paul and F.D. Miller eds. Human Rights 1984

   Gewirth, A. (1984) 'Replies to my critics' in E. Regis Jr. ed. Gewirth's Ethical Rationalism

   Gewirth, A. (1985) 'From the prudential to the moral - reply to Singer', Ethics 95(2)

   Gewirth, A. (1985) 'Rights and virtues', Review of Metaphysics 38, 739-762

* Gewirth, A. (1988) 'The justification of morality', Philosophical Studies 53

   Gewirth, A. (1988) 'Ethical universalism and particularism', Journal of Philosophy 85(6)

   Gewirth, A. (1991) 'Forward' to D. Beyleveld, The Dialectical Necessity of Morality

   Gewirth, A. (1992) 'Ethics and the pain of contradiction', Philosophical Forum 23(4), 259-277

   Gewirth, A. (1993) 'The egoist's objection', Journal of Value Inquiry 27(1), 101-103

   Gewirth, A. (1996) The Community of Rights, 16-19

   Gewirth, A. (1998) Self-Fulfillment

   Gewirth, A. (2001) 'The rational justification of morality revisited', in J.P. Sterba ed. Social and Political Philosophy: Contemporary Perspectives

 

@ Gewirth: commentary

   Grunebaum, J.O. (1976) 'Gewirth and a reluctant protagonist', Ethics 86(4)

   Bond, E.J. (1980) 'Gewirth on reason and morality', Metaphilosophy 11(1)

   Brandt, R.B. (1981) 'The future of ethics' Nous 15 (see pp. 39-40)

   Lomasky, L.E. (1981) 'Gewirth's generation of rights', Philosophical Quarterly 31(124)

   Hare, R.M. (1984) 'Do agents have to be moralists?' in E. Regis Jr. ed. Gewirth's Ethical Rationalism

   Hudson, W.H. (1984) 'The is-ought problem resolved?', in E. Regis Jr. ed. Gewirth's Ethical Rationalism

   Nielsen, K. (1984) 'Against ethical rationalism', in E. Regis Jr. ed. Gewirth's Ethical Rationalism

   Williams, B. (1985) Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, ch. 4 'Foundations: practical reason'

   McMahon, C. (1986) 'Gewirth's justification of morality', Philosophical Studies 50(2)

   Scheuermann, J. (1987) 'Gewirth's concept of prudential rights', Philosophical Quarterly 37(148)

   Beyleveld, D. (1991) The Dialectical Necessity of Morality: An Analysis and Defence of Alan Gewirth's Argument to the Principle of Generic Consistency, ch. 2 'The argument presented'

   Chitty, A. (2008) 'Protagonist and subject in Gewirth's argument for human rights', Kings Law Journal 19(1)

   Beyleveld, D. and Bos, G. (2009) 'The foundational role of the principle of instrumental reason in Gewirth's argument for the principle of generic consistency: a response to Andrew Chitty', Kings Law Journal 20(1)

 

@ Korsgaard

   Korsgaard, C. (1983) 'Two distinctions in goodness' Philosophical Review 92, reprinted in her Creating the Kingdom of Ends 1996

   Korsgaard, C. (1985) 'Kant's formula of universal law', Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 66

   Korsgaard, C. (1986) 'Kant's formula of humanity', Kant-Studien 7, reprinted in her Creating the Kingdom of Ends 1996

   Korsgaard, C. (1986) 'Scepticism about practical reason' Journal of Philosophy 83

   Korsgaard, C. (1986) 'Aristotle and Kant on the source of value', Ethics 96

   Korsgaard, C. (1989) 'Kant's analysis of obligation: the argument of Groundwork I', The Monist 72, reprinted in P. Guyer (ed.) Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals: Critical Essays 1998

   Korsgaard, C. (1989) 'Morality as freedom', in Y. Yovel (ed.) Kant's Practical Philosophy Reconsidered

* Korsgaard, C. (1996) The Sources of Normativity

* Korsgaard, C. (1996) Creating the Kingdom of Ends

   Korsgaard, C. (1996) The Myth of Egoism (Lindley Lectures)

   Korsgaard, C.M.(1997) 'The normativity of instrumental reason', G. Cullity and B. Gaut (eds) Ethics and Practical Reason

   Watkins, E. and FitzPatrick, W.J. (2002) 'O'Neill and Korsgaard on the construction of normativity', Journal of Value Inquiry 36

   FitzPatrick, W.J. (2005) 'The practical turn in ethical theory: Korsgaard's constructivism, realism, and the nature of normativity', Ethics 115(4)

   Korsgaard, C.M. (2008) The Constitution of Agency: Essays on Practical Reason and Moral Psychology

   Korsgaard, C.M. (2009) Self-constitution: Agency, Identity, and Integrity

 

@ Habermas

   (See A social and political philosophy bibliography: ' Habermas's discourse ethics')

 

@ Constructivism

   (See A social and political philosophy bibliography: 'Constructivism'

 

@ PRACTICAL REASON

 

@ Reasons for action, practical reason: general

   Ryle, G. (19?) The Concept of Mind, ch. 3

   Anscombe, E. (1957) Intention, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 57-79, mostly reprinted in Raz 1978

   Danto, A.C. (1965) 'Basic actions', American Philosophical Quarterly 2, reprinted in White (ed.)

   Edgley, R. [1965] 'Practical reason', in Raz 1978

   White, A.R. (ed.) (1968) The Philosophy of Action

   Edgley, R. (1969) Reason in Theory and Practice

   Binkley, R. et al. (eds) (1971) Agent, Action and Reason

   Honderich, T. (ed.) (1973) Essays on Freedom of Action

   Harman, G. (1976) 'Practical reasoning', Review of Metaphysics 29

   Wiggins, D. (1976) 'Deliberation and practical reason', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 1975-76, partly reprinted in Raz 1978

+ Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, ch. 5

   Kolnai, A. (1977) 'Deliberations is of ends', in Ethics, Value and Reality

   Raz, J. (ed.) (1978) Practical Reasoning

+ Raz, J. (1978) 'Introduction' to Raz (ed.) Practical Reasoning

   von Wright, G.H. [197?] 'On so-called practical inference', in Raz 1978

   Harrison, R. (ed.) (1980) Rational Action

   Parfit, D. (1984) Reasons and Persons

   Audi, R. (1986) 'Acting for Reasons', Philosophical Review; repr. in A. Mele (ed.) The Philosophy of Action

   Audi, R. (1989) Practical Reasoning, esp. ch. 4

Wallace, R.J. (1990) 'How to argue about practical reason', Mind 99:395

   Moser, P. (ed.) (1993) Rationality in Action

   Mele, A. (ed.) (1997) The Philosophy of Action

   Gaut, B. (1997) 'The Structure of Practical Reason' in G. Cullity and B. Gaut (eds) Ethics and Practical Reason

   Korsgaard, C. (1997) 'The Normativity of Instrumental Reason' in Cullity and Gaut (eds)  Ethics and Practical Reason

   Cullity, G. (1997) 'Practical Theory' in Cullity and Gaut (eds) Ethics and Practical Reason

 

@ Internal and external reasons (instrumentalism about reasons)

* Nagel, T. (1970) The Possibility of Altruism, chs. 7,10

   Grice, G.R. (1967) The Grounds of Moral Judgment pp. 10-21, reprinted as 'Motive and reason', in Raz (ed.)

   Foot, P. (1972) 'Reasons for action and desires' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supp. Vol. 46, reprinted in Virtues and Vices, ch. 10, also in Raz (ed.)

   Woods, M. (1972) 'Reasons for action and desires', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supp. Vol. 46

* Williams, B. (1980) 'Internal and external reasons', in T.R. Harrison (ed.) Rational Action, reprinted in Moral Luck, ch. 8, also in Moser (ed.) Rationality in Action

   Bond, E.J. (1983) Reason and Value, introduction, chs. 1-3

   Darwall, S. (1983) Impartial Reason, part 1

   Parfit, D. (1984) Reasons and Persons, ch. 1 secs. 1-9 and 20, ch. 4 secs. 32-35, ch. 6 'The best objection to the self-interest theory', ch. 9 'Why we should reject S'

* Korsgaard, C. (1986) 'Scepticism about practical reason' Journal of Philosophy 83

   Cohon, R. (1986) 'Are external reasons impossible?' Ethics 96

   Nagel, T. (1986) The View From Nowhere, ch. 8

   Smith, M. (1987) 'The Humean theory of motivation', Mind 96

   Hooker, B. (1987) 'Williams' argument against external reasons', Analysis 47(1)

   Benn, S.I. (1988) A Theory of Freedom, ch. 2

   Smith, M. (1988) 'Reason and desire' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 88, 1987-88

+ Audi, R. (1989) Practical Reasoning, ch. 3 'Kant and the autonomy of practical reasoning'

   Williams, B. (1989) 'Internal reasons and the obscurity of blame', Logos: Philosophical Issues in Christian Perspective, vol. 10, reprinted in Williams's Making Sense of Humanity

   Audi, R. (1992) 'Autonomy, reason and desire', Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 72

   Cohon, R. (1993) 'Internalism about reasons for action', Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 74

   McDowell, J. (1995) 'Might there be external reasons?' in J. Altham and R. Harrison (eds) World, Mind and Ethics: Essays on the Moral Philosophy of Bernard Williams

   Foot, P. (1995) 'Does moral subjectivism rest on a mistake?', Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 15(1)

   Williams, B. (1995) 'Reply' in J. Altham and R. Harrison (eds) World, Mind and Ethics: Essays on the Moral Philosophy of Bernard Williams

   Audi, R. (1996) 'Moral judgment and reasons for action' in his Moral Knowledge and Ethical Character

+ Cullity, G. and Gaut, B. (eds.) (1997) 'Introduction' to Ethics and Practical Reason

   Shelton, M. (2004) 'What is wrong with external reasons?', Philosophical Studies 117(3)

   Cowley, C. (2005) 'A new defence of Williams's reasons-internalism', Philosophical Investigations 28(4)

   Wong, D. (2006) 'Moral reasons: internal and external', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 72(3)

   Anomaly, J. (2007) 'An argument against internal reasons', Sorites 18

   Brunero, J. (2008) 'McDowell on external reasons', European Journal of Philosophy 16(1)

   Finlay, S. and Schroeder, M. (2008) 'Reasons for action: internal vs. external', Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/reasons-internal-external

   Lubin, D. (2009) 'External reasons', Metaphilosophy 42(2)

   Shafer-Landau, R. (2009) 'A defence of categorical reasons', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 109(2)

 

@ Instrumental principle

   (Including the argument that instrumentalism about practical reason itself ential a categorical principle of some kind)

   Stampe, D. (1986) 'The authority of desire', Philosophical Review 95

   Kenny, A.J.P. (1975) Will, Freedom and Power, pp. 70-95, reprinted in Raz 1978

   Korsgaard, C. (1996) 'The normativity of instrumental reason'

   Railton, P. (1996) 'On the hypothetical and non-hypothetical in reasoning about action'

   Velleman, D. (1996) 'On deciding how to decide'

   Lillehammer, H. (2007) Companions in Guilt: Arguments for Ethical Objectivity, ch. 3 'The normativity of practical reason' available online

 

@ Weakness of will, akrasia, incontinence, backsliding

   Plato Protagoras l. 349

* Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics, 7.1-10, esp. 7.3

* Gardiner, P. (1954-55) Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society

* Hare, R.M. (1963) Freedom and Reason, ch. 5

* Montefiore, A. (1964) Revue Internationale de Philosophie 70

   Lukes, S. (1965) Philosophical Quarterly

   Davidson, D. (1970) 'How is weakness of the will possible?', in J. Feinberg (ed.) Moral Concepts, reprinted in Essays on Actions and Events 1980

   Lukes, S. (1971) 'Moral weakness', in Mortimore (ed.) Weakness of Will

   Wiggins, D. (1978-9) 'Weakness of will, commensurability, and the objects of deliberation and desire', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 79, reprinted in A.O. A. Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics   Essays on Aristotle's Ethics, also (revised) in Needs, Values and Truth, ch. 7

* McDowell, J. (1979) 'Virtue and Reason', The Monist 62 (in Trilemma argument; Wiggins)

   Bratman, ? (1979) 'Practical reasoning and weakness of will'

   Pears, D. (1984) Motivated Irrationality chs. 5,8

   Dahl, N. (19?) Practical Reason, Aristotle, and Weakness of the Will

 

@ Moral modality, moral oughts, moral necessity

   Prichard, H.A. (1912) 'Does moral philosophy rest on a mistake?', Mind 21, reprinted in his Moral Obligation 1949, ch. 1

   Winch, P. (1980-81) 'Eine Einstellung zur Seele', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, reprinted in Trying to Make Sense 1987

   Williams, B. (1982) 'Practical necessity', in B. Hebblethwaite and S. Sutherland (eds) The Philosophical Frontiers of Christian Theology, reprinted in Moral Luck, ch. 10

   Williams, B. (1985) Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, ch. 10

   Winch, P. (1987?) 'Who is my neighbour?', in Trying to Make Sense 1987

   Hertzberg, L. (1989) 'Moral necessity', in R. Gaita (ed.) Value and Understanding

 

@ METAETHICS: GENERAL

 

@ Moral realism  vs.  irrealism, cognitivism vs. non-cognitivism

   (See also sections below on specific versions of realism, ierealism etc.)

   (For the belief-desire + moral internalism -> non-cognitivism argument see 'Trilemma argument')

   (For discussions of internalism itself see 'Internalism')

   Plato, Protagoras 320, 333-4

   Plato, Theaetatus 152, 166

   Guthrie, ? (1978) A History of Greek Philosophy vol 7. pp. 171ff

* Hume Treatise 2.3.3, 3.1.1

* Hume 'On the standard of taste', in Essays Moral Political and Literary, also in On the Standard of Taste and Other Essays

* Kant Groundwork, ch. 2

   Schopenhauer On the Basis of Morality

   Nietzsche 'On the true and the false in the ultramoral sense', in Philosophy in the Tragic Age of the Greeks

   Moore, G.E. (1903) Principia Ethica, ch. 6, pp. 1-30, 37-58

   Pierce, C.S. (19?) 'Of the fixation of belief'

   Moore, G.E. (1912) Ethics, ch. 7 'Consequentialism and deontology'

   Wittgenstein, L. (19?) Tractatus 6.4-6.522

   Kolnai, A. (19?) 'Moral consensus', in Klug and Dunlop (eds) Ethics, Values and Reality

   Moore, G.E. (1922) Philosophical Studies, pp. 329-339

   Anscombe, G.E. (1958) 'On brute facts'

   Foot, P. (1963) 'Hume on moral judgment'

   Lewy, C. (1964) 'G.E. Moore on the naturalistic fallacy'

   Wittgenstein, L. (1965) 'Lectures in Ethics' Philosophical Review 74

   Nagel, T. (1970) The Possibility of Altruism

   Blackburn, S. (1971?) 'Moral realism', in J. Casey (ed.) Morality and Moral Reasoning 1971

   Swinburne, R. (1976) 'The objectivity of morality' Philosophy 51

   Harman, G. (1977) The Nature of Morality, ch. 1 (Kings; Wiggins)

* Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, ch. 1 'The subjectivity of values', ch. 2 'The meaning of good', (ch. 6, ch. 7 sec. 5)

* McDowell, J. (1978) 'Are moral requirements hypothetical imperatives?', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supp. Vol. 52

   Nagel, T. (1979) 'Subjective and objective', in Mortal Questions, ch. 14

   Bambrough, R. (1979) Moral Scepticism and Moral Knowledge

   Wollheim, R. (1979) The Sheep and the Ceremony (pamphlet)

   Wollheim, R. [197?] Art and Its Objects, 2nd ed. 1980, appendix 4

   McDowell, J. (1981) 'Non-cognitivism and rule following' in Holtzman and Leich (eds) Wittgenstein: To Follow a Rule

   Lovibond, S. (1983) Realism and Imagination in Ethics, §§1-12

* Blackburn, S. (1984) Spreading the Word, ch. 6, esp. 187-9

   Blackburn, S. (1985?) 'Errors and the phenomenology of value', in Honderich (ed.) Morality and Objectivity

   Honderich, T. (ed.) (1985) Morality and Objectivity

   Hurley, S.L. (1985) 'Objectivity and disagreement', in Honderich (ed.)

* Williams, B. (1985) Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, ch. 8 'Knowledge, science, convergence'

* Platts, M. (1979) Ways of Meaning, ch. 10 'Moral reality', rerinted in G. Sayre-McCord (ed.) Essays on Moral Realism 1988

   Nagel, T. (1986) The View from Nowhere, ch. 8 'Value', (chs. 9,10)

+ Sayre-McCord, G. (1986) 'The many moral realisms', Spindel Conference: Moral Realism, Southern Journal of Philosophy 24, Supplement, slightly revised as 'Introduction' to Sayre-McCord (ed.)

* Wiggins, D. (1987) 'Truth, and truth as predicated of moral judgments' Needs, Values and Truth, ch. 4

* Wiggins, D. (1987) 'A sensible subjectivism?' in his  Needs, Values and Truth, ch. 5

   Sayre-McCord, G. (ed.) (1988) Essays on Moral Realism

   Brink, D. (1986) 'Externalist moral realism', Southern Journal of Philosophy 24 (supplement)

+ McNaughton, D. (1988) Moral Vision, secs. 2.3, 3.3, 3.4, ch. 7

   Brink, D.O. (1989) Moral Realism and the Foundations of Ethics, ch. 3

   Gibbard, A. (1990) Wise Choices, Apt Feelings

* Wiggins, D. (1990-91) 'Moral cognitivism, moral relativism and motivating moral beliefs', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 91

+ Snare, F. (1992) The Nature of Moral Thinking

   Dancy, J. (1993) Moral Reasons, chs. 1-3

+ Smith, M. (1991) 'Realism' , in P. Singer (ed.) A Companion to Ethics, abridged in P. Singer (ed.) Ethics 1994

+ Benn, P. (1997) Ethics, ch. 2

 

@ Fact and value: general

   (Specific arguments: open question, Hume's law, argument from queerness)

   Williams, B. Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, ch. 7

   McNaughton, D. Moral Vision, ch. 2

   Mackie, J.L. Ethics: Inventing Right and Wrong, chs. 2-3

   Hudson, W.D. Modern Moral Philosophy, 2nd edition, ch. 7 'The derivation of 'ought' from 'is''

   Foot, P. (1995) 'Does moral subjectivism rest on a mistake?', Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 15(1)

   Timmons, M. (2004) 'Logic of ethical discourse', Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, sections 1-3

 

@ Trilemma argument, moral motivation and non-cognitivism

   (Internalism about moral judgments and reasons + belief-desire theory of motivation -> non-cognitivism)

   (This is general surveys. For debates on the internalism and belief-desire theory see below)

+ McNaughton, D. (1988) Moral Vision, secs. 2.3, 3.3, 3.4, ch. 7

   Harman, G. (1977) The Nature of Morality, chs. 3, 4, 9

   Nagel, T. (1978) The Possibility of Altruism, chs. 2-3

   Smith, M. (1994) The Moral Problem, ch. 1

+ Rosati, C.S. (2006) 'Moral motivation', Stanford Encycopedia of Philosophy, secs. 3-4

+ Wallace, R.J. (1998) 'Moral motivation', Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, secs. 1-3

 

@ Internalism about moral judgements and reasons for action

   (NB 'internalism' here means motivational internalism)

   (For use of internalism in arguments for non-cognitivism see 'Trilemma argument')

   Falk, W.D. (1947-48) '"Ought" and motivation', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, reprinted in his Ought, Reasons and Morality

   Anscombe, E. (1957) Intention, pp. 57-79, mostly reprinted in Raz (ed.) Practical Reason

   Frankena, W. (1958) 'Obligation and motivation in recent moral philosophy', in A.I. Melden (ed.) Essays in Moral Philosophy

   Nagel, T. (1970) The Possibility of Altruism, chs. 2-3

   Richards, D.A.J. (1971) A Theory of Reasons for Action, chs. 3-5

   Foot, P. (1972) 'Morality as a system of hypothetical imperatives', Philosophical Review 81, reprinted in her Virtues and Vices, ch. 11

   Stocker, M. (1979) 'Desiring the bad: an essay in moral psychology', Journal of Philosophy ?

   Williams, B. (1980) 'Internal and external reasons', in T.R. Harrison (ed.) Rational Action, reprinted in Moral Luck, ch. 8, also in Moser (ed.) Rationality in Action

   Bond, E.J. (1983) Reason and Value, pp. 32-33

   Railton, P. (1986) 'Moral realism', Philosophical Review 95

   Brink, D. (1986) 'Externalist moral realism', Southern Journal of Philosophy 24 (supplement)

   Brink, D.O. (1989) Moral Realism and the Foundations of Ethics, ch. 3

   Smith, M. (1989) 'Dispositional theories of value'

   Audi, R. (1996) 'Moral judgment and reasons for action' in his Moral Knowledge and Ethical Character (Classifies versions of internalism and argues that constitutive internalism is false. Goes on to argue that instrumental view of reasons is false.)

   Mason, E. (2008) 'An argument against motivational internalism', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 108(1)

 

@ Belief-desire theory (Humean theory of motivation)

+ McNaughton, D. (1988) Moral Vision, ch. 7

   Nagel, T. (1970) The Possibility of Altruism

   Locke, D. 'Reasons, wants and causes' American Philosophical Quarterly 11

* McDowell, J. (1978) 'Are moral requirements hypothetical imperatives?' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Vol. 52

   McDowell, J. (1979) 'Virtue and reason' Monist 62

* Platts, M. (1979) Ways of Meaning, ch. 10 'Moral reality', rerinted in G. Sayre-McCord (ed.) Essays on Moral Realism 1988

   Platts, M. (1981) 'Moral reality and the end of desire', in M. Platts (ed.) Reference, Truth and Reality

   Bond, E.J. (1983) Reason and Value, ch. 2

* Smith, M. (1987) 'The Humean theory of motivation'

   Dancy, J. (1993) Moral Reasons, chs. 1-3

   Dancy, J. (1994) 'Why there is really no such thing as the theory of motivation', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 95(1)

   Further bibliography: Smith 1989 p91

 

@ Dispositional theory of value

   (This is Smith. He claims that all three horns of the trilemma can be embraced since truths about value are truths about the desires of perfectly rational agents - dispositional theory of value)

   Smith, M. (1989) 'Dispositional theories of value', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supp. Vol. 63

   Smith, M. (1994) The Moral Problem

   Smith, M. (1994) 'Why expressivists about value should love minimalism about truth', Analysis 54(1)

 

@ Argument from queerness

+ Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, ch. 1

   Brink, D. (1984) 'Moral realism and the sceptical arguments from disagreement and queerness', Australasian Journal of Philosophy 62, section 4

   Williams, B. (1985) 'Ethics and the fabric of the world', in T. Honderich (ed.) Morality and Objectivity

   Grice, G.R. (1991) Carus Lectures on the Conception of Value, Lecture 1 'Value and objectivity'

   Finnis, J. The Fundamentals of Ethics, c. p. 59

+ Sayre-McCord, G. (2005) 'Moral realism', Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, sec. 2 'Metaphysics'

 

@ Error theory and fictionalism

   Burgess, J.A. (1998) 'Error theories and values', Australasian Journal of Philosophy 76(4)

   Joyce, R. (2001) The Myth of Morality

   Lillehammer, H. (2004) 'Moral error theory', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 104(2)

   Shafer-Landau, R. (2005) 'Error theory and the possibility of normative ethics', Philosophical Issues 15(1)

   Kalderon, M.E. (2005) Moral Fictionalism

   Burgess, J.P. (2007) 'Against ethics', Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 10(5)

   Finlay, S. (2008) 'The error in the error theory', Australasian Journal of Philosophy 86(3)

   Joyce, R. (2010) 'Error theory', International Encyclopedia of Ethics, available online

   Olson, J. (2010) 'In defence of moral error theory', in M. Brady (ed.) New Waves in Metaethics, draft available online

   Joyce, R. (2010) 'The error in "The error in the error theory"', Australasian Journal of Philosophy, draft available online

 

@ COGNITIVISMS

 

@ Non-naturalism

+ Smith, M. (1991) 'Realism' in Peter Singer (ed.) A Companion to Ethics [7]

   Huemer, M. (1996) 'The subjectivist's dilemma', Objectivity 2

   Bloomfield, P. (2001) Moral Reality, introduction [oso]

   Shafer-Landau, R. (2003) Moral Realism: A Defence [oso]

+ Sayre-McCord, G. (2005) 'Moral realism', in D. Copp (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory

   Shafer-Landau, R. (2006) 'Ethics as philosophy: a defence of ethical non-naturalism', in T. Horgan and M. Timmons (eds.) Metaethics after Moore, reprinted in R. Shafer-Landau and T. Cuneo (eds.) Foundations of Ethics, 2007

 

@ Intuitionism

+ Warnock, M. [1960] Ethics Since 1900, 3rd ed. 1978, ch. 2

* Moore, G.E. (1903) Principia Ethica, ch. 1 'The subject matter of ethics', ch. 3 'Hedonism'

   Prichard, H. (19?) 'Moral Obligation', reprinted in Prichard's Moral Obligation

   Prichard, H.A. (1912) 'Does moral philosophy rest on a mistake?', Mind 21, reprinted in his Moral Obligation 1949, ch. 1

   Ross, W.D. (1930) The Right and the Good

   Ross, W.D. (1939) The Foundations of Ethics

   McDowell, J. (1979) 'Virtue and Reason', The Monist 62

+ Frazer, R.L. (1998) 'Intuitionism', Routledge Encyclopedia of Philoosphy

+ Dancy, J. (1991) 'Intuitionism' in P.Singer (ed.) A Companion to Ethics

   Hudson, W.D. Ethical Intuitionism  

   Williams, B. 'What does intuitionism imply?', in Dancy, Taylor and  Moravcsic eds.,  Human Agency: Language, Duty, and Value; reprinted in Williams, Making Sense of Humanity

 

@ Perceptual analogies, moral values as secondary qualities

   Murdoch, I. (1970) The Sovereignty of the Good, ch. 1

   Wiggins, D. (1976) 'Truth, invention and the meaning of life' §§1-8, Proceedings of the British Academy 62, reprinted in his Needs, Values and Truth, ch. 3

   Platts, M. (1979) Ways of Meaning, ch. 10

   Scruton, R. (1980) 'Reason and happiness' Royal Institute of Philosophy Lectures

   McDowell, J. (1981) 'Non-Cognitivism and rule-following', in S. Holtsman and C. Leich (eds.) Wittgenstein: To Follow a Rule

   McGinn, C. (1983) The Subjective View, ch. 8 'Values and secondary qualities'

   McDowell, J. (1983)  'Aesthetic value, objectivity and the fabric of the world' in Pleasure, Preference and Value: Studies in Philosophical Aesthetics ed. E. Schaper

   Williams, B. (1985) 'Ethics and the fabric of the world', in T. Honderich (ed.) Morality and Objectivity

   Blackburn, S. (1985) 'Error and the phenomenology of value' in T. Honderich (ed.) Morality and Moral Reasoning, also in Blackburn's Essays in Quasi-Realism

* McDowell, J. (1985) 'Values and secondary qualities', in T. Honderich (ed.) Morality and Objectivity 1985, reprinted in  G. Sayre McCord (ed.) Essays on Moral Realism; also in J. McDowell, Mind, Value and Reality; also in S. Darwall et al Moral Discourse and Practice: Some Philosophical Approaches

   Sayre-McCord, G. (1986) 'The many moral realisms', Spindel Conference: Moral Realism, Southern Journal of Philosophy 24, Supplement; slightly revised as 'Introduction' to Sayre-McCord ed, Essays on Moral Realism

* Wiggins, D. (1987) 'A sensible subjectivism?' in his Needs, Values and Truth, ch. 5

+ McNaughton, D. Moral Vision, chs. 4-5

   McDowell, J. (1988) Projection and Truth in Ethics (Lindley Lecture), reprinted in his Mind, Value and Reality

   Wright, C. (1988) 'Moral values, projection, and secondary qualities' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supp. Vol 62

   Smith, M. and Johnston, M. (1989) 'Dispositional theories of value' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supp. Vol. 63

   Wright, C. (1992) Truth and Objectivity, ch. 1

   Smith, M. (1993) 'Colour, transparency and mind-independence', in Haldane and Wright eds. Reality , Representation and Projection

   Smith, M. (1993) 'Objectivity and moral realism: on the significance of the phenomenology of moral experience', in Haldane and Wright (eds) Reality, Representation, and Projection

   Campbell, J. (1993) 'A simple view of colour' in J. Haldane and C. Wright (eds) Reality, Representation, and Projection

   Johnston, M. (1993) 'Objectivity refigured' in Reality, Representation and Projection, eds John Haldane and Crispin Wright (see also reply by Wright)

   Wright, C. (1996) 'Truth in ethics' in B. Hooker (ed.) Truth in Ethics

   Wiggins, D. (1998) 'Truth, and truth as predicated of moral judgments' in his Needs, Values, Truth

   Miller, A. (2003) An Introduction to Contemporary Metaethics, ch. 10

 

@ Naturalism

   Railton, P. (1986) 'Moral realism' Philosophical Review 95

+ McNaughton, D. (1988) Moral Vision, ch. 3

* Foot, P. (1958-59) 'Moral beliefs' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 59, reprinted in Virtues and Vices, ch. 8, also in P. Foot (ed.) Theories of Ethics

   Frankena, W. (1966) 'The concept of morality', Journal of Philosophy 63

   Warnock, G.J. (1971) The Object of Morality, chs. 1, 4-5

+ Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, ch. 5 'The object of morality

+ Harman, G. (1978) The Nature of Morality, ch. 2

   Brandt, R. (1979) A Theory of the Good and the Right

   Hampshire, S. (1983) Morality and Conflict, chs. 6,7

   Thomson, G. (1984) Needs, chs. 1,2,9

   Wollheim, R. (1984) The Thread of Life, ch. 7 'From voices to values'

   Lukes, S. (1985) 'Taking morality seriously', in T. Honderich (ed.) Morality and Objectivity

   Sturgeon, N.L. (1985) 'Moral explanations', in D. Copp and D. Zimmerman (eds) Reason, Truth and Morality, reprinted in G. Sayre-McCord

   Boyd, R. (1988) 'How to be a moral realist', in G. Sayre-McCord (ed.) Essays on Moral Realism

+Pigden, R. (1991) 'Naturalism' in Peter Singer (ed.) A Companion to Ethics

+ Lenman, J. (2006) 'Moral naturalism', Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, section 1, at http://www.seop.leeds.ac.uk/entries/naturalism-moral

 

@ Railton's naturalism

   (See also 'Moral progress')

   Railton, P. (1986) 'Moral realism', Philosophical Review 95

   Railton, P. (1986) 'Facts and values', Philosophical Topics 14

   Railton, P. (1990) 'Naturalism and prescriptivity', Social Philosophy and Policy 7

   Railton, P. (1992) 'Some questions about the justification of morality', in J.E. Tomberlin (ed.) Ethics, Philosophical Perspectives 6

   Railton, P. (2000) 'Morality, ideology and reflection: or, the duck sits yet' in E. Harcourt (ed.) Morality, Reflection, and Ideology, reprinted in Railton's Facts, Values, and Norms 2003

   Railton, P. (2003) Facts, Values, and Norms: Essays Toward a Morality of Consequence

   Brown, S.R. (2005) 'Book review: Peter Railton, Facts, Values, and Norms: Essays toward a Morality of Consequence', Journal of Moral Philosophy 2(2)

   Putnam, R.A. (2008) 'Why not moral realism?', International Journal of Philosophical Studies 16(1)

   Loeb, D. and Railton, P. (2008) 'Moral realism, for and against' [video]

 

@ Naturalistic fallacy and open question argument

* Moore, G.E. (1903) Principia Ethica, Preface, ch. 1 secs. 1-17

   More, G.E. (1932) 'Is goodness a quality?', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplement 11, reprinted in his Philosophical Papers, 1959

* Frankena, W.K. (1939) 'The naturalistic fallacy' Mind 48, reprinted in P. Foot (ed.) Theories of Ethics

   Stevenson, C.L. (1942), 'Moore's arguments against certain forms of naturalism', in P. Schilpp (ed.) The Philosophy of G.E. Moore, reprinted in Stevenson's Facts and Values 1963, also in P. Foot (ed.) Theories of Ethics

* Hare, R.M. (1952) The Language of Morals, ch. 5

   Foot, P. (1958) 'Moral arguments' Mind 67, reprinted in J. Margolis (ed.) Contemporary Ethical Theory 1966, also in  Virtues and Vices, ch. 7

   Ziff, P. (1960) Semantic Analysis, ch. 6

+ Warnock, M. (1960) Ethics Since 1900 (3rd. (ed.) (1978),) ch. 1

   Hare, R.M. (1963) Freedom and Reason, ch. 2

   Lewy, C. (1964) 'G.E. Moore on the naturalistic fallacy' Proceedings of the British Academy 52, reprinted in P.F. Strawson (ed.) Studies in the Philosophy of Thought and Action

+ Warnock, G.J. (1967) Contemporary Moral Philosophy, ch. 2

+ Hudson, W.D. (1970) Modern Moral Philosophy, 2nd ed. 1983, chs. 3,6

* Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, ch. 2 'The meaning of good'

   MacIntyre, A. (1978) 'Ought', Against the Self-Images of the Age

   MacIntyre, A. (1978) 'Some more about 'ought'', Against the Self-Images of the Age

+ Harman, G. (1978) The Nature of Morality, ch. 2

   Hare, R.M. (1981) Moral Thinking, ch. 4

   Sturgeon, N. (1985) 'Gibbard on moral judgment and norms," Ethics 96

   Lewis, D. (1989) 'Dispositional theories of value', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, suppl., 63

   Darwall, S., Gibbard, A. and Railton, P. (1992) 'Toward fin de siecle ethics: some trends' Philosophical Review 101(1), section 1 'Setting the stage'

   Smith, M. (1994) The Moral Problem, pp. 38-39

   McDowell, J. (1995) 'Two sorts of naturalism', in R. Hursthouse and L. Quinn (eds) Virtues and Reasons, reprinted in his Mind, Value, and Reality 1996

   Brink, D.O. (2001) "Realism, naturalism, and moral semantics," Social Philosophy and Policy 18

+ Ridge, M. (2003) 'Moral non-naturalism', Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, sections 1-2, at http://www.seop.leeds.ac.uk/entries/moral-non-naturalism (full account but  over-complicates)

   Rosati, C. (2003) 'Agency and the open question argument', Ethics 113

   Sturgeon, N. (2003) 'Moore on ethical naturalism', Ethics 113

   Regan, D.H. (2003) 'How to be a Moorean', Ethics 113

+ van Roorjen, M. (2004) 'Moral cognitivism vs. non-cognitivism', Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy section 3.1 'The open question argument', at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/moral-cognitivism

   Miller, A. (2003) An Introduction to Contemporary Metaethics, ch. 2 'Moore's attack on ethical naturalism'

+ Sayre-McCord, G. (2005) 'Moral realism', Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, section 2 'Metaphysics', at http://www.seop.leeds.ac.uk/entries/moral-realism (introductory)

+ Lenman, J. (2006) 'Moral naturalism', Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, section 2 'The open question argument', at http://www.seop.leeds.ac.uk/entries/naturalism-moral (technical)

 

@ External justification of morality

* Mounce, H.O. and Phillips, D.Z. (1965) 'On morality's having a point' Philosophy 40, reprinted in their Moral Practices 1970, ch. 5 as 'The revival of ethical naturalism', also in W.H. Hudson (ed.) The Is/Ought Question

   Stocks, J.L. (1969) Morality and Purpose, ch. 1

   Foot, P. (1958-59) 'Moral beliefs'

   Phillips, D.Z. (1964-65) Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, reprinted in Thomson and Dworkin (eds) Ethics 1968

   Warnock, G.J. (1971) The Object of Morality, esp. chs. 1-2

   Winch, P. (1972?) 'Human nature', in Ethics and Action 1972

 

@ Normativity

   Railton, P. (1990) 'Naturalism and prescriptivity', Social Philosophy and Policy 7

   Korsgaard, C. (1996) The Sources of Normativity

 

@ Good, goodness and value

   (Especially the ideas of 'intrinsic value' - value that is not conditional on context – and 'objective value' – value that is not a function of our beliefs or desires)

   (See also 'Aristotle: eudaimonia and happiness; welfare')

* Moore, G.E. (1903) Principia Ethica, Preface, ch. 1 secs. 1-17

   Moore, G.E. (1922) Philosophical Studies, ch. 8 'The conception of intrinsic value'

   von Wright, G.H. (1963) Varieties of Goodness, chs. 1-6

* Geach, P. (1956-57) 'Good and evil' Analysis 17, reprinted in P. Foot (ed.) Theories of Ethics

   Hare, R.M. (1956-57) 'Geach: good and evil' Analysis 18, reprinted in P. Foot (ed.) Theories of Ethics

+ Williams, B. (1972) Morality, chs. on 'good'

+ Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, ch. 2 'The meaning of 'good'', ch. 3 'Obligations and reasons', also chs. 1,6, ch. 7 sec. 5

   Nozick, R. (1981) Philosophical Explanations, c. pp. 413-418

   Korsgaard, C. (1983) 'Two distinctions in goodness' Philosophical Review 92, secs. 1,2,4, reprinted in her Creating the Kingdom of Ends 1996

   Foot, P. (1985) 'Utilitarianism and the virtues' Mind 94, reprinted in Scheffler (ed.) Consequentialism and its Critics

 

@ Plurality of values

   Fried, C. (1970) The Anatomy of Values

   Stocker, M. (1990) Plural and Competing Values

 

@ Subjectivist accounts of value

   Moore, G.E. (1903) Principia Ethica pp 23-30, ch. 6

   Moore, G.E. (1912) Ethics, ch. 7

   Moore, G.E. (1922) Philosophical Studies, ch. 8 'The conception of intrinsic value'

   Williams, B. (1985) 'Ethics and the fabric of the world', in T. Honderich (ed.) Morality and Objectivity

   Williams, B. (1985) Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, ch. 8

   Gauthier, D. (1986) Morals by Agreement, ch. 2, pp. 330-337

 

@ Promising and naturalism

   Hume Treatise 3.2.5, (3.2.1), 490, 516f, 541, 545

   Downie, R.S. 'Three accounts of promising' Philosophical Quarterly 35

   Ross, W.D. (1930) The Right and the Good, section on promising

   Austin, J.L. (195?) 'Performative utterances', Collected Papers

   Anscombe, G.E. (1958) 'On brute facts' Analysis 19, reprinted in Collected Papers

* Searle, J. (1964) 'How to derive 'ought' from 'is'' Philosophical Review 73, reprinted in P. Foot (ed.) Theories of Ethics

* Hare, R.M. (1964) 'The promising game', Revue Internationale de Philosophie 70, reprinted in P. Foot (ed.) Theories of Ethics, also in The Is/Ought Question (ed.) Hudson

   Grice, G.R. (1967) The Grounds of Moral Judgment, ch. 2

* Searle, J. (1969) Speech Acts, pt. 2 ch. 8 'Deriving 'ought' from 'is''

   Warnock, G.J. (1971) The Object of Morality, ch. 7

   Rawls, J. (1971) A Theory of Justice §52

   Raz, J. (1977) in Raz and Hacker (eds) Law, Morality and Society

 

@ NON-COGNITIVISMS

 

@ Emotivism

   (Sometimes this is called 'expressivism', but general that is equated with non-cognitivism in general)

   Richard, I.A. and Ogden. C.K. (1927) The Meaning of Meaning

* Ayer, A.J. (1936) Language Truth and Logic, Preface, ch. 6 'Critique of ethics and theology'

* Stevenson, C.L. (1937) 'The emotive meaning of ethical terms' Mind 46, reprinted in Stevenson's Facts and Values 1963, also in A.J. Ayer (ed.) Logical Positivism

   Stevenson, C.L. (1938) 'Persuasive definitions', Mind 47, reprinted in Facts and Values

   Stevenson, C.L. (1944) Ethics and Language

   Stevenson, C.L. (1948) 'The nature of ethical disagreement', Sigma 8-9, reprinted in Facts and Values

+ Warnock, M. (1960) Ethics Since 1900, 3rd ed. 1978, chs. 3-4

+ Warnock, G.J. (1967) Contemporary Moral Philosophy, ch. 3

   Urmson, J.O. (1968) The Emotive Theory of Ethics, ch. 3 'Emotive meaning', ch. 11 'Meaning and illocutionary force'

   Searle, J. (1969) Speech Acts, ch. 6

+ Hudson, W.D. [196?] Modern Moral Philosophy, 2nd ed. 1983, ch. 4

   Scruton, R. (19?) 'Attitudes, beliefs and reasons', in J. Casey (ed.) Morality and Moral Reasoning

* Williams, B. (1971) 'Morality and the emotions', in J. Casey (ed.) Morality and Moral Reasoning, reprinted in Problems of the Self, ch. 13

+ Harman, G. (1977) The Nature of Morality, ch. 3

   MacIntyre, A. (1981) After Virtue, chs. 2-3

   Clark, S. (198?) 'Morals, Moore and Macintyre', Inquiry 26

   Smith, M. (1986) 'Should we believe in emotivism?', in McDonald and Wright (eds) Fact, Science and Morality

+ Miller, A. (2005) 'Realism', Stanford Ebcyclopedia of Philosophy, section 5 'Expressivism about morals', at http://www.seop.leeds.ac.uk/entries/realism

 

@ Emotion and reason, politics of emotion

   Do emotions have a legitimate role in moral decision-making?

   Rorty, A.E. (1980) 'Explaining emotions', in A.O. A. Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics   Explaining Emotions

   Scherman, N. (1980) 'Anger and the politics of naming', in A.O. A. Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics   Explaining Emotions

   Rorty, A.O. (ed.) (1980) Explaining Emotions

   de Sousa, E. (1980) 'The rationality of emotion', in A.O. A. Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics   Explaining Emotions

   Scruton, R. (1983) 'Emotion and common culture', in his The Aesthetic Understanding

   Sherman, N. (1990) 'The place of the emotions in Kantian morality' in O. Flanagan and A.O.Rorty (eds) Identity, Character and Morality

 

@ Prescriptivism

   (Or injunctivism; also descriptivism)

+ Warnock, G.J. (1967) Contemporary Moral Philosophy, ch. 3

+ Hudson, W.D. [19?] Modern Moral Philosophy, 2nd ed. 1983, ch. 5

   Hare, R.M. (1952) The Language of Morals, chs. 1,5-8

* Geach, P. (1956-57) 'Good and evil'

   Hare, R.M. (1963) 'Descriptivism' Proceedings of the British Academy 49, reprinted in Essays on the Moral Concepts 1972, also in The Is/Ought Question (ed.) Hudson

   Searle, J. (1964) 'How to derive 'ought' from 'is''

* Hare, R.M. (1963) Freedom and Reason, chs. 1-3,(4-5)

   Hare, R.M. (1971) Practical Inferences

* Hare, R.M. (1972) 'Wrongness and harm', in Essays on the Moral Concepts

* Hare, R.M. (1981) Moral Thinking, introduction, ch. 5

   Williams, B. (1985) Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, ch. 7

   Williams, B. (19?) 'Hare on prescriptivism'

 

@ Quasi-realism and the embedding problem

   Blackburn, S. (1984) Spreading the Word , chs. 5-6 (pp. 167-171 [Newey], 187-9 [McNaughton], 189-196, ch. 6 [Smith], chs. 6-11 [N. Sturgeon], 5.6, 6.2 )

   Blackburn, S. (1987) 'How to be an ethical anti-realist', Midwest Studies in Philosophy 12, reprinted in his Essays in Quasi-Realism, 1993, and in R. Shafer-Landau and T. Cuneo (eds.) Foundations of Ethics, 2007

+ McNaughton, D. (1988) Moral Vision, ch. 12 [9]

   Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (2000) 'Expressivism and embedding', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 61

+ van Roojen, M. (2004) 'Moral cognitivism vs. non-cognitivism', Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, secs. 'The embedding problem' and 4.1.1 'A logic of attitudes'

+ Blackburn, S. (2005) 'Antirealist expressivism and quasi-realism', in D. Copp (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory

 

@ Norm-expressivism

Gibbard, A. (1990) Wise Choices, Apt Feelings

 

@ Practical implications of non-cognitivism

   Wiggins, D. (1976) 'Truth, invention and the meaning of life', Proceedings of the British Academy 62, reprinted in Needs, Values and Truth, ch. 3

   Mackie, J. (1977) Ethics, ch. 1 sec. 4

   Hare, R.M. (1957) 'Nothing matters' in his Applications of Moral Philosophy

   Hare, R.M. (1977) 'Some confusions about subjectivity', in J. Bricke (ed.) Freedom and Morality

+ McNaughton, D. (1988) Moral Vision, sec. 1.5

 

@ SELF-INTEREST AND MORALITY

 

@ Morality vs. self-interest

   (This is on the basic 'imaginary' that counterposes self-interest to morality)

   (See also 'Agent-relative moralities')

   Marx [1843] 'On the Jewish Question'

   Stocker, M. (1976) 'The schizophrenia of modern ethical theories', Journal of Philosophy 73

   Raz, J. (1986) The Morality of Freedom, ch. 12 secs. 2, 6

   Korsgaard, C. (1993) 'The reasons we can share', Social Philosophy and Policy 10(1)

 

@ Self-interested reasons to be moral (and other teleological reasons to be moral)

   (See also 'Kant on moral  motivation')

   (For arguments that try to show that morality is intrinsic to rationality because of the latter's formal characteristics, rather than showing that there are teleological reasons to be moral, see 'Ethical rationalism 1' and 'Ethical rationalism 2')

* Plato Republic, 357-367, 443-445

* Prichard, H.A. (1912) 'Does moral philosophy rest on a mistake?', Mind 21, reprinted in his Moral Obligation 1949, ch. 1

   Prichard, H.A. (1949) 'Duty and interest', in Moral Obligation

   Brunton, J.A. (1956) 'Egoism and morality' Philosophical Quarterly 6

   Rawls, J. (1971) A Theory of Justice, ch. 9

+ Williams, B. (1972) Morality, ch. 1

* Williams, B. (1973) 'Egoism and altruism', Problems of the Self, ch. 15

+ Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, pp. 115-120

   Harman, G. (1977) The Nature of Morality, chs. 6,12

   Nozick, R. (1981) Philosophical Explanations, ch. 5 'Foundations of ethics'

   Hare, R.M. (1981) Moral Thinking, ch. 11

   Nagel, T. (1986) The View from Nowhere, ch. 10 'Living right and living well'

   Griffin, J. (1986) Well-Being, ch. 8

   Lawrence, G. (1995) 'The Rationality of Morality', in Hursthouse et al (eds) Virtues and Reasons

   Hursthouse R. et al (eds) (1995) Virtues and Reasons

   Raz, J. (1997) 'The Amoralist' in Cullity and Gaut (eds) Ethics and Practical Reason

   Darwall, S. (1997), 'Reasons, Motives, and the Demands of Morality: An Introduction' in S. Darwall et al eds., Moral Discourse and Practice

 

@ Psychological egoism

   Butler, J. [1726] '11th sermon', Fifteen Sermons Preached at the Rolls Chapel

   Hume, Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals, appendix 2

   Broad, C.D. (1949-50) 'Egoism as a theory of human motives', Hibbert Journal 48,  reprinted in Ethics and the History of Philosophy 1952, also in D. Cheney (ed.) Broad's Critical Essays in Moral Philosophy 1971

   Quinton, A. [1973] Utilitarian Ethics, 2nd ed. 1989, pp. 39-46, 60-64

   Williams, B. (1973) 'Egoism and altruism', Problems of the Self, ch. 15, pp. 260-263

   Feinberg, J. (1975) 'Psychological egoism', in J. Feinberg (ed.) Reason and Responsibility , reprinted in R. Shafer-Laundau (ed.) Ethical Theory: An Anthology, 2007 (Argument like Butler's against possibility of invariable self-interest)

 

@ Personal identity and ethics

   Schopenhauer, A. On the Basis of Morality, sec. 16 'Statement and proof of the only moral incentive'

* Williams, B. (1976) 'Persons, characters and morality'

* Parfit, D. (1984) Reasons and Persons, ch. 13 'What does matter'; or 'Personal identity' in J. Glover (ed.) The Philosophy of Mind, reprinted in T. Honderich and M. Burnyeat (eds) Philosophy As It Is

* Parfit, D. (1984) Reasons and Persons, ch. 14 'Personal identity and rationality', ch. 15 'Personal identity and morality', Concluding chapter

 

@ CONSEQUENTIALISM

 

@ Utilitarianism: general

   Sen, A. and Williams, B. (eds) (1982) Utilitarianism and Beyond

   Miller and Williams (eds) (1982) The Limits of Utilitarianism

   Scheffler, S. (ed.) (1988) Consequentialism and its Critics

+ Williams, B. (1972) Morality, last ch

+ Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, chs. 6-7

+ Sen, A. and Williams, B. (1982) 'Introduction' to Utilitarianism and Beyond

* Bentham [1789] Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation (extracted in D.D. Raphael (ed.) British Moralists 1650-1800 vol. 2; or in A. Ryan (ed.) J.S. Mill and Jeremy Bentham)

* Mill [1861] Utilitarianism

   Sidgwick [1874] Methods of Ethics (7th (ed.) (1907)) bk 4, chs. 1-2

   Moore, G.E. (1912) Ethics, ch. 6 'Utilitarianism'

   Brock, D. (1973) 'Recent work in utilitarianism' American Philosophical Quarterly

   Quinton, A. [1973] Utilitarian Ethics, 2nd ed. 1989

   Holland, R.F. (1977) 'Absolute ethics, mathematics, and the impossibility of politics', in G. Vesey (ed.) Human Values

   Sen, A. (1980-81) 'Plural utility' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society

   MacIntyre, A. (1981) After Virtue, ch. 6

   Scanlon, T.M. (1982) 'Contractualism and utilitarianism'

   Taylor, C. (1982) 'The diversity of goods'

* Griffin, J. (1982) 'Modern utilitarianism' Revue Internationale de Philosophie 141

   Griffin, J. (1986) Well-Being, chs. 1-4,(8,9)

 

@ Act and rule utilitarianism

   Foot, P. (ed.) (1967) Theories of Ethics

   Bayles, M.D. (ed.) (1968) Contemporary Utilitarianism

   Pahel K. and Schiller M. (eds) (1970) Readings in Contemporary Ethical Theory

   Gorovitz, S. (1971) Mill: Utilitarianism (with critical essays on utilitarianism)

   Hearn, T.K. (ed.) (1971) Studies in Utilitarianism

+ Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, ch. 6, sec. 4 'Rule utilitarianism'

   Hume Treatise, 3.3.5

   Austin, J. [1832] The Province of Jurisprudence Determined lecture 2, (ed.) H.L.A. Hart 1954

   Harrod, R.F. (1936) 'Utilitarianism revised', Mind 45, reprinted in Gorovitz (ed.)

   Toulmin, S. (1950) An Examination of the Place of Reason in Ethics

   Stout, A.K. (1954) 'Suppose everyobody did the same', Australasian Journal of Philosophy 32

* Smart, J.J.C. (1956) 'Extreme and restricted utilitarianism' Philosophical Quarterly 6, reprinted (with some serious errors corrected) in Foot ed., Gorovitz ed., Bayles ed., Hearn ed., Pahel and Schiller (eds)

   McCloskey, H.J. (1957) 'An examination of restricted utilitarianism', Philosophical Review 66, reprinted in Bayles ed., also in Gorovitz ed., also in Hearn (ed.)

   Baier, K.E.M. (1958) The Moral Point of View

   Brandt, R.B. (1959) Ethical Theory

   Singer, M.G. (1961) Generalisation in Ethics

   Smart, J.J.C. (1961) An Outline of a Utilitarian System of Ethics, revised version in J. Smart and B. Williams (eds) Utilitarianism: For and Against 1973

   Hare, R.M. (1963) Freedom and Reason, pp. 130-136

* Brandt, R.B. (1963) 'Towards a credible form of utilitarianism', in H.N. Castaneda and G. Nakhnikian (eds) Morality and the Language of Conduct, reprinted in Bayles (ed.)

* Lyons, D. (1965) The Forms and Limits of Utilitarianism, chs. 3,5

   Gibbard, A. (1965) 'Rule-utilitarianism: an illusory alternative?', Australasian Journal of Philosophy

* Brandt, R.B. (1967) 'Some merits of one form of utilitarianism' University of Colorado Series in Philosophy 3, reprinted in Gorovitz ed., also in Hearn ed., also in Pahel and Schiller (eds)

   Narveson, J. (1967) Morality and Utility

   Hodgson, D.H. (1967) The Consequences of Utilitarianism, ch. 2

   Ezorsky, G. (1968) Review of Lyons Forms and Limits of Utilitarianism, Journal of Philosophy 65

   Bayles, ? (1971) 'Act utilitarianism: account of right-making characteristics or decision-making procedure?' American Philosophical Quarterly 8

   Warnock, G. (1971) The Object of Morality

* Norman, R. (1971) Reasons for Actions ch. 2, sec. on Bentham and Mill

   Singer, P. (1972) 'Is act-utilitarianism self-defeating?' Philosophical Review 81

   Mackie, J.L. (1973) 'The consequences of act utilitarianism' Philosophical Quarterly

   Mackie, J.L. (1978) 'The disutility of act-utilitarianism', Philosophical Quarterly 23

   Brandt, R.B. (1979) A Theory of the Good and the Right

   Regan, D. (1980) Utilitarianism and Co-operation

   Harsanyi, J.C. (1982) 'Morality and the theory of rational behaviour' in Sen and Williams (eds) Utilitarianism and Beyond

* Mackie, J.L. (1985) 'Norms and dilemmas'

   Haslett, D.W. (1987) Equal Consideration (defence of rule utilitarianism)

   Hooker, B. (1990) 'Rule-consequentialism', Mind 99

   Hooker, B. (1995) 'Rule-consequentialism, incoherence, fairness', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 95

 

@ Direct and indirect utilitarianism, two-level utilitarianism

   Aams, ? (1976) 'Motive utilitarianism', Journal of Philosophy

   Hare, R.M. (1976) 'Ethical theory and utilitarianism', in H.D. Lewis (ed.) Contemporary British Philosophy lV, reprinted in A. Sen and B. Williams (eds) Utilitarianism and Beyond

   Hare, R.M. (1981) Moral Thinking

   Williams, B. (1988?) 'The structure of Hare's theory', in D. Seanor and N. Fotion (eds) Hare and his Critics

   Scanlon, T. (1988?) 'Levels of moral thinking' in D. Seanor and N. Fotion (eds) Hare and his Critics

 

@ Rules and norms: analysis

   (See also 'Conventionalism')

   Hare, R.M. (1952) The Language of Morals, chs. 3.6, 4

* Rawls, J. (1955) 'Two concepts of rules' Philosophical Review 64, reprinted in Foot ed., also in Gorovitz ed., also in Hearn ed., also in Pahel and Schiller (eds)

   Smart, J.J.C. (1961) An Outline of a Utilitarian System of Ethics, revised version in J. Smart and B. Williams (eds) Utilitarianism: For and Against 1973

   Singer, M.G. (1961) Generalisation in Ethics, ch. 5

   Hare, R.M. (1963) Freedom and Reason, chs. 2,8

   Gauthier, D. (1963) Practical Reasoning, ch. 11

   Diggs, B.J. (1964) 'Rules and utilitarianism' American Philosophical Quarterly 1, reprinted in Bayles ed., also in Gorovitz ed., also in Pahel and Schiller (eds)

   Richards, D.A.J. (1971) Theory of Reasons for Action, chs. 2,4

   Raz, J. [1975] Practical Reason and Norms, 2nd ed. 1990, ch. 2

   Dworkin, R. [1977] Taking Rights Seriously, 2nd ed. 1979, chs. 2,3

   McDowell, J. (1979) 'Virtue and Reason', The Monist 62

   Gibbard, A. (1985) 'Moral judgement and the acceptance of norms'

   Sturgeon, ? (1985) 'Gibbard on moral judgments and norms', Ethics

   Williams, B. (1985) Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, pp. 82-92

   Griffin, J. (1986) Well-Being, chs. 10,11

   Von Wright Norm and Action, ch. 1

 

@ Mill's utilitarianism

   Gorovitz, S. (1971) Mill: Utilitarianism (with critical essays on utilitarianism)

+ Warnock, M. (1962) 'Introduction' to M. Warnock (ed.) Utilitarianism

+ Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, ch. 6 sec. 5

+ Ryan, A.P. (1970) The Philosophy of John Stuart Mill (2nd. (ed.) (1987),) ch. on utilitarianism

+ Quinton, A. [1973] Utilitarian Ethics, 2nd ed. 1989, ch. 3

   Urmson, J.O. (1953) 'The interpretation of the moral philosophy of J.S. Mill', Philoophical Quarterly 3, reprinted in Foot ed., also in Gorovitz ed., also in Bayles ed., also in Hearn (ed.)

   Mabbott, J.D. (1956) 'Interpretations of Mill's 'Utilitarianism'', Philosophical Quarterly 6, reprinted in Foot (ed.)

   Warnock, M. [1960] Ethics Since 1900, 3rd ed. 1978, ch. 1

   Norman, R. (1971) Reasons for Actions: A Critique of Utilitarian Rationality, ch. 2

 

@ Objections to consequentialism: general

   (See also below for specific objections, and for deontological theories)

+ Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, ch. 7

   Anscombe, G.E. (1958) 'Modern moral philosophy'

   Foot, P. (1958-59) 'Moral beliefs'

* Bennett, J. (1965) 'Whatever the consequences' Analysis 26, reprinted in B. Steinbock (ed.) Killing and Letting Die

   Bennett, J. (1980) 'Morality and consequences', in S. McMurrin (ed.) Tanner Lectures on Human Values 1

   Nagel, T. (1980) 'The limits of objectivity', esp. lecture 2, in S. McMurrin (ed.) Tanner Lectures on Human Values 1

   Scheffler, S. (1982) The Rejection of Consequentialism, revised (ed.) 1994 (original text with three suplementary essays), ch. 1 'The project and its motivation', ch. 5 'The project reconsidered'

   Parfit, D. (1984) Reasons and Persons, §§10-18, 21-24, 36-44

* Foot, P. (1985) 'Utilitarianism and the virtues' Mind 94, reprinted in Scheffler (ed.) Consequentialism and its Critics

   Williams, B. (1985) Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, relevant parts of chs. 5.6

   Raz, J. (1986) The Morality of Freedom, ch. 11

+ Scheffler, S. (1988) 'Introduction' to Scheffler (ed.) Consequentialism and its Critics

   Scheffler, S. (1988) 'Agent-centred restrictions, rationality and the virtues' in Scheffler (ed.) Consequentialism and its Critics

 

@ Separateness of persons (fairness, distributive justice) objection to consequentialism

* Kant Groundwork, ch. 2

   Mill, J.S. Utilitarianism, ch. 5

   Honoré, A.M. (1968?) 'Social justice', in R.S. Summers (ed.) Essays in Legal Philosophy 1968

* Williams, B. (1962) 'The idea of equality', in P. Laslett and W.G. Runciman (eds) Politics, Philosophy and Society, 2nd Series, reprinted in Problems of the Self, ch. 14

   Lyons, D. (1965) The Forms and Limits of Utilitarianism

   Emmons, D.C. (1967) 'Justice reassessed', American Philosophical Quarterly 4(2)

   Sprigge, T.L.S. (1968) 'Professor Narveson's utilitarianism', Inquiry 11

   Miller, D. (1976) Social Justice pp. 31-40

* Scanlon, T.M. (1982) 'Contractualism and utilitarianism'

   Wiggins, D. (1985) 'Claims of need', in T. Honderich (ed.) Morality and Objectivity, also (revised) in Needs, Values and Truth, ch. 1

   Smilanksi, S. (1989-90) 'Utilitarianism and the 'punishment' of the innocent: the general problem', Analysis 49-50

 

@ Outrage objection to consequentialism, right-based moralities, side constraints 3.6

   Nagel, T. (1972) 'War and massacre', Philosophy and Public Affairs 1, reprinted in Mortal Questions, ch. 5, reprinted in Scheffler (ed.) Consequentialism and its Critics

   Mackie, J.L. (1978) 'Can there be a right-based moral theory?' in P.L. French et al. (eds) Studies in Ethical Theory,  reprinted in Waldron (ed.) Theories of Rights

   Hart, H.L.R. (1979) 'Between utility and rights', Columbia Law Review, Vol. 79, No. 5, reprinted in The Idea of Freedom (ed.) A. Ryan 1979 [Kings]

   Raz, J. (1984) 'The nature of rights', Mind 93, revised and expanded as ch. 7 of Raz's The Morality of Freedom, 1986

   Raz, J. (1984) 'Right-based moralities', in J. Waldron (ed.) Theories of Rights

   Scanlon, T. (1988?) 'Rights, goals and fairness', in Scheffler (ed.) Consequentialism and its Critics

   Sen, A. (1981) 'Rights and agency',  Philosophy and Public Affairs 11, reprinted in Scheffler (ed.) Consequentialism and its Critics

   Brandt, R.B. (1992) Morality, Utilitarianism and Rights, see pp. 196-212

 

@ Overdemandingness objection to consequentialism

   (For the integrity version of this objection, see below)

   Mulgan, T. (2001) The Demands of Consequentialism

   Goodin, R.E. (2009) 'Demandingness as a virtue', Journal of Ethics 13(1)

   Railton, P. (1984) 'Alienation, consequentialism and demands of morality', in Scheffler (ed.) Consequentialism and its Critics

   Hurley, P.E. (2006) ' Does consequentialism make too many demands, or none at all?', Ethics 116(4)

 

@ Integrity objection to consequentialism

   Williams, B. (1973) 'A critique of utilitarianism', in Utilitarianism: For and Against, J.J.C. Smart and B. Williams

   Williams, B. (1976) 'Utilitarianism and moral self-indulgence', in H.D. Lewis (ed.) Contemporary British Philosophy lV, reprinted in Moral Luck, ch. 3

* Williams, B. (1976) 'Persons, character and morality', in A.O. A. Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics   The Identitites of Persons, reprinted in Moral Luck, ch. 1

   Taylor, G. and Gaita, R. (1981) 'Integrity', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Sup. Vol. 55

+ Griffin, J. (1982) 'Modern utilitarianism' Revue Internationale de Philosophie 141

 

@ Agent-relative moralities

   (So they can be seen as responses to the integrity objection, which applies to Kantian as well as utilitarian moralities)

   Winch, P. (1972) 'The universalizability of moral judgments', in his Ethics and Action

   Fried, C. (1978) Right and Wrong

   Scheffler, S. (1983) The Rejection of Consequentialism

   Ferrara, A. (1994) 'Authenticity and the project of modernity', European Journal of Philosophy 2(3)

 

@ Acts/omissions and consequentialism

   Bennett, J. (1965) 'Whatever the consequences'

   Thomson, J.J. (1971) Philosophy and Public Affairs

* Trammell, ? (1975) 'Saving life and taking life' Journal of Philosophy, reprinted in B. Steinbock (ed.) Killing and Letting Die

* Thomson, J.J. (1976) 'Killing, letting die and the trolley problem' Monist, reprinted in Rights, Restitution and Risk

   Glover, J. (1977) Causing Death and Saving Lives, ch. 7

   Davis, ? (1980?) 'The priority of avoiding harm' in B. Steinbock (ed.) Killing and Letting Die

   Bennett, J. (1980) 'Morality and consequences', secs. 1,2

   Davis, N. (1980) 'Utilitarianism and responsibility' Ratio 22

   Nagel, T. (1980) 'The limits of objectivity'

* Foot, P. (1985?) 'Morality, action and outcome', in T. Honderich (ed.) Morality and Objectivity 1985, esp. pp. 23-29

 

@ Double effect and consequentialism

   Anscombe, G.E. (1958) 'Modern moral philosophy'

* Foot, P. (1967) 'The problem of abortion and the doctrine of double effect', Oxford Review 5, reprinted in Virtues and Vices, ch. 2

   Glover, J. (1977) Causing Death and Saving Lives, ch. 6

   Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, ch. 7, sec. 6 'Absolutism and the principle of double effect'

   Bennett, J. (1980) 'Morality and consequences'

 

@ Welfare, utility, interests

   (See also 'Good')

   Mill, J.S. Utilitarianism, ch. 4

   Ayer, A.J. (1954) 'The principle of utility', in his Philosophical Essays

+ Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, ch. 6, sec. 5 'The "proof" of utility'

   Geuss, R. (1981) The Idea of a Critical Theory: Habermas and the Frankfurt School

   Feinberg, J. (1984) Harm to Others

   Railton, P. (1986) 'Moral realism', Philosophical Review 95

* Griffin, J. (1982) 'Modern utilitarianism'

   Harsanyi, J. (1982) 'Morality and the theory of rational behaviour', in Sen and Williams eds

   Gray, J. (1983) Mill On Liberty: A Defence, ch. 2

+ Kymlicka, W. (1990) Contemporary Political Philosophy, ch. 2, sec. 2-3

   Griffin, J. (1986) Well-Being, parts 1,2

 

@ Pleasure and happiness accounts of welfare

+ Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, ch. 6 sec. 5

   Aristotle Nicomachean Ethics bk 7:11-14, bk 10

   Mill, J.S. Essay on Bentham

   Mill, J.S. A System of Logic, last ch

   Mill, J.S. Utilitarianism, chs. 2, 4

   Gray, J. (1983) Mill on Liberty: A Defence, ch. 2

 

@ Preference accounts of welfare

   Hobbes Leviathan, ch. 6

   Kenny, A. (1963) Action Emotion and Will, ch. 5

   Griffin, J. (1986) Well-Being, chs. 1-4

 

@ Incommensurability and problems of welfare measure

   Nagel, T. (1977) 'The fragmentation of value', in H.T. Engelhardt and D. Callahan (eds) Knowledge, Value and Belief, reprinted in Mortal Questions, ch. 9

   Griffin, J. (1977) 'Are there incommensurable values?' Philosophy and Public Affairs 7

   Williams, B. (1979) 'Conflicts of values'

   Sen, A. (1980-81) 'Plural utility' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society

   Sen, A. (1982) Choice, Welfare and Measurement, chs. 2,4,12

   Taylor, C. (1982) 'The diversity of goods', in A. Sen and B. Williams (eds) Utilitarianism and Beyond

   Hampshire, S. (1983) Morality and Conflict

   Raz, J. (1986) 'Value incommensurability: some preliminaries' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society

   Griffin, J. (1986) Well-Being, ch. 5

 

@ CONTRACTARIANISM AND CONTRACTUALISM

 

@ Contractarian, mutual advantag e, 'common good' and 'social rationality' accounts of morality

   (This is about (a) the definition and (b) the justification of morality from ideas of mutual advantage or the common good, using game theory. Here, under theories defining morality, distinguish theories that offer a criterion for moral principles - equivalent to a theory of justice - and those that offer a criterion for the procedure of adopting or rejecting moral principles - equivalent to a theory of democracy)

   (For rational choice explanations of actual moral norms see 'Rational choice, 'actual contract', and 'social agreement' explanations of moral norms')

   (For 'is it in your interests to act morally?' see 'Self-interested reasons to be moral')

   (For theories that relate reason to morality in a Kantian rather than a Hobbesian way, see 'Contractualism'. Also 'Ethical rationalism 1' and 'Ethical rationalism 2')

   Findlay, J. (1944) 'Morality by convention' Mind 53

   Baier, K. [1958] The Moral Point of View, 3rd. ed. 1965, ch. 8 'The moral point of view' [#]

   Sen, A. (1974) 'Choice, orderings and morality', in Practical Reason (ed.) S. Körner

* Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, ch. 5 'The object of morality'

* Parfit, D. (1979) 'Prudence, morality and the prisoner's dilemma', Proceedings of the British Academy 65

   Hampshire, S. (1982) 'Morality and convention', in Sen and Williams (eds) Utilitarianism and Beyond

   Elster, J. (1985) 'Rationality, morality and collective action', Ethics 96(1)

* Mackie, J.L. (1985) 'Norms and dilemmas', Persons and Values: Selected Papers Vol. 2

   Railton, P. (1986) 'Moral realism', Philosophical Review 95

   Griffin, J. (1986) Well-Being, ch. 9

   Coleman, J. and Kraus, J. (1987) 'Morality and the theory of rational choice', Ethics 97(4)

+ Kymlicka, W. (1991) 'The social contract tradition' in Peter Singer (ed.) A Companion to Ethics [7]

   Becker, L.C. (2005) 'Reciprocity, Justice, and Disability', Ethics, 116(1)

 

@ Contractarianism: Gauthier

   Gauthier, D. (1967) 'Morality and advantage', Philosophical Review 76, reprinted in J. Raz (ed.) Practical Reasoning

   Gauthier, D. (1975) 'Reason and maximization', Canadian Journal of Philosophy 4

   Gauthier, D. (1979) 'Thomas Hobbes: moral theorist', Journal of Philosophy 76

* Gauthier, D. (1986) Morals by Agreeement, chs. 1, 6, 10

   Paul, E.F. et al (eds) (1988) The New Social Contract: Essays on Gauthier

   Ripstein, A. (1989) 'Gauthier's liberal individual', Dialogue 28

   Gauthier, D. (1990) Moral Dealing: Contract, Ethics, and Reason Gauthier, D. (1990) 'Maximisation constrained: the rationality of cooperation' in P. Moser (ed.) Rationality in Action

   Vallentyne, P. (1991) Contractarianism and Rational Choice: Essays on David Gauthier's Morals by Agreement

   Gauthier, D. (1991) 'Why contractarianism?' in P. Vallentyne (ed.) Contractarianism and Rational Choice : Essays on David Gauthier's Morals by Agreement

   Gauthier, D. and Sugden, R. (eds) (1993) Rationality, Justice and the Social Contract : Themes from Morals by Agreement

   Byron, M. (1995) 'Rationality is not fair', Analysis 55(4)

* Heath, J. (2003) 'The transcendental necessity of morality', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 67(2)

   Williams, G. (1998) 'Gauthier's attempt to derive morality from rationality', Philosophical Notes 51

 

@ Contractualism: Rawls

   Rawls, J. (1971) A Theory of Justice secs. 1-6, 9, 27-28, 30, 87

   Dworkin, R. (1975?) 'The original position', in N. Daniels (ed.) Reading Rawls 1975, and as 'Justice and rights' in Dworkin's Taking Rights Seriously 1977

   Sandel, M. (1982) Liberalism and the Limits of Justice Chs. 3,4

   Williams, B. (1985) Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, ch. 6 (see pp. 99-104)

   Parfit, D. (1984) Reasons and Persons, secs. 23, 24

 

@ Contractualism: Scanlon

* Scanlon, T.M. (1982) 'Contractualism and utilitarianism', in Sen and Williams (eds) Utilitarianism and Beyond

   Scanlon, T. (1988) 'The significance of choice', in The Tanner Lectures on Human Values, vol. 8, (ed.) S.M. McMurrin

* Scanlon, T.M. (1999) What We Owe to Each Other

   Nagel, T. (1999) 'One-to-one', Review of Scanlon 1999, London Review of Books 4 Feb 1999

   Blackburn, S. (1999) 'Am I right?', review of Scanlon 1999, New York Times 21 Feb 1999

   Hampshire, S. (1999) 'The reason why not', review of Scanlon 1999, New York Review of Books, 22 Apr 1999

   Kreide, R. (2000) 'Context-sensitive universalism: on Thomas Scanlon's "What We Owe to Each Other"', Philosophy and Social Criticism 26(5)

   Adams, R.M. (2001) 'Scanlon's contractualism' Philosophical Review 110(4)

   Ridge, M. (2001) 'Saving Scanlon: contractualism and agent-relativity', Journal of Political Philosophy 9(4)

   Pogge, T. (2001) 'What we can reasonably reject', Nous supplement 11

   Dworkin, G. (2002) 'Contractualism and the normativity of principles', Ethics 112(3)

   Arneson, R.J. (2002) 'The end of welfare as we know it? Scanlon versus welfarist consequentialism', Social Theory and Practice 28(2)

   Wallace, Dworkin, Deigh and Scanlon (2002) Symposium on What We Owe to Each Other, Ethics 112

   Timmons, M. (2003) 'The limits of moral constructivism', Ratio 16(4)

   O'Neill, O. (2003) 'Constructivism vs. contractualism', Ratio 16(4)

   Parfit, D. (2003) 'Justifiability to each person', Ratio 16(4)

   Matravers, M. (ed.) (2003) Scanlon and Contractualism

   Pettit, P. (2005) 'Can contract theory ground morality?' in J. Dreier (ed.) Contemporary Debates in Moral Theory

 

@ CONVENTIONALISM AND CULTURAL EVOLUTIONISM

 

@ Sociology of morality

   Durkheim, E. [1887] Ethics and the Sociology of Morals

   Durkheim, E. The Division of Labour in Society, preface and introduction

   Durkheim, E. (1906) 'Determination du fait morale', in his Sociologie et philosophie

   Fein, M.L. (1997) Hardball Without an Umpire: The Sociology of Morality

   Bauman, Z. (1989) Modernity and the Holocaust

 

@ Morality as ideology

   Railton, P. (2000) 'Morality, ideology and reflection: or, the duck sits yet' in E. Harcourt (ed.) Morality, Reflection, and Ideology, reprinted in Railton's Facts, Values, and Norms 2003

 

@ Rational choice, 'actual contract', and 'social greement' explanations of moral norms

   (For accounts that include explanations of why moral change should be in the direction of egalitarianism, see 'Moral progress')

+ Elster, J. (1989) Nuts and Bolts, ch. 12

   Frank, R. (1975) Passions within Reason

   Cancian, F. (1975) What are Norms?

   Buchanon, J. (1975) The Limits of Liberty, ch. 8

* Harman, G. (1975) 'Moral relativism defended' Philosophical Review 84, reprinted in Meiland and Krausz (eds) Relativism, Cognitive and Moral

   Coburn, R. (1976) 'Relativism and the basis of morality', Philosophical Review 85

   Ullmann-Margalit, E. (1977) The Emergence of Norms

   Harman, G. (1978) 'Relativistic ethics: morality as politics', Midwest Studies in Philosophy 3

   Laver, M. (1981) The Politics of Private Desires, pp.62-70

   Edgerton, R. (1985) Rules, Exceptions and the Social Order

   Harman, G. (1983) 'Justice and moral bargaining', Social Philosophy and Policy 1

   Gambetta, D. (ed.) (1988) Trust

   Hollis, M. (1988) The Cunning of Reason

   Elster, J. (1989) The Cement of Society, ch. 3

   Isaac, A. (1997) 'Morality, maximization and economic behaviour', Southern Economic Journal 63(3)

   Congleton, R. and Vanberg, V. (1992) 'Rationality, morality and exit', American Political Science Review 86(2)

   Miller, S. (2000) Social Action: A Teleological Account

   Verbeek, B. (2002) 'Game theory and moral norms: an overview and an application', Croation Journal of Philosophy 6

   Rosas, A. (2004) 'Mind reading, deception and the evolution of Kantian moral agents', Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 34(2)

   Vanberg, V. (2006) 'Rationality, rule following and emotions: on the economics of moral preferences', Papers on Economics and Evolution no. 0621

 

@ Moral progress

   (Including the idea that contemporary morality can be justified by showing how it has emerged historically)

   Hodges, D. (1971) 'Presuppositions of a definition of moral progress', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 31(3)

   Harman, G. (1975) 'Moral relativism defended' Philosophical Review 84, reprinted in Meiland and Krausz (eds) Relativism, Cognitive and Moral, secs. 3-4

   Macklin, R. (1977) 'Moral progress', Ethics 87(4)

   Gellner, E. (1979) 'The social roots of egalitarianism', Dialectics and Humanism 4, reprinted in his Culture, Identity and Politics 1987

   Singer, P. (1981) The Expanding Circle

   Slote, M. (1982) 'Is virtue possible?', Analysis 42(2)

   Railton, P. (1986) 'Moral realism', Philosophical Review 95(2)

   Copp, D. (1990) 'Explanation and justification in ethics', Ethics 100(2)

   Rosenberg, A. (1990) 'Moral realism and social science', Midwest Studies in Philosophy 15(1)

   Moody-Adams, M.M. (2003) 'The idea of moral progress', Metaphilosophy 30(3)

   Nichols, S. (2004) Sentimental Rules: On the Natural Foundations of Moral Judgement, chs. 7-8 [oso]

   Worrell, F.D. (2007) The Genealogy of Morals: Contemporary Empirical Accounts, MA thesis (online)

   Nussbaum, M. (2007) 'On moral progress: a response to Richard Rorty', University of Chicago Law Review 74(3)

 

@ RELATIVISM

 

@ Moral relativism and arguments against moral realism from disagreement

   Moore, G.E. (1922) Philosophical Studies

   Stevenson, C.L. (193?) 'Relativism and non-relativism in the theory of value' in his Facts and Values

   Benedict, R. (1934) Patterns of Culture

   Brandt, R. (1959) Ethical Theory, chs. 5,11

   Williams, B. (1965) 'Ethical consistency' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Vol. 39, reprinted in Problems of the Self, ch. 11, also in J. Raz (ed.) Practical Reasoning

   Williams, B. (1966) 'Consistency and realism', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Vol. 40, reprinted in his Problems of the Self, ch. 12

   Phillips, D.Z. and Mounce, H.O. (1970) Moral Practices, ch. 7 'Ethical relativity'

+ Williams, B. (1972) Morality, ch. on relativism

   Norman, R. (1971) Reasons for Action, ch. 5 'Varieties of ethical relativism'

* Williams, B. (1974-75) 'The truth in relativism' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 75, reprinted in Moral Luck, ch. 11, also in Meiland and Krausz (eds) Relativism, Cognitive and Moral

   Wiggins, D. (1976) 'Truth, invention and the meaning of life' §§1-8, Proceedings of the British Academy 62, reprinted in his Needs, Values and Truth, ch. 3

   Lyons, D. (1976) 'Ethical relativism and the problem of incoherence', Ethics 86(2)

* MacIntyre, A. (1981) After Virtue, chs. 1-6,9

   McDowell, J. & Blackburn, S. (1981) exchange in S.H. Holtzman & C.M. Leich (eds) Wittgenstein: To Follow a Rule

   Meiland, J.W. and Krausz, M. (eds) (1982) Relativism, Cognitive and Moral

   Lovibond, S. (1983) Realism and Imagination in Ethics

   Brink, D. (1984) 'Moral realism and the sceptical arguments from disagreement and queerness', Australasian Journal of Philosophy 62, section 3

   Williams, B. (1985) Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, ch. 9 'Relativism and reflection' (cf. chs. 2,8)

   Foot, P. (1982?) 'Moral relativism', in Meiland and Krausz (eds) Relativism, Cognitive and Moral

* Wong, D. (1984) Moral Relativity

   Tolhurst, W. (1987) 'The argument from moral disagreement', Ethics, 87

   Wiggins, D. (1987) 'A sensible subjectivism?' in his Needs, Values and Truth, ch. 5

+ McNaughton, D. (1988) Moral Vision, ch. 10

   Krausz, M. (ed.) Relativism: Interpretation and Confrontation

   Wiggins, D. (1990-91) 'Moral cognitivism, moral relativism and motivating moral beliefs'

+ Wong, D.B. (1991) 'Relativism', in P. Singer, ed., A Companion to Ethics 1991

   Sayre-McCord, G. (1991) 'Being a realist about relativism (in ethics)', Philosophical Studies 61

   Wong, D.B. (1991) 'Commentary on Sayre-Mccord's "being a realist about relativism", Philosophical Studies 61

+ Benn, P. (1997) Ethics, ch. 1

 

@ Harman's moral relativism

   Harman, G. (1975) 'Reasons' Critica 7, reprinted in J. Raz (ed.) Practical Reasoning

* Harman, G. (1975) 'Moral relativism defended' Philosophical Review 84, reprinted in Meiland and Krausz (eds) Relativism, Cognitive and Moral

* Harman, G. (1977) The Nature of Morality, chs. 8-9

   Harman, G. (1978) 'Relativistic ethics: morality as politics', Midwest Studies in Philosophy 111

   Sher, G. (1980) 'Moral relativism defended?', Mind 89(356)

   Harman, G. and Thomson, J.J. (1996) Moral Relativism and Moral Objectivity

   Copp, D. (1982) 'Harman on internalism, relativism, and logical form', Ethics 92

   Harman, G. (1989) 'Is there a single true morality?', in M. Krausz (ed.) Relativism: Interpretation and Confrontation, reprinted in his Explaining value and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy

Harman, G. (1998) 'Responses to critics', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 58(1)

 

@ EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY AND ETHICS

 

@ Introductions

+ Ruse, M. (1991) 'The significance of evolution', in P. Singer (ed.) A Companion to Ethics [7]

+ Sober, E. (1998) 'Evolution and ethics', Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy

+ Holcomb, H. and Byron, J. (2005) 'Sociobiology', Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

+ Kitcher, P. (2005) 'Biology and ethics' in D. Copp (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory

 

@ Sociobiology

   Rose, S., Kamin, L.J. and Lewontin, R.C. (1984) Not in Our Genes

   Midgley, M. Evolution as a Religion (or the article of the same name in J. Durant (ed.) Darwinism and Divinity)

   Midgley, M. Beast and Man: The Roots of Human Nature

   Lewontin, R. The Doctrine of DNA (attack on evolutionary psychologists such as Dawkins and Pinker.)

   Wilson, E.O. (1975) Sociobiology: The New Synthesis

   Dawkins, R. (1989) The Selfish Gene, 2nd edition 1989, chs. 1-6

 

@ Evolutionary psychology

   (Essentially this is a somewhat more sophisticated succesro to sociobiology)

   Hull, D.L. (1989) 'On human nature' in his The Metaphysics of Evolution

   Tooby, J. and Cosmides, L. (1990) 'On the universality of human nature and the uniqueness of the individual: the role of genetics and adaptation' Journal of Personality 58, pp. 17-67

* Barkow, J.H., Cosmides, L. and Tooby J. (eds) (1992) The Adapted Mind: Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture

+ Tooby, J. and Cosmides. L. (1992) 'The psychological foundations of culture', in Barkow et al 1992

   Buss, D.M. (1995) 'Evolutionary psychology: a new paradigm for psychological science', Psychological Inquiry 6, pp. 1-30

+ Cosmides, L. and Tooby, J. (1997) 'Evolutionary psychology: a primer' at http://www.psych.ucsb.edu/research/cep/primer.html

   Pinker, S. (1997) How the Mind Works

   Wilson, E.O. (1998) Consilience: The Unity of Knowledge

   Plotkin, H. (1998) Evolution in Mind: An Introduction to Evolutionary Psychology

   Wills, C. (1998) Children of Prometheus: The Accelerating Pace of Human Evolution

   Buss, D.M. (1999) Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of the Mind

   Richards, J.R. (2000) Human Nature After Darwin: A Philosophical Introduction

 

@ Evolutionary psychology: critiques

   Sahlins, M. (1977) The Use and Abuseof Biology: An Anthropological Critique of Sociobiology

   Gould, S.J. (1978) 'Sociobiology and human nature: a postpanglossian vision', Human Nature 1(10)

   Gould, S.J. and Lewontin, R.C. (1979) 'The spandrels of San Marco and the panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme', Proceedings of the Royal Society of London , pp. 581-58

   Kitcher, P. (1985) Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Quest for Human Nature

   Rose, H. and Rose, S. (eds) (2000) Alas Poor Darwin: Arguments Against Evolutionary Psychology

   Buller, D.J. (2005) Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature

   Swami, V. (2007) 'Evolutionary psychology: 'new science of the mind' or 'Darwinian fundamentalism'?' Historical Materialism 15(4)

 

@ Evolutionary psychology:  explaining altruism and morality

   Wilson, E.O. (1975) Sociobiology: The New Synthesis

   Dawkins, R. [1976] The Selfish Gene, 2nd ed. 1989

* Trivers, R.L. (1971) 'The evolution of reciprocal altruism', Quarterly Review of Biology 46

   Ridley, M. and Dawkins, R. (1981) 'The natural selection of altruism', in J.P. Rushton and R.M. Sorrento (eds) Altruism and Helping Behaviour

   Stent, G.S. (ed.) (1978) Morality as a Biological Phenomenon

   Caplan, A.L. (ed.) (1978) The Sociobiology Debate

   Smith, J.M. (1978) 'The concepts of sociobiology' in G.S. Stent (ed.) Morality as a Biological Phenomenon

   Solomon, R.C. et al. (1978) 'Sociobiology, morality and culture - group report', in G.S. Stent (ed.) Morality as a Biological Phenomenon

   Montagu, A. (ed.) (1980) Sociobiology Examined

   King, J.C. (1980) 'The genetics of sociobiology' in A. Montagu (ed.) Sociobiology Examined

   Singer, P. (1981) The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology

   Axelrod, R. and Hamilton, W. (1981) 'The evolution of cooperation', Science 211

* Axelrod, R. (1984) The Evolution of Cooperation, chs. 1-2, 5

   Oldenquist, A. (1991) 'The origins of morality', in E.F. Paul et al. (eds) Ethics, Politics and Human Nature [#]

   Paul, E.F. et al. (eds) (1991) Ethics, Politics and Human Nature

   Ruse, M. (1995) Evolutionary Naturalism

   Wright, R. (1996) The Moral Animal: Evolutionary Psychology and Everyday Life

   de Waal, F. (1996) Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals

   Skyrms, B. (1996) The Evolution of the Social Contract

   Mithen, S. (1996) The Prehistory of the Mind: A Search for the Origins of Art, Religion and Science

   Wilson, E.O. (1998) 'The biological basis of morality', The Atlantic Monthly 281(4)

   O'Manique, J. (2002) The Origins of Justice: The Evolution of Morality, Human Rights, and Law

   Stanford, C.B. (2002) Significant Others, the Ape-Human Continuum and the Quest for Human Nature

   Dupré, J. (2003) 'On human nature', Human Affairs 13(2)

   Levy, N. (2004) What Makes Us Moral? Crossing the Boundaries of Biology

* de Waal, F. (2006) 'Morally evolved: primate social instincts,human morality, and the rise and fall of "veneer theory"',  in S. Macedo and J. Ober (eds) Primates and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved

   Hauser, M.D. (2006) Moral Minds: How Nature Designed our Universal Sense of Right and Wrong

   Joyce, R. (2006) The Evolution of Morality

   McKenzie Alexander, J. (2007) The Structural Evolution of Morality

   Graeber, D. (2007) Possibilities: Essays on Hierarchy, Rebellion, and Desire

   Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (ed.) (2007) Moral Psychology. Volume 1: Evolution of Morality - Adaptation and Innatenes

   Skyrms, B. (2010) Signals: Evolution, Learning, and Information

 

@ Neuroscience: explaining moral behaviour

   Damasio, A. (1994) Descartes' Error

   Prinz, J. (2007) The Emotional Construction of Morals

   Tancredi, L. (?) Hardwired Behaviour: What Neuroscience Reveals About Morality

   Sinnott-Armstrong, W. (ed.) (2007) Moral Psychology. Volume 2: Cognitive Science of Morality: Intuition and Diversity and Volume 3: Neuroscience of Morality: Emotion, Brain Disorders, and Development

 

@ Evolutionary psychology and neuroscience: implications for normative ethics

   Mackie, J.L. (1978) 'The law of the jungle: moral alternatives and principles of evolution', Philosophy 53

   Nagel, T. (1978) 'Ethics as an autonomous theoretical subject', in G.S. Stent (ed.) Morality as a Biological Phenomenon, reprinted as 'Ethics without biology' in Nagel's Mortal Questions [4]

   Wilson, E.O. (1978) 'For sociobiology', in Caplan (ed.) The Sociobiology Debate

   Ruse, M. (1979) Sociobiology: Sense or Nonsense, 2nd ed. 1985

   Midgley, M. (1979) 'Gene juggling', Philosophy 54

   Mackie, J.L. (1981) 'Genes and egoism', Philosophy 56

   Dawkins, R. (1981) 'In defence of selfish genes', Philosophy 56

   Singer, P. (1981) 'Ethics and sociobiology', Philosophy and Public Affairs 11

   Singer, P. (1981) The Expanding Circle: Ethics and Sociobiology

   Trigg, R. (1982) The Shaping of Man: Philosophical Aspects of Sociobiology

   Midgley, M. (1983) 'Selfish genes and social darwinism', Philosophy 58

   Trivers, R. (1985) Social Evolution, ch. 15 'The evolution of cooperation'

+ Ruse, M. (1991) 'The significance of evolution', in P. Singer (ed.) A Companion to Ethics

   Kitcher, P. (1993) 'The evolution of human altruism', Journal of Philosophy 90

   Kitcher, P. (1994) 'Four ways of biologicizing ethics', in E. Sober (ed.) Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology

* Williams, B. (1983) 'Evolution, ethics and the representation problem', in D.S. Bendall (ed.) Evolution from Molecules to Men, reprinted in Wiliams's Making Sense of Humanity, ch. 9

   Midgley, M. (1994) The Ethical Primate: Humans, Freedom and Morality

   Richards, R.A. (2005) 'Evolutionary naturalism and the logical structure of valuation: the other side of error theory', Cosmos and History 1(2), available online

   Street, S. (2006) 'A Darwinian dilemma for realist theories of value', Philosophical Studies, 127, available online

 

@ Evolutionary ethics and the fact-value distinction

   Nagel, T. (1978) 'Ethics as an autonomous theoretical subject', in Stent (ed.) Morality as a Biological Phenomenon, reprinted as 'Ethics without biology' in Nagel's Mortal Questions 1979

* Ruse, M. and Wilson, E. (1986) 'Moral philosophy as applied science', Philosophy 61, reprinted in E. Sober (ed.) Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology

   Ball, S.W. (1988) 'Evolution, explanation and the fact/value distinction', Biology and Philosophy 3 (317-348)

* Kitcher, P. (1994) 'Four ways of biologizing ethics', in E. Sober (ed.) Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology

   Teehan, J. and diCarlo, C. (2004) 'On the naturalistic fallacy: a conceptual basis for evolutionary ethics', Evolutionary Psychology 2, available online

   Curry, O. (2006) 'Who's afraid of the naturalistic fallacy?', Evolutionary Psychology 4, available online

 

@ Evolutionary psychology and neuroscience: implications for metaethics

   McGinn, C. (1979) 'Evolution, animals, and the basis of morality', Inquiry 22(1-4)

   Ruse, M. and Wilson, E. (1986) 'Moral philosophy as applied science', Philosophy 61, reprinted in E. Sober (ed.) Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology

   Blackburn, S. (1987) 'How to be an ethical anti-realist', Midwest Studies in Philosophy 12, reprinted in his Essays in Quasi-Realism, 1993, and in R. Shafer-Landau and T. Cuneo (eds.) Foundations of Ethics, 2007

* Kitcher, P. (1994) 'Four ways of biologizing ethics', in E. Sober (ed.) Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology

 

@ Animal ethics

   (I.e. ethical responsibilities towards animals)

   McGinn, C. (1979) 'Evolution, animals, and the basis of morality', Inquiry 22(1-4)

   Singer, P. (ed) (1985) In Defense of Animals

   Singer, P. (1989) 'All animals are equal', in T. Regan and P. Singer (eds) Animal Rights and Human Obligations

   Singer, P. and Cavalieri, P. (eds.) (1993) The Great Ape Project

   Leahy, M.P.T. (1994) Against Liberation: Putting Animals in Perspective

   Jamieson, D. (ed.) (1998) Singer and His Critics

 

   Woolcock, P. G. (1999) The Case Against Evolutionary Ethics. In Biology and the Foundation of Ethics (Maienschein and Ruse, eds.) pp. 276-306. New York: Cambridge University Press

 

@ CONSISTENCY AND MORAL DILEMMAS

 

@ Consistency

   Anscombe, G.E. (1958) 'On brute facts' [in promising]

* Winch, P. (1965) 'The universalizability of moral judgments' Monist 49, reprinted in Ethics and Action 1972, ch. 8

* Williams, B. (1965) 'Ethical Consistency' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Vol. 39, reprinted in Problems of the Self, ch. 11, also in J. Raz (ed.) Practical Reasoning

* Williams, B. (1966) 'Consistency and realism', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Vol. 40, reprinted in Problems of the Self, ch. 12

   Barry, B. (1965) Political Argument, pp. 3-8

   Rawls, J. (1971) A Theory of Justice Secs. 4,6,9

   Dworkin, R. (197?) 'Hard cases' in Taking Rights Seriously

   Feinberg, J. (1972) 'Justice and fairness of rationality'

   Wiggins, D. (1975-76) 'Deliberation and practical reason' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 76, reprinted in Needs, Values and Truth, ch. 6, also in part in J. Raz (ed.) Practical Reasoning

   Harman, G. (1976) 'Practical reasoning', Review of Metaphysics 29

   Glover, J. (1977) Causing Death and Saving Lives ch. 2.3-4

   Harrison, R. (1979) 'Ethical consistency', in R. Harrison (ed.) Rational Action

   Williams, B. (1982) 'Sidgwick and the ambitions of ethics' in Williams, Making Sense of Humanity

   O'Neill, O. (1989?) 'Consistency and action', in Constructions of Reason 1989

 

@ Reflective equilibrium

   Raz, J. (1982) 'The claims of reflective equilibrium'

   Haslett, D.W. (1987) 'What is wrong with reflective equilibria?' Philosophical Quarterly 37

 

@ Dilemmas and conflicting reasons

   Ross, W.D. (1939) Foundations of Ethics, p. 84

* Sartre, J.-P. (1946) Existentialism and Humanism

* Lemmon, E.J. (1962) 'Dilemmas' Philosophical Review 71

   Trigg, R. (1971) 'Moral conflict' Mind

* Winch, P. (1965) 'The universalizability of moral judgments' Monist 49, reprinted in Ethics and Action 1972, ch. 8

   Williams, B. (1965) 'Ethical consistency'

   Williams, B. (1966) 'Consistency and realism'

   Phillips, D.Z. and Mounce, H.O. (1969) Moral Practices, ch. 8 'Moral dilemmas'

   Searle, J. (1978) 'Prima facie obligations', in J. Raz (ed.) Practical Reasoning

   Cavell, S. (1979) The Claim of Reason, part 3

   Hare, R.M. (1980) 'Moral conflicts', in  S. McMurrin (ed.) Tanner Lectures on Human Values 1

   Hare, R.M. (1981) Moral Thinking, chs. 2-3

   Hampshire, S. (1983) Morality and Conflict, chs. 6,7 'Morality and conflict'

   Foot, P. (1983) 'Moral realism and moral dilemmas' Journal of Philosophy 77

   Wiggins, D. (1987) Needs, Values and Truth ch. 3 pp. 125-6, ch. 4 pp. 166-84, ch. 7 pp. 255-67

 

@ Incommensurable values

   What can be meant by the idea that there are incommensurable claims?

* Williams, B. (1979) 'Conflicts of values', in A. Ryan (ed.) The Idea of Freedom, reprinted in Moral Luck, ch. 10

   Nagel, T. 'The fragmentation of value'

   Griffin, J. (1977) 'Are there incommensurable values?'

   Raz, J. (1986) 'Value incommensurability: some preliminaries'

 

@ ACTION AND FREE WILL

 

@ Agent causation

* Chisholm, R. (1964) 'Human freedom and the self', The Lindley Lectures, reprinted in G. Watson (ed.) Free Will, 1982

   Watson, G. (1975) 'Free agency', Journal of Philosophy 72(8), reprinted in G. Watson (ed.) Free Will, 1982

   O'Connor, T. (ed.) (1995) Agents, Causes, and Events: Essays on Indeterminism and Free Will

   O'Connor, T. (2000) Persons and Causes: The Metaphysics of Free Will

+ Lowe, J. (2002) A Survey of Metaphysics, ch. 11 'Event causation and agent causation'

 

@ Responsibility and free will: general

   (See also 'Punishment')

   Aristotle Ethics book 3 chs. 1-5

   Hart, H.L.A. (1951?) 'Defeasibility' in A. Flew (ed.) Logic and Language vol. 2

   Stevenson, C.L. (1968?) 'Ethics and avoidability', in P. Schilpp (ed.) The Philosophy of G.E. Moore, 1968

* Hart, H.L.A. (1968) Punishment and Responsibility, chs. 1,(7)

   Glover, J. (1970) Responsibility, chs. 1,3

   Trusted, J. (1984) Free Will and Responsibility

   Fischer, J.M. (ed.) (1986) Moral Responsibility

   Wolf, S. (1987) 'Sanity and the metaphysics of responsibility', in F. Schoeman (ed.) Responsibility, Character and the Emotions: New Essays in Moral Psychology 1987

 

@ Responsibility and free will: the determinism issue

   (For the Kantian position see 'Responsibility in Kant')

   Hume Treatise 2.3.1, 2.3.2 'Of liberty and necessity'

   Hume Enquiry Concerning the Human Understanding sec. 8 'Of liberty and necessity'

   Kant Groundwork, ch. 3

   Austin, J.L. (19?) 'Three ways of spilling ink' in Philosophical Papers, 3rd ed., 1979

   Nowell-Smith, P. (1948) 'Freewill and moral responsibility', Mind

   Broad, C.D. (1952) 'Determinism, indeterminism and libertarianism', in his Ethics and the History of Philosophy

   Ayer, A.J. (1954) 'Freedom and necessity', in his Philosophical Essays, reprinted in G. Watson (ed.) Free Will 1982

   Warnock, G.J. (1955?) 'Every event has a cause', in A. Flew (ed.) Logic and Language vol. 1

   MacIntyre, A. (1957) 'Determinism' Mind 66

   Foot, P. (1957) 'Free will as involving determinism' Philosophical Review 66, reprinted in Virtues and Vices, ch. 4

   Edwards, ? (1958) in Determinism and Freedom in the Age of Modern Science, (ed.) S. Hook

   Pitcher, ? (1961) Philosophical Quarterly 70

   Pears, D. (ed.) (1963) Freedom and the Will

   Frankena, W.K. (1963) Ethics, ch. 4

   Lucas, J.R. (1970) Freedom of the Will

   Dworkin, G. (ed.) (1970) Determinism, Free Will and Moral Responsibility

   Honderich, T. (ed.) (1973) Essays on Freedom of Action

   Wiggins, D. (1973) 'Towards a reasonable libertarianism', in Honderich ed., shortened version in Needs, Values, and Truth, ch. 8

   Taylor, T. (1974) 'Freedom and determination' in his Metaphysics

   van Inwagen, P. (1975) 'The incompatibility of free will and determinism', Philosophical Studies 27, reprinted in J.M. Fischer (ed.) Moral Responsibility 1986, also in G. Watson (ed.) Free Will 1982

   Taylor, C. (1976)  'Responsibility for self' in A.O. A. Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics   The Identities of Persons, reprinted in G. Watson (ed.) Free Will 1982

+ Mackie, J.L. (1977) Ethics, ch. 9 'Determinism, responsibility and choice'

   Davis, L. (1978) Theory of Action

+ Williams, C. (1980) Free Will and Determinism: A Dialogue

* Ayer, A.J. (1980?) in Z. van Straaten (ed.) Philosophical Subjects 1980

   Watson, G. (ed.) (1982) Free Will

   Benn, S.I. (1988) A Theory of Freedom, ch. 9 or 'Freedom, autonomy and the concept of a person', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 76, 1975-76 (sections on autonomy)

   Klein, M. (1990) Determination, Blameworthiness and Deprivation

   Weatherford, R. (1991) The Implications of Determinism

   Lucas, J. (1993) Responsibility

+ Honderich, T. (1993) How Free Are You? ch. 8 'Compatibilism and incompatibilism'

   Fischer, J.M. (1995?) The Metaphysics of Free Will: An Essay on Control

 

@ Responsibility and free will: Frankfurt's approach

   Frankfurt, H.G. (1969) 'Alternate possibilities and moral responsibility' Journal of Philosophy 66

* Frankfurt, H. (1971) 'Freedom of the will and the concept of a person', Frankfurt, H. (1971) 'Freedom of the will and the concept of a person', Journal of Philosophy 68(1), reprinted  in Frankfurt's The Importance of What We Care About, and also in G. Watson (ed.) Free Will 1982

   Frankfurt, H.G. (1973) 'Coercion and moral responsibility', in T. Honderich (ed.) Essays on Freedom of Action

   Watson, G. (1975) 'Free agency', Journal of Philosophy 72(8), reprinted in  G. Watson (ed.) Free Will 1982

   Frankfurt, H.G. (1976) 'Identification and externality', in A.O. A. Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics   The Identity of Persons

   Frankfurt, H. (1987) 'Identification and wholeheartedness', in F. Schoeman (ed.) Responsibility, Character and the Emotions: New Essays in Moral Psychology 1987

 

@ Responsibility and free will: Strawson's approach

   Strawson, P.F. (1962) 'Freedom and resentment' Proceedings of the British Academy 48, reprinted in Freedom and Resentment and Other Essays, also in G. Watson (ed.) Free Will, and as a pamphlet

   Bennett, J. (1980?) 'Accountability', in Z. van Straaten (ed.) Philosophical Subjects 1980 (Has a discussion of Strawson)

   Wolf, S. (1981) 'The importance of free will', Mind 1981

 

@ Autonomy, authenticity and integrity

   (As ideals or conceptions of the good life)

   (For Kantian conception of autonomy see 'Autonomy in Kant')

   (See also A social and political philosophy bibliography: 'Positive and negative freedom')

   (NB autonomy is sometimes defined as a personal characteristic, e.g. the psychological ability to rationally assess and revise one's basic ends, and sometimes as a political condition, e.g. the legal freedom to to rationally assess and revise one's basic ends)

   Heineman, F.H. (1948-49) 'Autonomy or orthonomy', Hibbert Journal

* Frankfurt, H. (1971) 'Freedom of the will and the concept of a person', Journal of Philosophy 68(1)

   Watson, G. (1975) 'Free agency', Journal of Philosophy 72(8), reprinted in G. Watson (ed.) Free Will 1982

   Benn, S.I. (1975-76) 'Freedom, autonomy and the concept of a person', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 76 (Cf. his A Theory of Freedom, ch. 9)

   Arneson, R. (1985) 'Freedom and desire', Canadian Journal of Philosophy 3

+ Lindley, R. (1986) Autonomy, Introduction

   Haworth, L. (1986) Autonomy

   Raz, J. (1986) The Morality of Freedom, pp. 144, 204, 369-70, 382, 383 (on integrity), 390

* Day, J.P. (1987) 'On liberty and the real will', Philosophy 45, reprinted in his Liberty and Justice

   Christman, J. (ed.) (1989) The Inner Citadel: Essays on Individual Autonomy (esp. essay by Dworkin whihc is a critique of Frankfurt)

   Hill, T.E. (1991) Autonomy and Self-Respect

   Christman, J. (1991) 'Liberalism and individual positive freedom', Ethics 101

   Double, R. (1992) 'Two types of autonomy accounts', Canadian Journal of Philosophy 22

   Ferrara, A. (1994) 'Authenticity and the project of modernity', European Journal of Philosophy 2(3)

   Kultken, J. (1995) Autonomy and Intervention

   Dworkin, G. (1995) The Theory and Practice of Autonomy

   O'Neill, O. (2003) 'Autonomy: the emperor's new clothes', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 77

   Taylor, J.S. (ed.) (2005) Autonomy

   Taylor, R. (2005) 'Kantian personal authority', Political Theory 33(5)

   Christman, J. And Anderson, J. (eds)  Autonomy and the Challenges to Liberalism

   Levy, N. (2006) 'Autonomy and addiction', Canadian Journal of Philosophy 36(3)

 

@ Criticisms of autonomy as an ideal

   (As incompatible with social embeddedness, as associated with egoism, as incompatible with commitment)

   Caney, S. (1991) 'Sandel's critique of the primacy of justice: a liberal rejoinder', British Journal of Political Science 21

   Waldron, J. (1988) 'When justice replaces affection: the need for rights', Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy 11(3)

   Dworkin, G. (1995) The Theory and Practice of Autonomy, ch. 1

   Richards, D. (19?) 'Rights and autonomy' in J. Christman (ed.) The Inner Citadel: Esays on Individual Autonomy

 

@ History of idea of autonomy

   Wood, A. (1990) Hegel's Ethical Thought, ch. 2

   Schneewind, J.B. (1998) The Invention of Autonomy: A History of Modern Moral Philosophy

   Darwall, S.L. (1995) British Moralists and the Internal "Ought" : 1640-1740

 

@ CONTEMPORARY FIGURES

 

@ Wittgenstein and ethics

   (See also 'Communitarian ethics')

   McDowell, J. (1981) 'Non-cognitivism and rule following' in Holtzman and Leich (eds) Wittgenstein: To Follow a Rule, and response by S. Blackburn

   Lovibond, S. (1983) Realism and Imagination in Ethics

+ Grayling, A.C. (1988) Wittgenstein, Pastmasters, ch 3 'The later philosophy'

   Hurley, S. (1988?) Natural Reasons (first few chapters)

   Johnston, P. (1989) Wittgenstein and Moral Philosophy

   MacClean, A. (19?) The End of Morality

 

@ Levinas

   Levinas, E. [194?] From Existence to the Existent

+ Levinas, E. [1957] 'Philosophy and the idea of infinity' in his Collected Philosophical Papers [sd]

* Levinas, E. [1961] Totality and Infinity: An Essay on Exteriority, tr. 1969

* Levinas, E. [1968] 'Substitution', in A.T. Peperzak, S. Critchley and R. Bernasconi (eds.) Emmanuel Levinas: Basic Philosophical Writings [sd]

   Levinas, E. [1974] Otherwise than Being

   Levinas, E. [19?] Ethics and Infinity. Conversations with Philippe Nemo, tr. 1985

   Levinas, E. [19?] Time and the Other, tr. 1987

   Levians, E. [19?] 'Ethics as first philosophy', in S. Hand (ed.) The Levinas Reader

   Derrida, J. [1964] 'Violence and metaphysics: an essay on the thought of Emmanuel Levinas', in Writing and Difference

   Peperzak, A. (1978) 'Beyond being', Research in Phenomenology 8(1)

   Bernasconi, R. (1986) 'Hegel and Levinas: the possibility of forgiveness and reconciliation', Archivia di Filosofia 54

   Bernasconi, R. (1990) 'The ethics of suspicion', Research in Phenomenology 20(1)

   Critchley, S. (1992) The Ethics  of Deconstruction: Derrida and Levinas

   Peperzak, A.T. (1993) To the Other: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas

   Llewelyn, J. (1995) Emmanuel Levinas: The Genealogy of Ethics

+ Davis, C. (1996) Levinas: An Introduction, chs. 2-3

   Kemp, P. (1997) 'Introduction' to symposium on Levinas, Philosophy & Social Criticism 23(6)

   Peperzak, A. (1997) 'On Levinas's criticism of Heidegger', in his Beyond the Philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas

   Bernasconi, R. (2002) 'What is the question to which "substitution" is the answer?', in S. Critchley and R. Bernasconi (eds) The Cambridge Companion to Levinas

   Bernasconi, R. (2005) 'No exit: Levinas' aporetic account of transcendence', Research in Phenomenology 35(1)

   Critchley, Simon (2007) Infinitely Demanding: Ethics of Commitment, Politics of Resistance

 

@ MacIntyre

   MacIntyre, Alasdair [1981] After Virtue, 2nd ed. 1984, chs. 1,9,19

   MacIntyre, Alasdair (1983) 'Moral rationality, tradition and Aristotle', Inquiry 26

   MacIntyre, Alasdair (1984) 'The relationship of philosophy to its past', in R. Rorty et al. (eds) Philosophy and History

   MacIntyre, Alasdair (1984) 'After Virtue and Marxism', Inquiry 27

   MacIntyre, Alasdair (1988) Whose Justice? Which Rationality?, ch. on 'The rationality of tradition', chs. 1, 17, 18, 20

   Schneewind, J.B. (1982) 'Virtue, narrative and community: MacIntyre and morality', Journal of Philosophy 79(11)

   Blackburn, Simon

   Schneewind, J.B. (1983) 'Moral crisis and the history of ethics', Midwest Studies in Philosophy ?

   Gaita, R. (1983) 'Virtues, the human good and the unity of life', Inquiry 26

   O'Neill, Onora (1983) 'Kant after virtue', Inquiry 26

   Frankena, William (1983) 'MacIntyre and modern morality', Ethics 93

   Wartofsky, M.W. (1984) 'Virtue lost, or understanding MacIntyre', Inquiry 27

   Williams, Bernard (1985) Ethics and the Limits of Philosophy, ch. 7

   Wallace, R.J. (1989) Review of After Virtue, History and Theory 28(3)

   Annas, Julia (1989) 'MacIntyre on traditions', Philosophy and Public Affairs 18(4)

   Isaac, J.C. (1989) Review of Whose Justice? Which Rationality, political Theory 17(4)

   Martindale, C. (1992) Review of After Virtue, Whose Justice? Which Rationality and Three Rival Versions of Moral Enquiry, History of the Human Sciences 5(3)

   Horton, John and Mendus, Susan (eds) (1994) After MacIntyre, essays by Kelly, MacIntyre, Graham, Stern

 

@ McDowell's ethical theory

   McDowell, J. (1978) 'Are moral requirements hypothetical imperatives?', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supp. Vol. 52

* McDowell, J. (1979) 'Virtue and Reason', The Monist 62

   McDowell, J. (1980) 'The role of eudaimonia in Aristotle's ethics', in A. Rorty (ed.) Essays on Aristotle's Ethics

   McDowell, J. (1981) 'Non-cognitivism and rule following' in Holtzman and Leich (eds) Wittgenstein: To Follow a Rule

   McDowell, J. (1983)  'Aesthetic value, objectivity and the fabric of the world' in Pleasure, Preference and Value: Studies in Philosophical Aesthetics ed. E. Schaper

   McDowell, J. (1985) 'Values and secondary qualities', in T. Honderich (ed.) Morality and Objectivity, reprinted in  G. Sayre McCord (ed.) Essays on Moral Realism; also in J. McDowell, Mind, Value and Reality; also in S. Darwall et al Moral Discourse and Practice: Some Philosophical Approaches

   McDowell, J. (1987) Projection and Truth in Ethics, Lindley Lecture

   Wiggins, D. (1987) 'A sensible subjectivism?' in his Needs, Values and Truth, ch. 5

   McDowell, J. (1988) Projection and Truth in Ethics (Lindley Lecture), reprinted in his Mind, Value and Reality

   Wallace, R.J. (1991) 'Virtue, reason, and principle', Canadian Journal of Philosophy 21(4)

   McDowell, J. (1995) 'Two sorts of naturalism', in R. Hursthouse and L. Quinn (eds) Virtues and Reasons, reprinted in his Mind, Value, and Reality 1996

   McDowell, J. (1995) 'Might there be external reasons?', in J. Altham and R. Harrison (eds) World, Mind, and Ethics: Essays on the Ethical Philosophy of Bernard Williams, reprinted in McDowell's Mind, Value, and Reality

   Macdonald, C. and G. Macdonald, G. (1997) McDowell and his Critics

   Pettit, P. and Smith, M. (1997) 'External reasons', in C. Macdonald and G. Macdonald (eds) McDowell and his Critics

   Little, M.O. (1997) 'Virtue as knowledge: objections from the philosophy of mind', Nous 31(1)

   McDowell, J. (1998) Mind, Value and Reality

   Lang, G. (2001) 'The rule following considerations and metaethics', European Journal of Philosophy 9

+ Thornton, T. (2004) John McDowell

+ Gaynesford, M. de (2004) John McDowell, Key Contemporary Thinkers

   Seidman, J. (2005) 'Two sides of silencing', Philosophical Quarterly 55(218)

   Birondo, N. (2006) 'Moral realism without values', Journal of Philosophical Research 31

+ D'arms, J. and Jacobson, D. (2006) 'Sensibility theory and projectivism', in D. Copp (ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Ethical Theory

   Lindgaard, J. (ed.) (2008) John McDowell: Experience, Norm, and Nature

 

@ McDowell on Mind and World

   McDowell, J. (1994) Mind and World

   McDowell, J. (1998) Meaning, Knowledge, and Reality

   McDowell, J. (1999) Reason and Nature: Lecture and Colloquium in Münster

   Smith, N. (2002) Reading McDowell: On Mind and World

   Gaskin, R. (2006) Experience and the World's Own Language: A Critique of John McDowell's Empiricism

   McDowell, J. (2009) The Engaged Intellect: Philosophical Essays

   McDowell, J. (2009) Having the World in View: Essays on Kant, Hegel, and Sellars

 

@ OTHER TOPICS

 

@ Moral luck

   Williams, B. (1976) 'Moral luck' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplementary Vol. 50, reprinted in Moral Luck, ch. 2

   Nagel, T. (1976) 'Moral luck' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplementary Vol. 50, reprinted in Mortal Questions, ch. 3

 

@ Punishment: justifications, principles of 'just measure'

   Mabbott, J. (1939) Mind ?, repinted in H.B. Acton (ed.) The Philosophy of Punishment 1969

   Armstrong, K.G. (1961) 'The retributivist hits back' Mind  ?, reprinted in H.B. Acton (ed.) The Philosophy of Punishment (Wiggins; argues that in retributivism the offender is treated as an end in himself)

   Austin, J.L. (1956) 'A plea for excuses', Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, reprinted in Philosophical Papers 1961

   Morris, H. (1976) On Guilt and Innocence

* Mackie, J.L. (197?) 'Morality and the retributive emotions' Persons and Values: Selected Papers Vol. 2

   Honderich, T. [197?] Punishment: The Supposed Justifications, 3rd ed. 1984, esp. Postscript

   Cottingham, J. (1987) 'Just punishment' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplementary Vol. 61

   Harrison, R. and Duff, R. (1988) 'Punishment and crime' Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Supplementary Vol. 62

   Braithwaite, J. and Pettit, P. (1990) ? in Current Issues in Criminal Justice 4

   Walker, N. (1991) Why Punish? Theories of Punishment Reassessed

   Braithwaite, J. and Pettit, P. (1992) Not Just Deserts: A Republican Theory of Criminal Justice

   Ashworth, A. (1993) Criminal Law Forum 4

   Ellis, A. (1995) 'Recent work on punishment', Philosophical Quarterly 45:179

 

@ Desert

   Feinberg, J. (1970) Doing and Deserving

   Kleinig, J. (1971) 'The concept of desert', American Philosophical Quarterly 8

   Rawls, J. (1971) A Theory of Justice, p.104

   Zitchik, A. (1977) 'On deserving to deserve', Philosophy and Public Affairs 6(4)

   Rachels, J. (1978) 'What people deserve', in J. Arthuer and W.H. Shan (eds) Justice and Economic Distribution

   Burgh, R.W. (1982) 'Do the guilty deserve punishment?, Journal of Philosophy 79

* Sher, G. (1987) Desert

   Feldman, F. (1995) 'Desert: reconsideraton of some received wisdom', Mind 105:417

 

@ Expressive theory of punishment

   Hampton, J. (1984) 'The moral education theory of punishment', Philosophy and Public Affairs 13

   Primoratz, I. (1989) 'Punishment as language', Philosophy 64

 

@ Nietzsche and ethics

   Nietzsche, F. The Genealogy of Morals

   Deleuze, G. (1962) Nietzsche and Philosophy, chs. 3-4

   Solomon R. (ed.) (1973) Nietzsche: a collection of critical essays

   Foot, P. (1973) 'Nietzsche: the revaluation of values', in Solomon (ed.) Nietzsche, reprinted in Virtues and Vices ch. 6

   Berkowitz, P. (1974) Nietzsche: The Ethics of an Immoralist

   Wilcox, J.T. (1974) Truth and Value in Nietzsche: A Study of his Metaethics and Epistemology

   MacIntyre, A. (1981) After Virtue, chs. 9, 18

   Geffre, C. (1981) Nietzsche and Christianity

   Schacht, R. (1983) Nietzsche, Arguments of the Philosophers

   Eden R. (1983) Political Leadership and Nihilism: a study of Weber and Nietzsche

   Nehamas, A. (1985) Nietzsche: Life as Literature, chs. 4,7

   Cartwright, D. (1985) 'Kant, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche on the morality of pity', Journal of the History of Ideas

   Bernstein, J.A. (1987) Nietzsche's Moral Philosophy

   White, R. (1988) 'The return of the master: an interpretation of Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research; repr. in Schacht (ed.) Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality 1994

   MacIntyre, A. (1990) 'Genealogies and subversions', in MacIntyre's Three Rival Versions of Moral Inquiry, repr. in Schacht (ed.) Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality 1994

   Scott, C.E. (1990) The Question of Ethics: Nietzsche, Foucault, Heidegger

   Koelb, C. (ed.) (1990) Nietzsche as a Post-Modernist: Essays Pro and Contra

   Hunt, L.H. (1991) Nietzsche and the Origin of Virtue

   Foot P. (1991) 'Nietzsche's immoralism', New York Review of Books (13 June); repr. in Schacht (ed.) Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality 1994

   Schacht, R. (ed.) (1994) Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality: Essays on Nietzsche's Genealogy of Morals

   Williams, B. (1994) 'Nietzsche's minimalist moral psychology' in Schacht (ed.) Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality 1994; repr. in Williams, Making Sense of Humanity

   Hoy, D. (1994) 'Nietzsche, Hume, and the genealogical method', in Schacht (ed.) Nietzsche, Genealogy, Morality

   Ansell-Pearson, K. (1994) An Introduction to Nietzsche as a Political Thinker

   Berkowitz, P. (1995) Nietzsche: The Ethics of an Immoralist

* Leiter, B. (1995) 'Morality in the pejorative sense: on the logic of Nietzsche's critique of morality', British Journal for the History of Philosophy 3(1) [#]

   Magnus B. and Higgins H. (eds) (1996) The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche

   Conway and Groeff (eds) (1998) Nietzsche: Critical Assessments, vol III: On Morality and the Order of Rank

   Leiter, B. (2002) Nietzsche on Morality, Routledge Philosophy Guidebook

   Cameron, F. (2002) Nietzsche and the 'Problem' of Morality

   Leiter, B. and Sinhababu, N. (eds) (2007) Nietzsche and Morality

 

@ Nietzsche and Kant

   Nietzsche, F. Daybreak: Thoughts on the Prejudices of Morality

   Nietzsche, F. Thus Spoke Zarathustra

   Nietzsche, F. The Anti-Christ, §10-11

   Cartwright, D.E. (1984) ' Kant, Schopenhauer, and Nietzsche on the morality of pity', Journal of the History of Ideas 45(1)

   Hill, R.K. (2003) Nietzsche's Critiques: The Kantian Foundations of his Thought

   Risse, M. (2007) 'Nietzschean 'animal psychology' versus Kantian ethics', in B. Leiter and N. Sinhababu (eds) Nietzsche and Morality

 

@ Anarchist critique of morality

   (See also 'Nietzsche and ethics')

   Koch, A.M. (1993) 'Poststructuralism and the epistemological basis of anarchism', Philosophy of the Social Sciences

   Schurmann, R. (1986) 'On constituting oneself as an anarchist subject', Praxis International 6(4)

 

@ Existentialist ethics

   Sartre, Jean-Paul [1948] Existentialism and Humanism

   Adorno, Thomas [19?] 'Commitment', in E. Bloch (ed.) Aesthetics and Politics (Used by student; Hegelian critique of Sartre for formalism of his ethics)

 

@ Supererogation

   Mill Utilitarianism ch. 5 para. 14

   Grice, G.R. (1967) The Grounds of Moral Judgement, ch. 4

   Urmson, J.O. (1970?) 'Saints and heroes', in J. Feinberg (ed.) Moral Concepts

   Richards, D.A.J. (1971) A Theory of Reasons for Action,  ch. 11

 

@ APPLIED ETHICS

 

@ Duties to distant persons

   (See also 'Overdemandingness objection to consequentialism')

   Singer, P. (1972) 'Famine, affluence, and morality', Philosophy and Public Affairs 1

   Singer, P. (1997) 'The drowning child and the expanding circle', New Internationalist, April 1997, also available online

   Williams, K. (2001) 'Medical samaritans: is there a duty to treat?', Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 21(3)

   Peard, T. (2003) 'World hunger and the moral requirements of self-sacrifice', Southwest Philosophy Review 19(1)

   Jacobs, R. (2003) 'World hunger and self-sacrifice: response on behalf of the skeptic', Southwest Philosophy Review 19(2)

   Singer, P. (2006) 'What should a billionaire give – and what should you?', New York Times Magazine, 17 December 2006, also available online

   Orsi, F. (2008) 'Obligations of nearness', Journal of Value Inquiry 42(1)

   Singer, P. and Slote, M. (2010) 'On the ethics of famine relief', Philosophy TV (video, 60 mins), available online

+ Singer, P. (2011) 'The drowning child' (video, 3 mins) available online