University of Sussex

BA International Relations

Final Year option, Autumn 2000

War, State and Society

Tutor: Professor Martin Shaw

E504 (office hours: to be advised), 678032,

Secretary: Shirley Stay, E407, 678892,

Aims and objectives/Course information/Course NEWS

Course summary


Week 1 Introductory meeting: definitions and approaches to war

Part I: Modern war

Week 2

Week 3

Week 4

Foundational theories

The mode of total war

Genocide as a form of war

Part II:  Society and culture in modern war

Week 5

Week 6

Week 7

Combatants and participants

Transformations of militarism

Mass media in modern war

Part III: War in the global age

Week 8

Week 9

Week 10


New genocidal wars?

A new Western way of war?

If you are working with a hard copy of this list, online references will be underlined. To access these, you will need to use the online version at Using the online version is also recommended because you will also have access to Course NEWS and revisions as they happen

For library references, go to

Aims and objectives

War has been understood in IR as a function of conflicts between states and a question of foreign and defence policy. This course aims, in contrast, to ask what it means to understand war as a social activity, in the context of other kinds of social relations.

The course aims to confront this issue both theoretically, starting with Clausewitz, and empirically, e.g. in studies of why 'ordinary men' participated in the Nazi genocide. It also aims to introduce ideas and research on the contradictory social effects of warfare as a lever for social change (e.g. in gender relations) as well as genocide, in the context of an approach to the historical sociology of total war.

The course deals with debates about the transformations of war and militarism, beginning with the general sociological debate on contemporary militarism, and then looking at military sociology, feminist and other approaches to gender, and studies of media in warfare, culminating in some general questions about war in the global age.

Course information

Course structure

The course is divided into three sections, each comprising linked sessions.


Seminars will last for 1 hour 50 minutes. Each session will include two topics. There will be a short presentation (of approximately 15 minutes) to introduce each part of the session, i.e. two presentations per session. Apart from tutor presentations, these will be given by students.

Reading list

There are no textbooks for this course. Reading is listed below under the seminar topics, with key items being starred*. Lists are often extensive: I have included an especially wide list of readings on the topical questions at the end of the course, which should be useful as a resource for extended essays.

In case of any items being unavailable in the Library, look for substitutes or consult me - in some cases I may be able to lend you the relevant book or article. I am in the process of incorporating a wide range of Internet materials into this course - please email me any that you find useful. My personal website is at Many materials relevant to this course will be found on this site.

Course essays

There will be two course essays, the first on the topics covered in weeks 1-5, to be handed in at the seminar in week 4; the second on the topics covered in weeks 6-10, to be handed in at the seminar in week 7. You may write on any of the topics in the courses, using the seminar questions as a guide, or you may produce your own topics relevant to the themes of the course. If in doubt, consult.


This course is assessed by a 4000 word extended essay. Week 8 will be devoted to individual consultations on your ideas/plans for these essays, which should be written out on one or two sheets of A4. Since submission is not until May, you may consult further with me after the course has ended, either in my office hours or by by email.


I am keen to hear your evaluations of this course and my teaching. Please raise difficulties as they arise. Course evaluation forms will be distributed in week 9.


I am always willing, like all members of faculty, to write references for every student on my courses. Please let me know if you would like to give my name as a referee, and supply me with any background information that might be useful in writing a reference. You may use my name in future, after completion of your degree, but keep me updated on your progress.

Course NEWS

During the course, any new information will be posted here.

Week 1

Introductory meeting

At this meeting in the first week we will get to know each other and plan our meetings for the rest of the term. 

We will also have an initial discussion of the basic themes below. It will help greatly if you have done some reading in advance.

Definitions and approaches to war (MS)

How do we define war and militarism?

What are the relationships between social-scientific and biological understandings, and between strategic, international and sociological approaches?

*Martin Shaw, Post-Military Society, Polity 1991, chapter 1 (this book is also available from the University Bookshop at a reduced price  - or by post)

Colin Gray, Modern Strategy, Oxford University Press, 1998, and review by Martin Shaw (to be posted July 2000)

Kenneth Waltz, Man, the State and War, Columbia 1959

Leon Bramson and George W Goethals, eds, War: Studies from Psychology, Sociology and Anthropology, Basic Books 1978 (chapters by Malinowski, Mead, Spencer)

John Keegan, The Face of Battle, Cape 1976

Konrad Lorenz, On Aggression, Methuen 1966

Anthony Storr, Human destructiveness: the roots of genocide and human cruelty, Routledge 1991

Barbara Ehrenreich, Blood Rites: Origins and History of the Passions of War, Virago 1997

Part I: Modern war


Foundational theories

A: The nature of war - Clausewitz and beyond (MS)

What are the key ideas of Clausewitz and in what way, if at all, are they essential to our understanding today?

*Karl von Clausewitz, On War (ed. Peter Paret & Michael Howard), Princeton UP 1976

*Colin Gray, Modern Strategy, Oxford University Press, 1998, and review by Martin Shaw (to be posted July 2000)

*Mary Kaldor, ‘Warfare and Capitalism’, in EP Thompson et al, Exterminism and Cold War, Verso 1982 (see also The Baroque Arsenal, Deutsch 1982)

Martin Shaw, Dialectics of War, Pluto 1988, Ch. 1, Critique of Sociology and Military Theory

WB Gallie, Philosophers of War and Peace (chapter on Clausewitz), Oxford UP 1978

John Keegan, The Face of Battle, Cape 1976

Martin van Creveld, The Transformation of War, Macmillan 1991

Raymond Aron, Clausewitz: Philosopher of War, RKP 1983

Peter Paret, Clausewitz and the State, Clarendon Press 1976

Michael Howard, The Causes of Wars, Allen & Unwin 1985, 1-115

B: The role of war - industrialism, capitalism and the nation-state

Evaluate the relationships between industrial technology, capitalist social relations, the state and geopolitics in the generation of modern war.

*William H MacNeill, The Pursuit of Power, Blackwell 1982

*Bernard Semmel, Marxism and the Science of War, Oxford UP 1981, esp 3-5, 66-71

*Michael Mann, ‘Capitalism and Militarism’ in Martin Shaw, ed, War, State and Society, Macmillan 1984 (reprinted in Mann, States, War and Capitalism, Blackwell 1988)

Anthony Giddens,The Nation-State and Violence, Ch. 9

Christopher Dandeker, Surveillance, Power and Modernity, Polity 1990, ch 4 ‘Military Power, Capitalism and Surveillance’, 66-109

Jacques van Doorn, The Soldier and Social Change, Sage 1973, Ch 1, ‘The Genesis of Military and Industrial Organisation’, 5-28

Michael Roberts, ‘The Military Revolution 1560-1660’, in David B Ralston, ed, Soldiers and States: Civil-Military Relations in Modern Europe, Heath & Co, 1966

Maurice Pearton,The Knowledgeable State, Burnett Books 1982

John MacKenzie, Propaganda and Empire: The Manipulation of British Public Opinion 1880-1960, Manchester UP 1984

Victor Kiernan, ‘Conscription and Society in Europe before the War of 1914’, in MRD Foot, ed,War and Society, Elek 1973

Brian Bond, War and Society in Europe 1870-1970, Fontana 1982

Victor Kiernan, European Empires from Conquest to Collapse 1815-1960, Fontana 1982

Aron, Raymond, War and Industrial Society, OUP 1958; ‘War and Industrial Society: A Reappraisal’, Millenium, vol. 7, 1978-9

EH Carr, ‘The Marxist Attitude to War’ (Note E), in The Bolshevik Revolution 1917-1923, Penguin 1966

WB Gallie, Philosophers of War and Peace, Oxford UP 1978, ch. on Marx/Engels

Nikolai Bukharin, Imperialism and World Economy, Merlin 1972

Karl Liebknecht, Militarism and Anti-Militarism, Writers/Readers 1972

Martin Shaw, Dialectics of War, Pluto 1988; ‘War, imperialism and the state-system: a critique of orthodox marxism for the 1980s’, in Shaw (ed), War, State and Society, Macmillan 1984

Charles Tilly, War making and state making as organized crime, in Peter B. Evans, Dietrich Rueschemeyer and Theda Skocpol, eds. Bringing the State Back In, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985.

Brian M. Downing, The Military Revolution and Political Change in Early Modern Europe, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1994; chapters 1 and 3, 3-17, 56-83.

Michael Howard, War and the Nation-State, Daedalus 108:4, 1979, 101-110.


The mode of total war

A: Total mobilization

What was total about total war? How did the role of society in war change, and how did war change society?

*Ian FW Beckett, ‘Total War’, in Colin McInnes & GD Sheffield, eds, Warfare in the Twentieth Century Theory and Practice, Unwin Hyman 1988, 1-24

*Michael Mann, ‘The Roots and Contradictions of Modern Militarism’, New Left Review, 162, March-April 1987 and in War, States and Capitalism, Blackwell 1988

*Arthur Marwick, War and Social Change in the Twentieth Century, Macmillan 1974; ed, Total War and Social Change, Macmillan 1988

Stanislav Andreski, Military Organisation and Society (2nd edition), RKP 1968

Alan S Milward, War, Economy and Society 1939-45, Allen Lane 1977

Corelli Barnett, The Audit of War, Macmillan 1986

Ernest Mandel, The Meaning of the Second World War, Verso 1986

Tom Harrisson, Living through the Blitz, Penguin 1978

Open University, War and Society: World War I, World War II, Milton Keynes, Open U Press 1973

Thorne, Christopher, The Far Eastern War: States and Societies 1941-45, Unwin 1986

Studs Terkel, ‘The Good War’: An Oral History of World War Two, Penguin 1986

Paul Fussell, Wartime: Understanding and Behaviour in the Second World War, OUP 1989

Arthur Marwick, Britain in the Century of Total War, Penguin 1968; The Deluge, Bodley Head 1965, or ‘The Impact of the First World War on British Society’, J. Contemp. Hist., III, 1968

Angus Calder, The People’s War: Britain 1939-45, Panther 1969

Paul Addison, The Road to 1945, Quartet 1975

Jurgen Kocka, Facing Total War (German society 1914-18), Berg 1985

David M Kennedy, Over Here: The First World War and American Society, Oxford UP 1980

Kathleen Burk, War and the State: The Transformation of British Government 1914-1919, Allen & Unwin 1982

Keith Middlemas, Politics in an Industrial Society, Deutsch 1979, ch 3

Ralph Miliband, Parliamentary Socialism , Merlin 1973, ch 11

Stanislav Andreski, Military Organisation and Society (2nd edn), RKP 1968

A: Total destruction

How did the totalization of war change the implications of strategic violence for civilian society? 

Is there a difference between 'strategic' mass slaughter and 'genocide'? If so how should we define this?

*Eric Markusen and David Kopf, The Holocaust and Strategic Bombing: Genocide and Total War in the Twentieth Century, Westview 1995

*Martin Shaw, Dialectics of War, Pluto 1988, esp. Chs 2, 4

*EP Thompson, ‘Notes on Exterminism, the Last Stage of Civilization’, in Thompson et al, Exterminism and Cold War, Verso 1982

Adam Kuper, Genocide, Penguin 1981

Colin Gray, Modern Strategy, Oxford University Press, 1998, and review by Martin Shaw (to be posted July 2000)

Martin Shaw, Dialectics of War, Pluto 1988, esp. Ch. 3

Peter Calvacoressi and Guy Wint, Total War: Causes and Courses of the Second World War, Penguin 1974

Ronald Aronson, Technological madness: towards a theory of the impending nuclear holocaust, Menard 1983

Geoffrey Best, War and law since 1945, Oxford: Clarendon P. 1994; Humanity in warfare : the modern history of the international law of
armed conflicts, London: Methuen 1983; Nuremberg and after : the continuing history of war crimes and crimes against humanity, Reading: U. of Reading 1984

Adam Roberts and R. Guelff (eds.) Documents on the laws of war : 3rd ed, Oxford: OUP 1999

M Howard, GJ Andreopoulos and MR Shulman (eds.) The laws of war: constraints on warfare in the Western world, New Haven: Yale UP 1994


Genocide and total war

A: Genocide as a form of war?

How should we define genocide? How should we understand its connections to, and distinction from, war? 

Examine in relation to the Armenian genocide during the First World War

*Leo Kuper, Genocide, Penguin 1981

*Martin Shaw, On slaughter: from war to genocide (draft)

*James J. Reid, 'Total war, the annihilation ethic, and the Armenian genocide, 1870-1918' in RG Hovannisian, ed, The Armenian genocide: history, politics, ethics, Macmillan 1992 (see also other chapters)

Eric Markusen and David Kopf, The Holocaust and Strategic Bombing: Genocide and Total War in the Twentieth Century, Westview 1995

 Charles B.Strozier and Michael Flynn, Genocide, War and Human Survival, Lantham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield 1996

H Fein, Genocide: a sociological perspective, Sage 1993 (First published as Current sociology, 38, 1, 1990)

F Chalk & K Jonassohn, The history and sociology of genocide: analyses and case studies, Yale UP 1990

Irving L Horowitz, Taking lives: genocide and state power, Transaction 1997

GJ Andreopoulos, ed, Genocide : conceptual and historical dimensions, U of Pennsylvania P 1994

SS Graber, Caravans to Oblivion: The Armenian Genocide, 1915, New York: Wiley, 1996

A: The Holocaust's connections with modernity and war

In what senses was the Holocaust unique - and how far should it be seen as a phenomenon of modernity - and modern war?

*Zygmunt Bauman, Modernity and the Holocaust, Polity 1991

*Lucy Davidowicz, The War against the Jews, Penguin 1985

Sarah Gordon, Hitler, Germans and the ‘Jewish Question’, Princeton UP 1984

Arno Mayer, Why did the Heavens not Darken? The Final Solution in History, Verso 1989

Ronald Aronson, The Dialectics of Disaster, Verso 1983

DJ Goldhagen, Hitler's willing executioners: ordinary Germans and the Holocaust, Little, Brown 1996

Deborah Lipstadt, Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory, Harmondsworth: Penguin 1996

Robert J Lifton and Eric Markusen, The Genocidal Mentality: The Nazi Holocaust and the Nuclear Threat, London: Macmillan 1988

Part II Society and culture in modern wars


Combatants and participants

A: Soldiers and killers

Why do people kill - and not kill? 

Compare Goldhagen's and Browning's accounts of the Holocaust's killers, and discuss the commonalities between Browning's account and Ashworth's analysis of why killing was limited in the trenches of the First World War.

*DJ Goldhagen, Hitler's willing executioners: ordinary Germans and the Holocaust, Little, Brown 1996

*Christopher R Browning, Ordinary Men, Harper 1992

*Tony Ashworth, The Live and Let Live System, Macmillan 1981 or ‘Sociology of Trench Warfare’, British Journal of Sociology, 1968

Robert Axelrod, The Evolution of Cooperation, Basic Books, 1984, ch 4

John Hockey, Squaddies: Portrait of a Sub-Culture, Exeter University Press 1986

Charles Moskos, The American Enlisted Man, Sage 1970

Leopold Haimson & Charles Tilly, eds., Strikers, Wars and Revolutions in International Perspective, CUP 1989

Dallas, Gloden, The Unknown Army: Mutinies in the British Army in the World War I, Verso 1985

B: Women and workers

How do women participate in modern war and war-preparation? 

What have been and are the implications of their participation?

*Penny Summerfield , ‘Women, War and Social Change: Women in Britain in World War II’ in Arthur Marwick, ed, Total War and Social Change, Macmillan 1988, 95-118

*Cynthia Enloe, Does Khaki Become You? The Militarization of Women’s Lives, Pluto 1983

Sharon Macdonald et al, Images of Women in Peace and War: Cross-cultural and historical perspectives, Macmillan 1987

Jean Bethke Elshtain, Women and War, Harvester 1987

Gail Braybon and Penny Summerfield, Out of the Cage: Women's experiences in two world wars, Pandora 1987

Gail Braybon,Women Workers in the First World War, Croom Helm 1981

Penny Summerfield, Women Workers in the Second World War: production and patriarchy in conflict, Croom Helm 1984

Claudia Koonz, Mothers in the Fatherland, Methuen 1988

Sara Ruddick, ‘Preserving Love and Military Destruction’ in J Trebilot, ed, Mothering, Rowman & Allanheld 1984

Kath Price, 'What did you do in the war, Mam?' in Colin Creighton and Martin Shaw, eds, The Sociology of War and Peace, Macmillan 1987

Dorothy Sheridan, ed, Wartime Women, Heinemann 1990

Arthur Marwick, Women at War 1914-18, Fontana 1974

Stuart Sillars , Women in World War I, Macmillan 1987

Maurine Greenwald, Women, war and work (US), Westport, Greenwood 1978

Leila Rupp, Mobilizing Women for War German and American propaganda 1939-45, Princeton UP 1978

Costello, John, Love, Sex and War Changing Values 1939-45, Pan 1985

Melva Baker, Images of Women in Film: The War Years 1941-45, UMI Research Press 1980

Carol Berkin and Clara Lovett, Women, War and Revolution, Holmes and Meier 1980

Eva Isaksson, ed,Women and the Military System, Harvester-Wheatsheaf 1988

Mady Wechsler Segal, ‘The Military and the Family as Greedy Institutions’ and Patricia M Shields, ‘Sex Roles in the Military’, in Charles Moskos and Frank Wood, The Military: More than Just a Job?, Pergamon-Brassey 1988, 79-114

Jan Jindy Pettman, Worlding Women, Routledge 1996, Part 2, ‘The Gendered Politics of War and Peace’, 87-156

Ruth Jolly, Military Man, Family Man, Crown Property? Brasseys 1987

William H McMichael, The Mother of all Hooks: The Story of the US Navy’s Tailhook Scandal, Transaction 1997

Brian Easlea, Fathering the Unthinkable Masculinity, Scientists and the Nuclear Arms Race, Pluto 1983

Dorothy Thompson et al, Over Our Dead Bodies, Women’s Press 1982

Jean Carr, Another Story: Women and the Falklands War, Hamish Hamilton 1985

Martin Binkin and Shirley Bach, Women and the Military, Brookings 1977

Lynn Jones, ‘Perceptions of "peace women" at Greenham Common’ in Sharon MacDonald et al, Images of Women in Peace and War, Macmillan 1987

LC Noakes, Gender and British national identity in wartime: a study of the links between gender and national identity in Britain in the Second World War, the Falklands War and the Gulf War, Sussex thesis, 1996


Transformations of militarism and anti-militarism 

A: Militarism

What are the extents and implications of the transformation from participatory to 'spectator' militarism in the West?

*Michael Mann, ‘The Roots and Contradictions of Modern Militarism’, New Left Review, 162, March-April 1987 and in his War, States and Capitalism, Blackwell 1988

*Luckham, Robin, ‘Of Arms and Culture’, Current Research on Peace and Violence, VII, 1, 1-64, 1984

*Martin Shaw, Post-Military Society, Polity 1991, chapter 3; also ‘The Rise and Fall of the Military-Democratic State’, in Creighton and Shaw, eds, The Sociology of War and Peace, Macmillan 1987; ‘Globalization and post-military democracy’ in Anthony McGrew, ed, The Transformation of Democracy, Polity 1997

VR Berghahn, Militarism: The History of an International Debate 1861-1979, Cambridge UP 1981

Alfred Vagts, A history of militarism, civilian and military, Hollis 1959

Mary Kaldor, The Baroque Arsenal, Deutsch 1982

Fred Halliday, The Making of the Second Cold War, Verso (2nd edn) 1986

Jacques Van Doorn, The Soldier and Social Change: Comparative Studies in the History and Sociology of the Military, Sage 1973, ch 3, ‘The Decline of Mass Armies’, 51-64

Victor Kiernan, ‘Conscription and Society in Europe before the War of 1914’, in MRD Foot, ed,War and Society, Elek 1973

Morris Janowitz, The Professional Soldier, Free Press 1960

The New Military, Norton 1969

Jacques van Doorn, Armed Forces and Society, The Hague, Mouton 1968

Gwyn Harries-Jenkins , ed, Armed Forces and the Welfare Societies: Challenges in the 1980s, Macmillan 1982

Gwyn Harries-Jenkins & Jacques van Doorn, eds, The Military and the Problem of Legitimacy, Sage 1976

Peter Whittle, ‘Conscientious Objection to Military Service’, SIPRI Yearbook, ch. 18, 617-44, Taylor & Francis 1986

Charles Moskos and Frank Wood, The Military: More than Just a Job?, Pergamon-Brassey 1988

Journal: Armed Forces and Society for research & discussion relevant to this section

C Wright Mills, The Power Elite, New York, OUP 1956

Abrahamsson, Bengt, Military Professionalisation and Political Power, Sage 1972,

P Rowe & CJ Whelan, eds, Military Intervention in Democratic Societies, Croom Helm 1984

Ellen Jones, Red Army and Society, Allen & Unwin 1985

Olatunde Odetola, Military Regimes and Development: A Comparative Analysis of African Societies, Allen & Unwin 1982

Robin Luckham, ‘Militarization in Africa’, SIPRI Yearbook 1986, 195-328, Taylor & Francis 1986

B: Anti-militarism

How has peace politics been transformed in the second half of the 20th century? 

What role did it play in the end of the Cold War and what is its meaning today, when the demands of justice are increasingly raised?

*Frank Parkin, Middle Class Radicalism, Manchester UP 1968

*Michael Waller, ‘Peace, Power and Protest: Eastern Europe in the Gorbachev Era’, Conflict Studies, 209, 1988

Martin Ceadel, Thinking about Peace and War, Oxford UP 1989

Michael Howard, War and the Liberal Conscience, OUP 1981

Immanuel Kant, ‘Perpetual Peace’ in HS Reiss, ed, Kant’s Political Writings, CUP 1970

Richard Taylor, Against the Bomb: The British Peace Movement 1958-65, Clarendon P 1988

John Mattausch, A Commitment to Campaign: A Sociological Study of CND, Manchester UP 1989

James Hinton, Protests and Visions: Peace politics in 20th Century Britain, Hutchinson Radius 1989

Richard Taylor & Nigel Young, eds, Campaigns for Peace: British Peace Movements in the Twentieth Century, Manchester UP 1987

Walter Kaltefleiter and Robert Pfaltzgraff, The Peace Movements in Europe and the United States, Croom Helm 1985

Thomas R Rochon, Mobilizing for Peace: The Antinuclear Movements in Western Europe, Princeton 1988

Elim Papadakis, The Green Movement in West Germany, Croom Helm 1984

V Tismaneanu, ed, In search of civil society : independent peace movements in the Soviet bloc, Routledge 1990

Jan Kavan, Voices from Prague: Czechoslovakia and the Peace Movement; John Sandford, The Sword and the Ploughshare: Autonomous Peace Movements in East Germany; Ferenc Kaldor, The New Hungarian Peace Movement, all END/Merlin: 1983, 1983 and 1984


Mass media and modern war 

A: Media and the wars of Western states

How far do Western media play the roles of supporting - or encouraging - their governments' military actions? 

To the extent that this is true, what explains it?

*Philip M Taylor, War and the Media: Propaganda and Persuasion in the Gulf War, Manchester University Press, 1992

*Martin Shaw, Civil Society and Media in Global Crises: Representing Distant Violence, London: Pinter 1996, Chapters 6 and 8

*Philip Hammond and Edward S. Herman, editors, Degraded Capability: The Media and the Kosovo Crisis, London: Pluto, 2000, and review by Martin Shaw, The uses of media studies

W Lance Bennett and David L Paletz, eds, Taken by Storm, London: University of Chicago Press, 1994

Jean Baudrillard, ‘La Guerre de Golfe n'a pas eu lieu’, Libération, 29 March 1991, translation, The Gulf War did not take place, Sydney 1995

Christopher Norris, Uncritical Theory: Post-modernism, Intellectuals and the Gulf War, Lawrence and Wishart, 1992

David E Morrison, Television and the Gulf War, John Libbey 1992

RE Denton, ed, The Media and the Persian Gulf War, Praeger 1993

D. Kellner, The Persian Gulf TV War, Westview, 1992

Greg Philo and Greg McLaughlin, The British Media and the Gulf War, Glasgow: Glasgow University Media Group 1993

Michael Ignatieff, 'Is Nothing Sacred? The Ethics of Television', in The Warrior's Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience, Chatto and Windus 1998, 9-33

Edward S Herman, 'The Media's Role in US Foreign Policy', Journal of International Affairs, 47, 1, 1993

Noam Chomsky and B.Dajenais, Manufacturing Consent, Pantheon, 1988

Derrick Mercer et al, The Fog of War: The Media on the Battlefield, Heinemann 1987

Peter Viggo Jakobsen, ‘National Interest, Humanitarianism or CNN: What triggers UN peace enforcement after the Cold War?’, Journal of Peace Research, 33, 1996, 205-15

Stephen Badsey, Modern Military Operations and the Media, Camberley, Surrey: Strategic and Combat Studies Institute, 1994

B: Local and Western media

How far do local media promote genocidal war, and how do international media respond to these crises? 

How can the contrasting roles of Western media at different times be explained?

*James Gow, Richard Paterson and Alison Preston, eds, Bosnia by Television, British Film Institute 1996

*Tim Allen and Jean Seaton, eds, The Media of Conflict: War Reporting and Representations of Ethnic Violence, Zed 1999, especially Mel McNulty, 'Media Ethnicization and the International Response to War and Genocide in Rwanda', in Tim Allen and Jean Seaton, eds, The Media of Conflict: War Reporting and Representations of Ethnic Violence, Zed 1999, 268-86

**Martin Shaw, Civil Society and Media in Global Crises: Representing Distant Violence, London: Pinter 1996, Chapters 7, 9 and 13: see also Crystallizations of media in the global revolution: news coverage and power from Kurdistan to Kosova, draft of chapter to be published in Briggite Nacos and Robert Shapiro, eds., Decision-Making in a Glass House: Media, Public Opinion and American and European Foreign Policy, Boulder, Co.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000.

Greg Philo, ‘From Buerk to Band aid: the media and the 1984 Ethiopian famine, in John Eldridge, ed, Getting the Message: News, Truth and Power, Routledge 1993

Mark Thompson, Forging War: The Media in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, Article 19, 1994

Larry Minea et al, The News Media, Civil War and Humanitarian Action, Lynne Reiner 1996

Charles Moskos and TE Ricks, Reporting war when there is no war: the media and the military in peace and humanitarian operations, Cantigny Conference series, Special report, 1995

Part III War in the global era


Essay consultations

Individual sessions to discuss your extended essay ideas. Please bring an outline of your ideas on 1 or 2 sides of A4.


New wars? 

A: Genocidal local wars

Are new wars 'new', and how far is it true that they are particularly genocidal?

Discuss with reference to one of the areas below.

*Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, Polity 1999; Kaldor and Basker Vashee, eds, New Wars, Pinter 1998;  Kaldor, Ulrich Albrecht and Genevieve Schmeder, eds, The End of Military Fordism, Pinter 1998

*Martin Shaw, 'The contemporary mode of warfare? Mary Kaldor's theory of new wars', Review of International Political Economy, 7, 1, 2000, 171-80 ; 'War and globality: the role and character of war in the global transition', in Ho-won Jeong, ed, The New Agenda for Peace Research, Ashgate 1999

*Stathis Kalyvas, '"New" and "old" civil wars: is the distinction valid?', paper to the colloquium, 'La guerre entre le local et le global', Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Internationales, Paris, 2000. (I shall try to make either an online or photo-copy available.)

Mark Duffield, ‘The political economy of internal war: asset transfer, complex emergencies and international aid’, in Joanna Macrae and Anthony Zwi, eds, War and Hunger: Rethinking International Responses, Zed 1994

Joanna Macrae and Anthony Zari (eds.) War and Hunger, London: Zed, Chapters 2 (Green), 3 (Duffield) plus case studies, 1994.

David Keen, The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars, Adelphi paper 320, IISS 1998

Paul Rich (ed.) Warlords in International Relations, London: Macmillan 1999, esp. chapters by Rich (1), Segell (3), McNulty (5) and Mackinda (7)

Edward N Luttwak, ‘Towards Post-Heroic Warfare’, Foreign Affairs, 74, 3, 1995

Melvern, L.R. (2000) A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genjocide. London: Zed.

Michael Ignatieff, The Warrior's Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience, Chatto and Windus 1998

Saferworld The Cost of War 1995

Martin Shaw, New wars of the city (English text of 'Nueva Guerras Urbanas', 1997)

Old wars?

Gilbert Achcar, ‘The Strategic Triad: The United States, Russia and China’, New Left Review, 228, 1998, pp. 91-127

Kalevi J Holsti, The State, War and the State of War, CUP 1996

William Walker, 'International nuclear relations after the Indian and Pakistani test explosions', International Affairs, 74, 3, 1998, 505-28

Dan Smith, The State of War and Peace Atlas, 3rd edition, Penguin 1997

Melvin Small & J David Singer, Resort to Arms: International and Civil Wars, 1826-1980, Sage 1982

Gendering of 'new wars'

Jan Willem Honig & Norbert Both, Srebrenica: Record of a War Crime, Penguin 1996

Amnesty International, Bosnia-Herzegovina: Rape and Sexual Abuse by Armed Forces, Amnesty 1993

A Stiglmayer, ed, Mass Rape: The War Against Women in Bosnia-Herzegovina, U of Nebraska P 1994

Human Rights Watch Kosovo: Rape as a Weapon of Ethnic Cleansing 2000

Ronit Lentin, ed, Gender and Catastrophe, Zed 1997

Sections on 'sexual violence' in Roy Guttman and David Rieff, eds, Crimes of War, Norton 1999

Ronin Lentin, Gender and Catastrophe, London: Zed 1997

Institute of War and Peace Reporting, Tribunal Update, has carried regular reports during 2000 of the Foca war crimes trials centring on charges of rape.

Lori Buck, Nicole Gallant and Kim Richard Nossal, 'Sanctions as a gendered instrument of statecraft: the case of Iraq', Review of International Studies, 24, 1, 1998, 69-84

NICEF, Impact of Armed Conflict on Children

Nowrojee, B. and Ralph, Regan (2000) 'Justice for women victims of violence: Rwanda after the 1994 genocide' in Amadiume, I. and An-Na'im, A. (eds.) The Politics of Memory: Truth, Healing and Social Justice, London: Zed

Twagiramariya, C. and Turshen, M. (1998) '"Favours" to give and "consenting" victims: the sexual politics of survival in Rwanda', in Twagiramariya and Turshen (eds.) What Women Do in Wartime, London: Zed


Tony Kushner, Refugees in an Age of Genocide, London: Cass 2000

Myron Wiener, ‘Bad neighbours, bad neighbourhoods: an inquiry into the causes of refugee flows’, International Security, 21, 1, Summer 1996

Gil Loeschler, 'Refugees', in Tim Dunne and Nicholas Wheeler, eds, Human Rights and Human Wrongs, Cambridge: CUP 1999

International Crisis Group, Burundian Refugees in Tanzania: The Key Factor to the Burundi Peace Process

UNHCR, The State of the World’s Refugees, Oxford: OUP 1995

Kurt Mills, ‘Permeable Borders: Human Migration and Sovereignty’, Global Society, 10, 2 1996, 77-106

Tim Judah, Kosovo: War and Revenge, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000

Ken Booth, ed, The Kosovo Tragedy: Human Rights Dimensions, London: Cass, 2000


Alex de Waal, 'Contemporary Warfare in Africa', in M. Kaldor and V. Bashee (eds.) New Wars, London: Pinter 1997

Jeffrey Herbst, 'War and the State in Africa', International Security, 14(4) 1990

Christopher Clapham, Africa and the International System, Cambridge University Press, 1996, Chapter 9; African Guerrillas, James Currey 1998.

Jean-François Bayart, Stephen Ellis, and Béatrice Hibou, The Criminalization of the State in Africa, Oxford, Bloomington & Indianapolis: James Currey & Indiana University Press. 1999, Chapter 1

Lionel Cliffe and Robin Luckham, 'Complex Political Emergencies and the State', Third World Quarterly 20(1) 1999

William Reno, Warlord Politics and African States, Boulder: Lynne Rienner 1996

Adebayo Adedeji (ed.) Comprehending and Mastering African Conflicts, London: Zed 1999

Taisier M. Ali and Robert O. Matthew (ed.) Civil Wars in Africa, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press 1999

Christopher Clapham, War and State Formation in Eritrea and Ethiopia, paper to a conference at CERI, Paris, 2000 (I will make this paper available either online or in photocopy)

Samuel M. Mackinda, Clan Conflict and Factionalism in Somalia, in Paul Rich (ed.) Warlords in International Relations, London: Macmillan 1999, 120-39

Rayika Omaar and Alex de Waal, Rwanda: Death, Despair and Defiance, Africa Rights 1994

Mel McNulty, The Militarization of Ethnicity and the Emergence of Warlordism in Rwanda, 1990-94', in Paul Rich (ed.) Warlords in International Relations, London: Macmillan 1999, 140-63

René Lemarchand, Patterns of state collapse and reconstructions in Central Africa: reflections on the crisis in the Great Lakes African Studies Quarterly 1, 1

Michael D. Quam, Creating peace in an armed society:Karamoja, Uganda, 1996.African Studies Quarterly 1, 1

Martin Shaw, From the Rwandan genocide to the Congo war (and compare The Cambodian genocide 1977-89)

B: New modes of intervention

*Oliver Ramsbotham and Tom Woodhouse, Humanitarian Intervention in Contemporary Conflict, Polity, 1996

*James Mayall (ed), The New Interventionism 1991-94: United Nations Experience in Cambodia, former Yugoslavia and Somalia, Cambridge:CUP, 1996

*Roy Guttman and David Rieff, eds, Crimes of War, New York: Norton, 1999

Political-military intervention

J. Ginifer, Beyond the Emergency: Development Within UN Peace Missions, London: Cass 1997

M.W. Doyle, I. Johnstone and R.C. Orr, Keeping the Peace: Multinational UN Operations in Cambodia and El Salvador, Cambridge: CUP, 1997

Ioan Lewis, Making History in Somalia: Humanitarian Intervention in a Stateless Society, London: LSE Centre for the Study of Global Governance, 1994

Michael Barnett, 'The UN, regional organizations and peacekeeping', Review of International Studies, 21, 4, 1995, 411-34

W J Durch (ed), The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Case Studies and Comparative Analysis, St Martin's Press, New York, 1993

M.Berdal, "Whither UN Peacekeeping?" Adelphi Paper 281, ISIS, London, October 1993

A Roberts, "The Crisis in UN Peacekeeping", Survival, Autumn 1994

J Harriss (ed), The Politics of Humanitarian Intervention, Pinter, 1995

Marc Weller, 'The Rambouillet conference on Kosovo', International Affairs, 75, 2, 1999, 211-52

Richard Caplan, 'International diplomacy and the crisis in Kosovo', International Affairs, 74, 4, 1998, 745-63

Non-military socio-economic and political intervention

Krishna Kumar, ed, Rebuilding Societies after Civil War: Critical Roles for International Assistance, Lynne Reiner 1996

Thomas G Weiss and Larry Minear, eds, Humanitarianism Across Borders: Sustaining Civilians in Times of War, Lynne Reiner 1994

Jeffrey Herbst, ‘Responding to State Failure in Africa’, International Security, 21, 3, 1996-97

Mark Hoffman, ‘Doing no harm?’ (NGOs in conflicts) LSE Magazine, Summer 1997, 4-7

imothy Dunne and Nicholas J Wheeler, eds, Human Rights in Global Politics, Cambridge: CUP 1999

Alex de Waal, ‘Democratizing the aid encounter in Africa’, International Affairs, 73, 4, 1997, 632-40 and ‘Contemporary Warfare in Africa’ in Kaldor, ed, New Wars, Pinter 1997

International justice

Geoffrey Hawthorn, 'Pinochet: the politics', International Affairs, 75(2) 1999, 253-58

MP Scharf, Balkan justice: the story behind the first international war crimes trial since Nuremberg, Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic P. 1997

Y Beigbeder, Judging war criminals: the politics of international justice, Basingstoke: Macmillan 1998

Brad R. Roth, Governmental Illegitimacy in International Law, Oxford: OUP 1999

Philip Hammond and Edward S. Herman, editors, Degraded Capability: The Media and the Kosovo Crisis, London: Pluto, 2000 (chapter on war crimes tribunal) and review by Martin Shaw, The uses of media studies 

Paul J. Magnarella, Judicial responses to genocide:the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the Rwandan Genocide Court, African Studies Quarterly 1, 1

Institute of War and Peace Reporting, Tribunal Update, has carried regular reports of the war crimes trials for five years and maintains a full archive.

International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia


A new Western way of war?

A: Western dominance and its limits

Does the pattern of Western interventions in former Yugoslavia justify an interpretations in terms of a simple Western dominance of world politics?

Discuss with primary reference to Bosnia.

*James Petras and Steve Vieux, 'Bosnia and the revival of US hegemony', New Left Review 218, 1996, 3-25

*David Rieff, Slaughterhouse: Bosnia and the Failure of the West, Harmondsworth: Penguin 1995

*Jan Willem Honig & Norbert Both, Srebrenica: Record of a War Crime, Penguin 1996

Ed Vulliamy, ‘Bosnia: the crime of appeasement’, International Affairs, 74, 1, 1998, 73-92 (also Seasons in Hell, London: Simon & Schuster, 1994, 98-117)

United Nations, Report on Srebrenica

James Gow, Triumph of the Lack of Will, London 1997

Jane Sharp, Bankrupt in the Balkans: British Policy in Bosnia, London: Institute for Public Policy Research 1993

T Cushman & SG Mestrovic, eds, This Time We Knew: Western Responses to Genocide in Bosnia, New York UP 1996

David Chandler, Bosnia: Faking Democracy after Dayton, London: Pluto 1999

Balkan Crisis Reports, Tribunal Update, Institute for War and Peace Reporting (available free by email subscription), for ongoing reports on Balkans and the War Crimes Tribunal's cases (mainly Bosnia). The trial of Serbian General Radislav Krstic, for his part in Srebrenica, has been going on throughout 2000 and much information is available at this site; see also ICTY site below.

European Stability Initiative, Refocusing International Policy in Bosnia and Herzegovina Part I Bosnian Power Structures, Part II International Power in Bosnia

European Stability Initiative, Power and Strategy in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Michael Sells, Massacre in Srebrenica, Haverford College

Women of Srebrenica refugees' site

The Bosnia Institute site, with Books on Bosnia online database

B: A 'revolution in military affairs'?

How far is it true that there has been a technologically driven 'revolution' in American military power?

Did technological accuracy enable the NATO bombing of Serbia to be sufficiently discriminating to withstand war crimes charges? If not, what are the implications for the possibility of legal war?

*Andrew Latham, 'Reimagining Warfare: The "Revolution in Military Affairs"', in Craig A Snyder, ed, Contemporary Security and Strategy, London: Macmillan 1999, 210-37

*International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia, Final Report to the Prosecutor by the Committee Established to Review the NATO Bombing Campaign Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

*Amnesty International, Kosovo: 'Collateral Damage' or Unlawful Killings? 2000

Martin Shaw, 'Has war a future?' New Political Economy, 5, 1, March 2000, 112-116 and 'Return of the good war' (unpublished, 2000)

The Military Balance 1999-2000, International Institute for Strategic Studies 1999 (2000-01 edition out October)

James Der Derian, 'Virtual Security: Technical Oversight, Simulated Foresight and Political Blindspots in the Infosphere', in Stephen Chan and Jarrod Wierner, eds, Twentieth Century International History, London: IB Taurus 1999

Chris Hables Gray, Post-Modern War: The New Politics of Conflict, London: Routledge 1997

Alvin and Heidi Toffler, War and Anti-War: Survival at the Dawn of the 21st Century, New York: Little Brown 1994

NATO's war over Kosovo

Adam Roberts, NATO's "humanitarian war" over Kosovo, Survival: V.41 No.3. 1999 (photocopy in library)

Marc Weller, The crisis in Kosovo, 1989-1999, Documents and Analysis Publishing Cambridge 1999, and Kosovo conflict: forced displacement, the conduct and termination of hostilities and the renewed search for a settlement, Prospect Books 1999

T. Young and T. Dodd, 'Kosovo', Research paper 98/73, House of Commons Library

Jurgen Habermas, Bestiality and humanity: a war on the border between law and morality, translation of Bestialitat und Humanitat from Die Zeit, 54, 18, 1999, 1-8 (I shall try to make available online)

Michael Ignatieff and Robert Skidelsky, 'Is military intervention over Kosovo justified?' Prospect, June 1999, 16-22

Noam Chomsky, On Humanitarian War, London: Pluto 1999

New Left Review, 234, March-April 1999, 'The Imperialism of Human Rights': articles by Ali, Zizek, Gowan

Philip Hammond and Edward S. Herman, editors, Degraded Capability: The Media and the Kosovo Crisis, London: Pluto, 2000 and review by Martin Shaw, The uses of media studies (Part I)

Martin Shaw, The Kosovan War, Sociological Research Online 4, 2, 1999

Sussex seminar papers at:

International Crisis Group, Montenegro: in the Shadow of the Volcano and  What happened to the KLA?

H Clark, Civil resistance in Kosovo, London: Pluto 2000

Noel Malcolm, Kosovo: a short history, Basingstoke: Macmillan 1998

J Van Selm, Kosovo's refugees in the EU, London: Continuum 2000