Library catalogue IR Martin Shaw The global site: critical gateway to world politics, society and culture
University of Sussex
MA option
Spring 2001

Sociology of Global Politics

Professor Martin Shaw

E504 (Spring term office hours to be notified), 678032 

Secretary, Shirley Stay, E412, 678892

aims and objectives   /    course information


Course summary

Part I: Globalization and globality

Week 2

Week 3

Introduction: the global and the national-international

Globalization, culture and postmodernity

Part II:  Conceptions of global politics

Week 4

Week 5

Week 6

State and politics in globality

Governance and hegemony in global thought

Civil society and social movements

Part III: State and revolution: historicizing the global transition

Week 7

Week 8

Week 9

Week 10

State and revolution in the crisis of the Cold War system

Democracy, democratization and popular revolt


Counterrevolution, war, genocide in the global transition


individual sessions about assessed essays

Aims and objectives

This course aims to explore relations of social forces and states in contemporary 'global' politics, in the light of debates about economic, cultural and social 'globalization' and its supposed impact on the state and international relations. 

The course explores major concepts of global politics, such as state, governance, hegemony, civil society and democratization, and their relevance to understanding contemporary situations.

A key objective of the course is that students learn to critically evaluate theories and discourses of world politics in the light of a range of historical and contemporary evidence. In this light, it considers the relevance of a historical understanding of the end of the Cold War to the contemporary world transition.

Course information


Each session will include two topics, with a short refreshment break. There will be a short presentation (of approximately 15 minutes) to introduce each part of the session, i.e. two presentations per session. I will introduce the first session.

Reading list

There are no textbooks for this course. Reading is listed below under the seminar topics, with key items being starred*. Seminar lists are of uneven length. This is partly because items are listed on first relevance; you are expected to see overlaps and go back to previous sections for items already referred to.

Lists are also extensive to help in writing essays and as a resource for dissertation topics. In case of any items being unavailable in the Library, look for substitutes or consult me - in some cases I may be able to lend you the relevant book or article.

Web links are underlined. If you are working with a  hard copy of this list, you will need to use the online version at the course website, Using the online version is also recommended because you will also have access to Course NEWS and revisions as they happen.

The Library will also be putting this reading list online at Once this is done, this will be the easiest way to access the list week by week. You will still need to refer to the course website for course updates.

Web materials

Because this course has a topical focus, much useful and especially up to date material is on the web rather than in traditional printed publications. I would like to incorporate further Internet materials into this course - please email me any that you find useful. 

I am editor of and my personal website is at Further materials and links relevant to this course will be found on both these sites.

Course essays

There will be two course essays, each 2000 words long, to be handed in at the sessions in weeks 5 and 9. You may write on any of the topics in the course, using the seminar questions as a guide, or you may produce your own topic relevant to the themes of the course.


This course is assessed by a 5000 word term paper on a topic of your choice, related to the issues of the course. For preparations, see week 10 below.


I am keen to hear your evaluations of this course and my teaching. Please raise difficulties as they arise. Course evaluation forms will be distributed in the penultimate week of term.


If you need to contact me when I am not in my office, email me or in case of urgency phone Shirley Stay. I shall set up an email list for the course early on in the term, so that we can all communicate with each other quickly.


I am always willing, like all members of faculty, to write references for every student on my courses. Please let me know if you would like to give my name as a referee. Supply me with any background information that might be useful in writing a reference, and keep me updated on your progress if you wish to use my name in future.

Seminar programme

Part I: Globalization and globality

Week 2

Introduction: the global and the national-international

(Since this is the first meeting, I shall introduce the discussion. Please try to cover the core readings; others for background.)

What is meant by the global and globalization? Is globality a development from modernity or its negation?

*Anthony Giddens The Consequences of Modernity Cambridge: Polity, 1990 and Modernity and Self-Identity, Cambridge: Polity, 1991

*Martin Albrow The Global Age Cambridge: Polity 1997

*Jan-Art Scholte, 'Globalisation: prospects for a paradigm shift' in Martin Shaw, ed. Politics and Globalisation London: Routledge 1999, 9-18; Globalization: A Critical Introduction London: Macmillan 2000 and review by  Shaw, Millennium 2000

*Martin Shaw Theory of the Global State: Globality as Unfinished Revolution Cambridge University Press 2000, esp. Chapter 1, Globality.

Paul Hirst and Grahame Thompson Globalization in Question Cambridge: Polity, 1996

Paul Hirst, ‘The global economy - myths and realities’, International Affairs, 73, 2, 1997, 409-26

Samir Amin, ‘The Challenge of Globalization’, Review of International Political Economy, 3, 2, 1996, 216-59

Peter Dicken, Global Shift: The Internationalization of Economic Activity, 3rd edn., Chapman 1998

Caroline Thomas and P Wilkins, eds, Globalization and the South, Macmillan 1997

Immanuel Wallerstein, Unthinking Social Science: the Limits of Nineteenth Century Paradigms, Cambridge 1991

JN Pietersee, ‘A Critique of World System Theory’, International Sociology, 3, 1988, 251-66

Kenichi Ohmae, The Borderless World, Collins 1990 and The end of the nation state: the rise of regional economies, HarperCollins 1995

Leslie Sklair, Sociology of the Global System, Harvester-Wheatsheaf, 1991


What is the significance of the global for international relations?

*Ian Clark Globalization and Fragmentation Oxford: Oxford University Press 1997; see also Globalization and International Theory Oxford: Oxford University Press 1999

*John Baylis and Steve Smith, eds. The Globalization of World Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1997

*Martin Shaw Theory of the Global State: Globality as Unfinished Revolution Cambridge University Press 2000, esp. Chapter 1, Globality. See also Global Society and International Relations Cambridge: Polity 1994 (Japanese edition, Minerva, 1997)

Eleanor Kofman and Gillian Youngs, eds, Globalization: theory and practice, Pinter 1996

Justin Rosenberg The Follies of Globalization London: Verso 2000

JN Rosenau, Turbulence in World Politics: A Theory of Change and Continuity, Princeton 1990

JG Ruggie, 'Territoriality and Beyond: Problematizing Modernity in International Relations', International Organization, 47, Winter 1993, 139–74; also 'International Structure and International Transformation: Space, Time and Method', in E-O Czempiel and JN Rosenau, eds, Global Changes and Theoretical Challenges: Approaches to World Politics for the 1990's 1989, 21–35


Globalization, culture and postmodernity

Is globalization a cultural phenomenon? How should the cultural dimension of global change be conceptualized and what is its significance for international relations?

*Anthony D King, ed, Culture, Globalization and the World-System, Macmillan, 1990, esp Stuart Hall, 'The Local and the Global', 19-39

*Anthony D Smith, 'Towards a Global Culture?’, in Mike Featherstone, ed. Global Culture: Nationalism, Globalization and Modernity, Sage, 1990, 171-191 (see also other papers in this book)

*Yosef Lapid, 'Culture's ship: returns and departures in international relations theory' in Y. Lapid and F. Krachtowil (eds.) The Return of Culture and Identity in International Relations, London: Lynne Reiner 1997, 3-20

Roland Robertson, Globalization: Social Theory and Global Culture, Sage 1992, ch 3, 'Mapping the Global Condition', 49-60

Vincent Cable, The World’s New Fissures, Demos 1994

M Ferguson, 'The Mythology of Globalization', European Journal of Communication, 7, 1992, 69–93

M Albrow & E King, eds, Globalization, Knowledge and Society, 1990, Foreword and Introduction


What are the relations between globalization and postmodernity? Why does a new politics of identity figure so strongly in global theory?

*Zygmunt Bauman, Intimations of Postmodernity. London: Routledge 1992; also Postmodern Ethics Blackwell 1993

*Stuart Hall 'The Question of Cultural Identity', in Hall et al eds. Modernity and Its Futures Polity 1992

*R. B. J. Walker Inside-Outside. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1993

TW Luke, 'Discourses of Disintegration, Texts of Transformation: Re-Reading Realism in the New World Order', Alternatives, 18 Spring 1993, 229–58

Jan Aart Scholte, International Relations of Social Change, Open University, 1993, chs 1 and 2, 5-42; ‘From Power Politics to Social Change: An Alternative Direction for International Studies,' Review of International Studies, 19, January 1993, 3–21; 'Constructions of Collective Identity in a Time of Globalisation', conference paper, 1995 (Reserve)

Alexander Wendt, 'Collective Identity Formation and the International State', American Political Science Review, 88, 1994, 384–96

Craig Calhoun, ed. Social Theory and the Politics of Identity. Oxford: Blackwell 1994

D Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Conditions of Cultural Change, 1989, Part III

SD Brunn & TR Leinbach, eds, Collapsing Space and Time: Geographic Aspects of Information and Communication, HarperCollins 1991, chs 1, 3

Nick Rengger, Political theory, modernity and postmodernity: beyond enlightenment and critique, Blackwell 1995

Gerard O’Tuthail, Critical Geopolitics, Routledge 1996

Perry Anderson The Origins of Postmodernity. London: Verso 1998

Samuel Huntington, 'The Clash of Civilizations?' Foreign Affairs, 72, Summer 1993, 22–49; or The Clash of Civilizations: The Debate, 1993, and debate in Millenium

Martin Albrow, The Global Age, Polity 1997, 140-62

Anthony D Smith, Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era, Polity, 1995, National Identity, Penguin 1991, ch 7, 143-78 and The Ethnic Origins of Nations, Blackwell 1986, Ch. 1

Immanuel Wallerstein 'Societal Development, or Development of the World-System?' International Sociology, 1, March 1986, 3–17; also in M Albrow & E King eds, Globalization, Knowledge and Society , Sage 1990, 157–71

A G McGrew 'A Global Society?' in S Hall et al eds, Modernity and Its Futures, 1992, or Global Politics: Globalization and the Nation-State, Polity, 1992, Ch. 1

Margaret Archer, ‘Sociology for One World: Unity and Diversity’, International Sociology 6, 3, 133-46

J Friedman, Cultural Identity and Global Process, Sage 1994

W Bloom, Personal Identity, National Identity and International Relations, CUP 1990

Z Mlinar, ed. Globalization and Territorial Identities, Avebury 1992

M Keith & S Pile eds, Place and the Politics of Identity, Routledge 1993

R Robertson & J Chirico, 'Humanity, Globalization and Worldwide Religious Resurgence: A Theoretical Exploration', Sociological Analysis, 46, 1985, 219–42

Anthony D Smith, Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era, Polity, 1995, National Identity, Penguin 1991, ch 7, 143-78 and The Ethnic Origins of Nations, Blackwell 1986, Ch. 1

Martin Shaw, Theory of the Global State: Globality as Unfinished Revolution Cambridge University Press 2000, esp. Chapter 6, section on Globality and social categories

Part II Conceptions of global politics


Understanding state and politics in globality

What does the argument about the 'powerlessness' of the nation-state tell us about global theory? How might a changed, rather than undermined, role of the nation-state be conceptualized?

*Jan Aart Scholte, ‘Global capitalism and the state’, International Affairs, 73, 2, 1997, 427-52

*Linda Weiss, ‘Globalization and the Myth of the Powerless State’ New Left Review 225, Sept-Oct 1997, 3-27, and The Myth of the Powerless State Cambridge: Polity 1998

*Michael Mann, ‘Has globalization ended the rise and rise of the nation-state?’ Review of International Political Economy, 4, 3, 1997, 472-96

Kenneth Ohmae The End of the Nation-State New York: Free Press 1993; The Borderless World London: Collins 1990

Paul Hirst and Grahame Thompson Globalization in Question Cambridge: Polity, 1996

Georg Sørenson, ‘An analysis of contemporary statehood’, Review of International Studies, 23, 2, 1997, 253-70

RH Jackson & A James eds, States in a Changing World: A Contemporary Analysis, Clarendon Press 1993

J Holloway, 'Global Capital and the National State', Capital & Class, No 52 Spring 1994, 23–43

John Hobson, ‘The historical sociology of the state and the state of historical sociology in international relations’, and following debate, Review of International Political Economy 5, 2, 1998

A G McGrew, 'Modernization, Globalization and the Nation-State' in A G McGrew, Paul G Lewis et al, Global Politics, Polity 1992, 253-68

H Holm and G Sørenson, eds. Whose World Order? Uneven Globalization and the End of the Cold War. Boulder: Westview 1995

John Dunn, ed. Contemporary crisis of the nation state? Blackwell, 1995


Discuss the varieties of 'transformationist' understandings of state and politics in global conditions

*David Held et al. Global Transformations Cambridge: Polity 1999

*John MacLean, ‘Towards a Critical Theory of Agency in Contemporary International Relations’, in Martin Shaw, ed, Politics and Globalisation London: Routledge 1999

*Martin Shaw Globality as a revolutionary transformation in Shaw, ed. Politics and Globalisation London: Routledge 1999.

Mark Rupert Ideologies of Globalization London: Routledge 2000

Sol Picciotto, 'The Internationalisation of the State', Capital & Class, No 43 Spring 1991, 43–63

Martin Albrow The Global Age Polity 1997, ‘The Future State and Society’, 163-80

John Gerard Ruggie Building the World Polity: Essays on International Institutionalization. London: Routledge 1998

Jarrod Wiener Globalization and the Harmonization of Law. London: Pinter 1999

Gier Lundestad 'Empire' By Integration. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1998

Philip G Cerny The Changing Architecture of Politics London: Sage, 1990

Ronen Palan and Jason Abbott State Strategies in the Global Political Economy London: Pinter, 1996

Martin Shaw The unfinished global revolution: intellectuals and the new politics of international relations, lecture, 1999; Social democracy in the unfinished global revolution in L. Martell, ed. The Future of Social Democracy. London: Macmillan 2001; The state of globalization Review of International Political Economy, 4, 3, 1997, 497-513


Governance and hegemony in global thought

How far is it true to say that global theory has moved away from understanding the state? Can the idea of global 'governance' substitute for understanding the state in global conditions?

*James N Rosenau & E-O Czempiel, eds, Governance without Government: Order and Change in World Politics, CUP 1992

*Richard Falk, On Humane Governance, Polity 1995; see also ‘State of siege: will globalization win out?’, International Affairs, 73(1) 1997; Predatory Globalization. Cambridge: Polity 1999

*Martin Shaw Theory of the Global State Chapter 3 Intimations of globality

Commission on Global Governance, Our Global Neighbourhood, OUP, 1995

Thomas G Weiss, ed, NGOs, the United Nations and Global Governance, Lynne Reiner, 1996

AJ Paolini, AP Jarvis, Christopher Reus-Smit Between Sovereignty and Global Governance: The United Nations, the State and Civil Society London: Macmillan 1998

M Hewson and Timothy Sinclair Approaches to Global Governance Theory New York: SUNY Press 1999


What does it mean to understand global power as transnational hegemony? Does Gramsci’s perspective translate into global terms?

*R W Cox, 'Structural Issues of Global Governance', in S Gill, ed, Gramsci, Historical Materialism and International Relations, 1993, 259–89; Production, power, and world order : social forces in the making of history, Columbia UP, New York, 1987, Part 3; ed, The New Realism: Perspectives on Multilateralism and World Order, London: Macmillan/UNU Press

*Gill, S, American hegemony and the Trilateral Commission, Cambridge University Press, 1990; ed, Gramsci, historical materialism and international relations, Cambridge University Press, 1993

*Randall Germain and Michael Kenny, 'The new Gramscians' Review of International Studies 24, 1, 3-28

William Robinson Promoting Polyarchy Cambridge University Press 1996

Craig Murphy International Organization and Industrial Change: Global Governance Since 1850 Cambridge: Polity, 1994

RW Cox and TJ Sinclair Approaches to World Order, CUP, 1997

S Gill & D Law, The Global Political Economy: Perspectives, Problems and Policies 1988, Parts III & IV

Kees van der Pijl, The Making of an Atlantic Ruling Class, London: Verso, 1984 and Transnational Classes and International Relations London: Routledge 1998

H Overbeek ed, Restructuring Hegemony in the Global Political Economy: The Rise of Transnational Neo-Liberalism in the 1980s, Routledge 1993, Chapter 1


Civil society and social movements

What is the significance of civil society in the global era? How far are national and international structures transformed into 'global civil society'?

*R. W. Cox 'Civil Society at the turn of the millennium: prospects for an alternative world order', Review of International Studies 25 (1): 3-28, 1999

*A. J. Colas, ‘The Promises of International Civil Society’, Global Society: Interdisciplinary Journal of International Relations (Vol. 11, No. 3, September 1997) pp. 261-277

*Martin Shaw, Civil Society in Lester Kurtz, ed, Encyclopaedia of Violence, Peace and Conflict, San Diego: Academic Press, 1999; Civil Society and Media in Global Crises: Representing Distant Violence, London: Pinter 1996 (partial translation in Ulrich Beck, Hg., Perspektiven der Weltgesellschaft, Frankfurt-am-Main: Suhrkamp 1998, 221-55)

Michael Mann, ‘Authoritarian and Liberal Militarism: A Contribution from Historical Sociology’ in Steve Smith, Ken Booth and Marysia Zalewski, eds. International Theory: Positivism and Beyond. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1996

John Keane, ed, Civil Society and the State: New European Perspectives, London: Verso, 1988, esp 1-32 and 73-99

Craig Calhoun, ‘Nationalism and Civil Society’, International Sociology, 8, 293-316

Michael Walzer, Toward a global civil society, Berghahn, 1995

L Macdonald, 'Globalising Civil Society: Interpreting International NGOs in Central America', Millennium, 23 Summer 1994, 267–85

Paul Hirst, From Statism to Pluralism: Democracy, Civil Society and Global Politics London: UCL Press, 1997

Peter Willetts ed. Pressure Groups in the Global System: The Transnational Politics of Issue-Orientated Non-Governmental Organizations Pinter 1982


Critically evaluate the roles envisaged for social movements in radical global politics

*RA Falk, 'The Global Promise of Social Movements: Explorations at the Edge of Time', Alternatives, April 1987, 173–96 [Reserve] and 'The Infancy of Global Civil Society', in G Lundestad and OA Westad eds. Beyond the Cold War: New Dimensions in International Relations 1992

*Millennium, 23, 3, Winter 1994, Special issue, ‘Social Movements and World Politics’, especially chapters by Martin Shaw and RBJ Walker, 647-68 and 669-700

*MJ Peterson, Transnational Activity, International Society and World Politics' and RD Lipschutz, 'Reconstructing World Politics: The Emergence of Global Civil Society', Millennium, 21, 3, Winter 1992, 371–88 and 389–420

LP Thiele, 'Making Democracy Safe for the World: Social Movements and Global Politics', Alternatives, 18 Summer 1993, 273–305 [copy behind Reserve counter]

Giovanni Arrighi et al., Antisystemic Movements, Verso 1989

SH Mendlovitz & RBJ Walker eds, Towards a Just World Peace: Perspectives from Social Movements, Butterworths 1987

Andrew Linklater, The Transformation of Political Community, Cambridge: Polity 1998, especially Ch. 5, 145-178

Part III State and revolution: historicizing the global transition


State and revolution in the crisis of the Cold War system

How did the crisis of the Cold War system help to produce the global transition? Examine the principal asymmetries and contrasting trajectories of the Western and Soviet state-blocs.

*Michael Cox, 'The end of the Cold War and why we failed to predict it' (pp 157-174); Mary Kaldor, 'Nations and blocs: towards a theory of the political economy of the interstate model in Europe' (pp 193-212), and Harriet Friedman, 'Warsaw Pact socialism: detente and the disintegration of the Soviet bloc' (pp 213-232) in A. Hunter, ed. Rethinking the Cold War. Philadelphia: Temple University Press 1998

*Ian Clark, Globalization and Fragmentation: International Relations in the Twentieth Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1997

*Martin Shaw Theory of the Global State Cambridge University Press 2000, esp. Chapter 4 Internationalized bloc-states and democratic revolution

Michael Cox, ed. Rethinking the Soviet Collapse: Sovietology, the Death of Communism and the New Russia. London: Pinter 1998

L Haus Globalizing the GATT: The Soviet Union's Successor States, Eastern Europe and the International Trading System. Washington: Brookings 1992


How did the revolutions of 1989 represent a shift in the character of revolution and its role in world politics? What was the role of civil society?

*B Wheaton and Z Kavan The Velvet Revolution: Czechoslovakia 1988-91. Boulder: Westview 1992; and Kavan, 'Civil society and anti-politics in East-Central Europe' in M. Shaw (ed.) Politics and Globalisation, London: Routledge 1999, 113-26

*Mary Kaldor, ed. Europe From Below. London: Verso 1991

*Fred Halliday Revolution in World Politics. London: Macmillan 1999

Timothy Garton Ash We the People: The Revolution of '89 Witnessed in Warsaw, Budapest, Berlin and Prague. Oxford: Granta 1990; The Polish Revolution: Solidarity, 1980-82. London: Cape 1983

Mark Galeotti Gorbachev and His Revolution. London: Macmillan 1997

R Garthoff The Great Transition: American-Soviet Relations and the End of the Cold War. Washington, D.C.: Brookings 1994

John Keane, ed, Civil Society and the State: New European Perspectives, London: Verso, 1988, esp 1-32 and 73-99

Claus Offe Varieties of Transition: The East European and East German Experience. Cambridge: Polity 1996

P Raina Independent Social Movements in Poland. London: LSE 1991

V Tismaneanu In Search of Civil Society: Independent Peace Movements in the Soviet Bloc. New York: Routledge 1990

Gillian Wylie 'Social movements and international change: the case of ''detente from below''', International Journal of Peace Studies 4(2) 1999: 61-82

W Kaltefleiter and R Pfalzgraff The Peace Movements in Europe and the United States. London: Croom Helm 1985

B Kaminski The Collapse of State Socialism: The Case of Poland. Princeton: Princeton University Press 1991

D Keithly The Collapse of East German Communism: The Year the Wall Came Down, 1989. Westport: Praeger 1992

B Lomax Hungary 1956. London: Allison and Busby 1976

Vaclav Havel et al. The Power of the Powerless: Citizens Against the State in Central-Eastern Europe. London: Hutchinson 1985

EP Thompson Beyond the Cold War. London: European Nuclear Disarmament 1981

V-C Fisera, ed. Writing on the Wall: May 1968, A Documentary Anthology. London: Allison and Busby 1978

Chris Harman The Fire Last Time: 1968 and After. London: Bookmarks 1988

Alain Touraine The May Movement: Revolt and Reform. New York: Random House 1971; Solidarity: The Analysis of a Social Movement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1983


Democracy, democratization and popular revolt

Can democracy be globalized? Discuss the idea of cosmopolitan democracy

*David Held, ‘Democracy: from city-states to a cosmopolitan order?’, Political Studies, special issue, September 1992, and in D Held ed, Prospects for Democracy: North, South, East, West , Polity 1993, 13–52; Democracy and Global Order Cambridge: Polity 1995, esp. Part II, Chs. 5 and 6, 99-140, and Part IV,Chs. 10-12, 219-86

*Andrew Linklater, 'Community, Citizenship and Global Politics', Oxford International Review, 5 Winter 1993, 6–9 and The Transformation of Political Community, Cambridge: Polity 1998, esp Ch. 6, 179-204

*Anthony McGrew, ed, The Transformation of Democracy? Globalization and Territorial Democracy, Polity 1997, esp chs 1 and 2, 1-48

RBJ Walker, 'On the Spatio-Temporal Conditions of Democratic Practice', in his Inside/Outside: International Relations as Political Theory, CUP 1993, 141–58

WE Connolly, 'Democracy and Territoriality', Millennium, 20 Winter 1991, 463–84

D Held & A McGrew, 'Globalization and the Liberal Democratic State', Government and Opposition, 28, 1993

R Bauböck, Transnational Citizenship: Membership and Rights in International Migration, Edward Elgar 1994

Timothy Dunne and Nicholas J. Wheeler, eds. Human Rights in Global Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1999

Anthony Giddens The Third Way. Cambridge: Polity 1998

Onora O'Neill 'Transnational justice' in D. Held (eds.) Political Theory Today, Cambridge: Polity 1991; 'Justice, gender and boundaries' in R. Attfield and B. Wilkins (eds.) International Justice and the Third World, London: Routledge 1992


How widespread is democratization in Asia, Latin America and Africa, and what are its relationships to global change, Western policy and popular revolt?

*Robin Luckham and Gordon White, eds, Democratization in the South: The jagged wave, Manchester UP 1996, esp. Introduction and Conclusion, 1-10 and 274-89

*William Robinson Promoting Polyarchy Cambridge University Press 1996

*David Potter et al, eds, Democratization, Polity 1997

G Sørensen, Democracy and Democratization in a Changing World, Westview 1993

Bruce Cumings, 'Warfare, security and democracy in East Asia', in Tarak Barkawi and Mark Laffey, eds. Democracy, Liberalism and War Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 2001

International Crisis Group Indonesia's Shaky Transition 2000

P Hainsworth and S McCloskey The East Timor question: the struggle for independence from Indonesia. I.B.Tauris, 1999

David R Howarth and Aletta J Norval, eds. South Africa in Transition: New Theoretical Perspectives Basingstoke: Macmillan 1998

Patrick Bond Elite Transition: From Apartheid to Neoliberalism London: Pluto 2000

William Chapman Inside the Philippine Revolution London: Tauris 1988

Elizabeth Jelin and Eric Hershberg Constructing Democracy: Human Rights, Citizenship and Society in Latin America Oxford: Westview 1996

J Peeler Building Democracy in Latin America Boulder: Lynne Rienner 1998

Adam Przeworski Democracy and the Market: Political and Economic Reforms in Eastern Europe and Latin America Cambridge University Press 1991

Martin Shaw Theory of the Global State Cambridge University Press 2000, Chapter 5 Global revolution, counterrevolution and genocidal war


Counterrevolution, war and genocide in the global transition

What were the forms and extents of international counter-revolution after 1989? Discuss the cases of China and Yugoslavia

*R Baum, ed. Reform and Reaction in Post-Mao China: The Road Through Tiananmen. New York: Routledge 1991

*LJ Cohen Broken Bonds: Yugoslavia’s Distintegration and Balkan Politics in Transition. Boulder: Westview 1995

*Martin Shaw Theory of the Global State Cambridge University Press 2000, Chapter 5 Global revolution, counterrevolution and genocidal war

C Cheng Behind the Tiananmen Massacre: Social, Political and Economic Ferment in China. Boulder: Westview 1990

A Thurston Enemies of the People: The Ordeal of the Intellectuals in China's Great Cultural Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press 1988

Carole Rogel The breakup of Yugoslavia and the war in Bosnia Westport: Greenwood P.

Susan Woodward Balkan Tragedy. Washington, DC: Brookings 1996


Discuss the changing ways in which Western and global state institutions are implicated in the new political struggles of the global era

*Oliver Ramsbotham and Tom Woodhouse Humanitarian Intervention in Contemporary Conflict, Polity, 1996

*Martin Shaw Civil Society and Media in Global Crises London: Pinter 1996

*James Mayall ed. The New Interventionism 1991-94: United Nations Experience in Cambodia, former Yugoslavia and Somalia Cambridge University Press 1996

David Rieff Slaughterhouse: Bosnia and the Failure of the West. Harmondsworth: Penguin 1995

Roy Guttman and David Rieff, eds. Crimes of War New York: Norton, 1999

Ed Vulliamy, ‘Bosnia: the crime of appeasement’, International Affairs, 74, 1, 1998, 73-92

A J Klinghoffer The International Dimension of Genocide in Rwanda. Basingstoke: Macmillan

T Cushman and S Mestrovic, eds. This Time We Knew: Western Responses to Genocide in Bosnia. New York: New York University Press 1996


CONSULTATION WEEK / individual sessions about assessed essays

You should consider possible topics and bring a 1-page outline of your proposed topic, with headings, to your session.

Term papers may be written on seminar questions or on a question of your own choosing.