University of Sussex


MA in Contemporary War and Peace Studies, Autumn 2003



Contemporary Warfare and Society


Seminars: Mondays 11-12.50, D741 (except weeks 1 and 5: see below)

Course website:


Tutor: Professor Martin Shaw

Office hours: Mondays 2-2.50 and Tuesdays, 1-1.50

Room E504, 01273 678032

Secretary, Shirley Stay, E407, 678892




Course summary


Part I:             Modern war: concepts and theories

1                      Tuesday 7 October (3-4 pm B380) Introductory meeting

2                      13 October: War - what is it, why and how should we study it?

3                      20 October: Strategic theory - Clausewitz on politics, escalation, battle

4                      27 October: C20 interstate war - total war, degeneracy, genocide

5                      Wednesday 29 October (11-12.50 D730): Civil war - revolution and war, guerrilla war, terrorism


3 November: no seminar (reading week)


Part II:           Global era wars: issues and case studies

6                      10 November: Global era 'new' wars - interstate and civil war, state crisis and formation / course essay due

7                      17 November: Ethnicity, 'ethnic cleansing', gender and refugees

8                      24 November: 'Humanitarian' intervention, NGOs, media and global justice

9                      1 December: Political economy of war, refugees and reconstruction

10                    8 December: The War on Terror and the new Western wars


Aims and objectives


This course will develop an understanding of contemporary warfare with an emphasis on the changes in warfare in recent decades and especially since the end of the Cold War.


The course will examine the transformations of warfare from the periods of total war and the East-West nuclear arms race to the age of nuclear proliferation, regional conflicts, genocidal wars of state fragmentation and the War on Terror.


It will examine the causes and consequences of contemporary wars in economy, society, politics and culture, and the accompanying transformations of military organisation and culture.


The MA in Contemporary War and Peace Studies


1                    to provide a framework for understanding the development of war and peace in the twentieth century, through a distinctive theoretical approach which examines war and peace historically in the context of social, economic and cultural relations;


2                    to develop an understanding of the major contemporary wars and the recent transformations of warfare, especially in the period since 1989, together with an appreciation of the problems of developing a stable democratic peace in the twenty-first century.



1                    that students will develop a rounded, historically informed understanding of the nature of modern war and of the major contemporary conflicts, together with an appreciation of ideas of and problems in the creation of a peaceful world;


2                    that students will develop their abilities to theorise, analyse, write and present social, political and historical ideas and information; and


3                    that students will receive a general education in problems of contemporary war and peace which will help prepare them for research or for work concerning war, peace and related international issues in areas such as media, education and international organisations.




Course information

Course structure

The course is divided into two main sections, each comprising several linked seminars. Each session will last just under 2 hours.


In part I, from weeks 2-5, three people per week will each prepare a short (10 minute) presentation outlining a key conceptual issue, providing each of us with a 1-side handout outlining a definition and a number of key points.


In part II, from weeks 6-10, there will be a longer (15-20 minute) presentation based on examining the week's issues through different case studies. The draft paper will be circulated by email one week beforehand. Another member (or members) of the group will be assigned to respond to the paper. These presentations will be based on course essays that will be submitted in week 7.



This course recognizes that students on the MA come from a variety of national and disciplinary backgrounds. For a broad historical and theoretical framework, students should refer to the complementary core course, Foundations of World Politics, as well as to the associated lecture series just referred to. This course

·        provides elements of the theoretical frameworks most relevant to understanding contemporary wars, and

·        introduces the study of these wars by examining current trends in warfare in a relatively close empirical manner.


Reading list


There are no textbooks for these courses, although my War and Genocide (Polity, 2003) will be useful background. Reading is listed below under the seminar topics, with 'essential' readings (guaranteed library resources) indicated. You are expected to read as many of these as possible, although not necessarily all of them.


Seminar lists are of uneven length partly because items are listed on first relevance; you are expected to see overlaps and go back to previous sections for items already referred to. Lists are also extensive to help in writing essays. In case of any items being unavailable in the Library, look for substitutes or consult me - in some cases I may be able to lend you the relevant book or article.


Web materials

Because this course has a topical focus, much useful and especially up to date material is on the web rather than in traditional printed publications.


Internet materials are indicated in the hardcopy by underlinings rather than URLs. You will find them by going to the links in the online version. If you are working with a hard copy of this list, you will need to use the online version at


I am editor of, which publishes relevant papers and hosts a searchable database of online materials at Please email me with details of any Internet materials that you find useful and which could be added to this library. My personal website is at


Course essays

There will be a course essay of 2000 words, to be handed in at the session in week 6. The essay should address one of the questions from weeks 6-10 of the course, using the conceptual framework discussed in weeks 1-5.



This course is assessed by a 3-question, three-and-a-half-hour unseen examination in January. Exam papers for the last 3 years are available and are a good guide to the general character of the questions. However it is important to note that the topics in the course have been substantially revised in the current session, and the exam will reflect this year's course.


I am keen to hear your evaluations of this course and my teaching. Please raise difficulties as they arise. Course evaluation forms will be distributed in the penultimate week of term.


If you need to contact me when I am not in my office, email me or in case of urgency phone Shirley Stay. We will have an email list for the course so that we can all communicate with each other quickly.



Like all members of faculty, I am always willing to write references for every student on my courses. Please let me know if you would like to give my name as a referee. Supply me with any background information that might be useful in writing a reference, and keep me updated on your progress if you wish to use my name in future.


Part I: Modern war: concepts and theories


Introductory meeting

In this session we will introduce ourselves and plan our work for the term.



War: what is it, why and how should we study it?


1          How do we define war and militarism?

2          What are the relationships between social-scientific and biological, and between strategic, international and historical-sociological approaches?

3          What are the roles of moral and political concerns in the academic study of war?


Essential readings


Shaw, M. (1991) Post-Military Society, Cambridge: Polity, Chapter 1

Gray, C. (1998) Modern Strategy, Oxford University Press

Walzer, M. (2000) Just and Unjust Wars, 3rd edn., NY: Basic Books


Other introductory readings


Howard, M. (1981) Clausewitz, Oxford University Press

Keegan, J. (1976) The Face of Battle, London: Cape

Lorenz, K. (1966) On Aggression, London: Methuen

Bramson, L. and G. W Goethals, eds., War: Studies from Psychology, Sociology and Anthropology, NY: Basic Books 1978

Waltz, K. (1959) Man, the State and War, NY: Columbia University Press

Holsti, K. (1989) Peace and War: Armed Conflicts and International Order 1648-1989, Cambridge University Press, Chapter 1, 1-24

Geller, D. and J. D. Singer, eds. (1998) Nations at War: A Scientific Study of International Conflict, Cambridge University Press

Shaw, M. (2003) 'Strategy and slaughter' (comment on C. Gray, Modern Strategy) and Gray's reply, 'In praise of strategy', Review of International Studies, 29, 2, 269-78 and 285-96



The idea of modern war: Clausewitz on politics, escalation, friction


1                    'War is the continuation of political intercourse by other means.' What are the issues involved in this idea?

2                    Why is escalation is a law of war, and how does 'friction' limit it?

3                    In what sense is 'battle' the end of war, and what are the implications of this for our understanding of war?


Essential readings


Howard, M. (1981) Clausewitz, Oxford University Press

Clausewitz, C. von (1976) On War (ed. Peter Paret & Michael Howard), Princeton University Press

Gallie, W.B. (1978) Philosophers of War and Peace (chapter on Clausewitz), Oxford University Press

Gray, C. (1998)Modern Strategy, Oxford University Press

Kaldor, M. (1982) ‘Warfare and Capitalism’, in EP Thompson et al, Exterminism and Cold War, London: Verso 1982

(1999) Chapter 1, 'Old Wars', of her New and Old Wars, Cambridge: Polity

Shaw, M. (1988) Dialectics of War, London: Pluto, Chapter 1


Other readings


Freedman, L., ed. (1994) War. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Keegan, J. (1976) The Face of Battle, London: Cape

Creveld, M. van (1991) The Transformation of War, London: Macmillan

Snyder, C.A., ed. (1999) Contemporary Security and Strategy, London: Macmillan  Aron, R. (1983) Clausewitz: Philosopher of War, London: Routledge

Paret, P. (1976) Clausewitz and the State, Oxford: Clarendon

Earle, E.M., ed. (1971) Makers of Modern Strategy, Princeton University Press

Howard, M. (1985) The Causes of Wars, London: Allen & Unwin, 1-115

Kaldor, M. (1982) The Baroque Arsenal, London: Deutsch

Ehrenreich, B. (1997) Blood Rites: Origins and History of the Passions of War, Virago 1997



C20 interstate war: total war, degeneracy, genocide


1                    In what senses did modern war become 'total' in the C20, and why?

2                    How and why did total war involve extensive breaches of the traditional norms of 'just' war?

3                    In what senses was 'genocide' connected to war in the C20?


Essential readings


Beckett, I.F.W. (1988) ‘Total War’, in Colin McInnes & G D Sheffield, eds, Warfare in the Twentieth Century Theory and Practice, London: Unwin Hyman

Markusen, E. and D. Kopf (1995) The Holocaust and Strategic Bombing: Genocide and Total War in the Twentieth Century, Boulder: Westview

Walzer, M. (2000) Just and Unjust Wars, 3rd edn., NY: Basic Books

Reid, J. (1992) 'Total war, the annihilation ethic, and the Armenian genocide, 1870-1918' in R G Hovannisian, ed., The Armenian genocide: history, politics, ethics, London: Macmillan

Browning, C. (1992) The Path to Genocide: Essays on Launching the Final Solution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Shaw, M. (2003) War and Genocide. Cambridge: Polity. Chapters 1 and 2, 14-31, 34-53


Other readings


Kuper, L. (1981) Genocide, Harmondsworth: Penguin

Lifton, R.J. and E. Markusen (1988) The Genocidal Mentality: The Nazi Holocaust and the Nuclear Threat, London: Macmillan 1988

Bauman, Z. (1991) Modernity and the Holocaust, Cambridge: Polity

Mann, M. (1988) ‘The Roots and Contradictions of Modern Militarism’, States, War and Capitalism, Oxford: Blackwell, 166-87 (New Left Review, 162, Mar.-Apr. 1987)

Marwick, A. (1974) War and Social Change in the Twentieth Century, London: Macmillan; (1988) ed., Total War and Social Change, London: Macmillan

Mandel, E. (1986) The Meaning of the Second World War, London: Verso

Milward, A.S. (1977) War, Economy and Society 1939-45, London: Allen Lane

Calvacoressi, P. and G. Wint (1974) Total War: Causes and Courses of the Second World War, Harmondsworth: Penguin

Fein, H. (1993) Genocide: a sociological perspective, London: Sage. (First published as Current sociology, 38, 1, 1990)

Chalk, F. & K Jonassohn (1990) The history and sociology of genocide: analyses and case studies, London: Yale UP 1990

Andreopoulos, G.J., ed. (1994) Genocide. Pittsburgh: U of Pennsylvania Press

Shaw, M. (1988) Dialectics of War, London: Pluto, esp. Chapters 2 - 4



Civil war: revolution, guerrilla war, terrorism


1                    How are revolution and war connected, and what were the implications of the C20 spread of revolutionary war?

2                    What is guerrilla war, and how different is it from interstate war?

3                    What are the specific characteristics of terrorism as a form of war, and how is it related to other forms?


Essential readings


Gray, C. (1998) Modern Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, ch. on 'small wars'

Skocpol, T. (1979) States and Social Revolutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ch. 1 plus Ch. on Russia

Halliday, F. (1999) Revolution in World Politics. London: Macmillan

Lacquer, W. (1998) Guerrilla Warfare: A Historical and Critical Study. New Brunswick: Transaction

Smith, M.L.R. (2003) Guerrillas in the mist: reassessing strategy and low intensity warfare, Review of International Studies, 29: 19-37

Kalyvas, S. (2000) The logic of violence in civil wars, unpublished paper

Guelke, A. (1995) The age of terrorism and the international political system. London: Tauris

Freedman, L., ed. (2002) Superterrorism: policy responses. Oxford: Blackwell.

Melvin Small & J David Singer, Resort to Arms: International and Civil Wars, 1826-1980, Sage 1982.


Other readings


Clapham, C. (1998) African Guerrillas. Oxford: James Currey

Trotsky, L. (1934) History of the Russian Revolution. London: Gollancz

Conquest, R. (1976) The Great Terror. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Charters, D. ed. (1991) Democratic responses to international terrorism. New York: Transnational

McClintock, M.  (1992) Instruments of statecraft: US guerrilla warfare, counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism (1940-1990) New York: Pantheon

International encyclopedia of terrorism (1997) Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn

Cameron, G. (1999) Nuclear terrorism: a threat assessment for the 21st century Basingstoke: Macmillan

Chomsky, N. (1990) Pirates and emperors: international terrorism in the real world. Brattleboro: Amana Books

Benard, C. (1994) Rape as terror: the case of Bosnia (library as paper; from Terrorism and political violence, 6, 1)

Meade, R. (1990) Red Brigades: the story of Italian terrorism. Basingstoke: Macmillan

Vines, A. (1991) RENAMO: terrorism in Mozambique. London: Currey

Baird-Windle, P. (2001) Targets of hatred: anti-abortion terrorism. NY: Palgrave

Wilkinson, P., ed. (1993) Technology and terrorism. London: Cass (First published as a special issue of Terrorism and political violence, 5, 2, 1993)

George, A., ed. (1991) Western state terrorism. Cambridge: Polity




Part II: Global era wars - issues and case studies



Global era wars: inter- and intra-state conflict, state crisis and formation


1                    How useful is the concept of 'new wars'?

2                    To what extent are global-era wars still interstate wars?

3                    Are intrastate conflicts products of state collapse or of state formation?


Essential readings


Kaldor, M. (1999) New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era

Duffield, M. (2001) Global Governance and the New Wars, London: Pluto

Gray, C. (1998) Modern Strategy, section on future wars/China

Jacques, K. (2000) Bangladesh, India and Pakistan: international relations and regional tensions in South Asia.  Basingstoke: Macmillan

Karsh, E. ed., (1989) The Iran-Iraq war: impact and implications, London: Macmillan 1989

Paul Rich (ed.) Warlords in International Relations, London: Macmillan 1999, esp. chapters by Rich (1), Segell (3), McNulty (5) and Mackinda (7)

Clapham, C. (2000) War and state formation in Ethiopia and Eritrea

Shaw, M. (2000) 'The contemporary mode of warfare? Mary Kaldor's theory of new wars', Review of International Political Economy, 7, 1, 171-80


Other reading


Martin van Creveld, The Transformation of War. London: Macmillan 1991

Mary Kaldor and Basker Vashee, eds., New Wars, Pinter 1998; Kaldor, Ulrich Albrecht and Genevieve Schmeder, eds., The End of Military Fordism, Pinter 1998

Martin Shaw, 'War and globality: the role and character of war in the global transition', in Ho-won Jeong, ed, The New Agenda for Peace Research, Ashgate 1999

Edward N Luttwak, ‘Towards Post-Heroic Warfare’, Foreign Affairs, 74, 3, 1995

Michael Ignatieff, The Warrior's Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience, Chatto and Windus 1998

The Military Balance 2000-2001, International Institute for Strategic Studies 2001

Dan Smith, The State of War and Peace Atlas, 3rd edition, Penguin 1997

Kalevi J Holsti, The State, War and the State of War, CUP 1996

Saferworld, The Cost of War 1995



Ahmed, I. (1996) State, nation and ethnicity in contemporary South Asia. London: Pinter

Walker, W. (1998) 'International nuclear relations after the Indian and Pakistani test explosions', International Affairs, 74, 3, 505-28

Hewitt,V. (1997) The new international politics of South Asia.  Manchester U.P.

Rosen, S. P. (1996) Societies and military power: India and its armies/(by) Stephen Peter Rosen  Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell U.P.

Wirsing, Robert G. (1998) India, Pakistan and the Kashmir dispute: on regional conflict and its resolution  Basingstoke: Macmillan

Jeffrey, R. (1994) What's happening to India?: Punjab, ethnic conflict, and the test for federalism/(by) Robin Jeffrey Edition 2nd ed  Basingstoke: Macmillam,1994

Allen, D. (1992) Religion and political conflict in South Asia: India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. Westport: Greenwood

Vanaik, A. (1995) India in a changing world: problems, limits and successes of its foreign policy. London: Sangam

Vanaik, A. (1990) The painful transition: bourgeois democracy in India. London: Verso

Vanaik, A. (1998) The Furies of Indian Communalism: Religion, Modernity and Secularization, London:  Verso

Ahmad, A. (1997) Lineages of the Present: Ideological and Political Genealogies of Contemporary South Asia

Jalal, A. (1995) Democracy and authoritarianism in South Asia: a comparative and historical perspective. Cambridge: C.U.P.

Tambiah, S.J. (1996) Leveling crowds: ethnonationalist conflicts and collective violence in South Asia.  Berkeley: U. of California P.



Martin Shaw, Civil Society and Media in Global Crises: Representing Distant Violence, London: Pinter 1996, Ch. 2

Hiro, Dilip  Neighbours, not friends: Iraq and Iran after the Gulf Wars/Dilip Hiro  London: Routledge,2001

Weller, M.  Coercive disarmament: Iraq, UNSCOM and the use of force/edited by M. Weller Volume_information Vol.3  Documents and Analysis Pub.,1999

Cordesman, Anthony H.  Iraq and the war of sanctions:  conventional threats and weapons of mass destruction/(by) Anthony H. Cordesman  Westport: Praeger,1999

Iraq under siege: the deadly impact of sanctions and war/edited by Anthony Arnove  Cambridge, Mass.: South End P.,2000

Lawrence Freedman and Efraim Karsh, The Gulf Conflict 1990-91: Diplomacy and War in the New World Order, London: Faber, 1993

Geoff Simons, The Scourging of Iraq: Sanctions, Law and Natural Justice: 2nd edition, London: Macmillan 1998

R. Dannreuther, The Gulf Conflict: a Political and Strategic Analysis, Adelphi Papers, No 264, 1992

D Hiro, Desert shield to desert storm: the Second Gulf War, London: Paladin 1992

D Campbell, Politics without principle: sovereignty, ethics, and the narratives of the Gulf War, Boulder: Lynne Reinner 1993

F Hazelton, ed. Iraq since the Gulf War: prospects for democracy London: Zed Books 1994

M Khadduri & E Ghareeb, War in the Gulf, 1990-91: The Iraq-Kuwait Conflict and its Implications, Oxford: O.U.P. 1997

MM Gunter, The Kurdish Predicament in Iraq: A Political Analysis, London: Macmillan 1999

M Weller, ed (University of Cambridge Research Centre for International Law) Iraq and Kuwait: the hostilities and their aftermath: Cambridge international documents series: 3, Cambridge: Grotius 1993

T Dodd & T Youngs, (House of Commons Library) The Iraq crisis: Research paper 98/28 issued by the Research Division of the Library 1998

A Haselkorn, The Continuing Storm: Iraq, Poisonous Weapons, and Deterrence, New Haven: Yale U.P 1999

J Gow, ed., Iraq, the Gulf Conflict and the World Community, London: Brassey's 1993

United Nations, Iraq: Oil for Food Programme 2000

Campaign Against Sanctions on Iraq, Sanctions Against Iraq: Background, Consequences, Strategies 2000



Jean-François Bayart, Stephen Ellis and Béatrice Hibou, The Criminalization of the State in Africa, Oxford, Bloomington: James Currey 1999, Chapter 1

Christopher Clapham, Africa and the International System, Cambridge University Press, 1996, Chapter 9

Alex de Waal, 'Contemporary Warfare in Africa', in M. Kaldor and V. Bashee (eds.) New Wars, London: Pinter 1997

William Reno, Warlord Politics and African States, Boulder: Lynne Rienner 1999

Mark Duffield, Global Governance and the New Wars, London: Pluto 2001

Jeffrey Herbst, 'War and the State in Africa', International Security, 14(4) 1990

Robert Jackson, Quasi-States, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1993.

Lionel Cliffe and Robin Luckham, 'Complex Political Emergencies and the State', Third World Quarterly 20(1) 1999

Peter Lewis, ‘From prebendalism to predation: the political economy of decline in Nigeria’, Journal of Modern African Studies, 34, 1, March 1996

ME Sharpe and Donald M. Snow, Uncivil Wars: International Security and the New Internal Conflicts, Boulder: Lynne Rienner 1996

William Zartman, ed., Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority, Boulder: Lynne Rienner 1995

Adebayo Adedeji (ed.) Comprehending and Mastering African Conflicts, London: Zed 1999

Taisier M. Ali and Robert O. Matthew (ed.) Civil Wars in Africa, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press 1999

Stephen Ellis, The Mask of Anarchy: The Destruction of Liberia and the Religious Dimension of an African Civil War, London: Hurst 1999

Ioan Lewis, Making History in Somalia: Humanitarian Intervention in a Stateless Society, London: LSE Centre for the Study of Global Governance, 1994


Former Soviet Union

A. Hunter (ed.) Rethinking the Cold War, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998, chapters by M. Cox, H. Friedman, M. Kaldor

M. Cox (ed.) Rethinking the Soviet Collapse: Sovietology, the Death of Communism and the New Russia. London: Pinter, 1998

M. P. Croissant, The Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict: causes and implications, Westport: Praeger 1998

J. B. Dunlop, Russia confronts Chechnya: roots of a separatist conflict, Cambridge: CUP 1998

Anatole Lieven, Chechnya: tombstone of Russian power, New Haven: Yale UP 1998

V Bennett, Crying wolf: the return of war to Chechnya, London: Picador 1998

S Knezys & R. Sedlickas, The war in Chechnya, College Station: Texas A & M UP 1999

C. Gall & T. De Waal, Chechnya: a small victorious war, London: Pan 1997

F. Halliday, 'The ends of cold war', New Left Review (180) 1990 (also The Second Cold War. London: Verso, 1982)

V. Mastny (ed.) The Helsinki Process and the Reintegration of Europe 1986-1991: Analysis and Documentation. London: Pinter 1992.

W. Korey, The Promises We Keep: Human Rights, the Helsinki Process and American Foreign Policy. New York: St. Martin's Press 1993

D. Larson, Anatomy of Mistrust: US-Soviet Relations During the Cold War. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997

Mary Kaldor, M. The Imaginary War. Oxford: Blackwell 1990 and (ed.) Europe From Below. London: Verso 1991

Michael Waller, ‘Peace, Power and Protest: Eastern Europe in the Gorbachev Era’, Conflict Studies, 209, 1988

Walter Kaltefleiter and Robert Pfaltzgraff, The Peace Movements in Europe and the United States, London: Croom Helm 1985

V Tismaneanu, ed, In search of civil society: independent peace movements in the Soviet bloc, London: Routledge 1990

Caucasus War Report, Central Asia Report, both from Institute of War and Peace Reporting (with email subscription lists)

Post-Soviet Armies Newsletter (with email subscription list)



Ethnicity,  'ethnic cleansing', gender and genocide


1        How is ethnicity related to politics in war-mobilisation - is the label 'ethnic wars' useful?

2        What is 'ethnic cleansing' and what is its relationship to genocide?

3        What are the relationships between the gendering of war and of genocide?


Essential readings


Jocelyn Alexander, Jo Ann McGregor and Terence Ranger, 'Ethnicity' in E. Wayne Nafziger, Frances Stewart and Raimo Väyrynen, eds., War, Hunger and Displacement: The Origins of Humanitarian Emergencies, Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2000

Mel McNulty, 'The Militarization of Ethnicity and the Emergence of Warlordism in Rwanda, 1990-94', in Paul Rich (ed.) Warlords in International Relations, London: Macmillan 1999, 140-63

International Independent Commission on Kosovo, The Kosovo Report: Conflict, International Response, Lessons Learned. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2000

Gil Loeschler, 'Refugees', in Tim Dunne and Nicholas Wheeler, eds, Human Rights and Human Wrongs, Cambridge: CUP 1999

Skjelsbaek, I. 2001 'Sexual Violence and War', European Journal of International Relations, 7, 2

Cynthia Cockburn, 'The gendered dynamics of armed conflict and political violence', and Caroline Moser, 'The gendered continuum of violence and conflict', in Moser and Fiona C. Clark, eds., Victims, Perpetrators or Actors? London: Zed 2001

Michael Mann, The colonial darkside of democracy, 2001, especially Table


Other gender readings


B Nowrojee and Regan Ralph, 'Justice for women victims of violence: Rwanda after the 1994 genocide' in Amadiume, I. and An-Na'im, A. (eds.) The Politics of Memory: Truth, Healing and Social Justice, London: Zed 2000

Twagiramariya, C. and Turshen, M., '"Favours" to give and "consenting" victims: the sexual politics of survival in Rwanda', in Twagiramariya and Turshen (eds.) What Women Do in Wartime, London: Zed 1998

A Stiglmayer, ed, Mass Rape: The War Against Women in Bosnia-Herzegovina, U of Nebraska P 1994

Human Rights Watch Kosovo: Rape as a Weapon of Ethnic Cleansing 2000

Jan Willem Honig & Norbert Both, Srebrenica: Record of a War Crime, Penguin 1996

Amnesty International, Bosnia-Herzegovina: Rape and Sexual Abuse by Armed Forces, Amnesty 1993

Lori Buck, Nicole Gallant and Kim Richard Nossal, 'Sanctions as a gendered instrument of statecraft: the case of Iraq', Review of International Studies, 24, 1, 1998, 69-84

Shems Hadj-Nassar, Has rape been used as a systematic weapon of war in the conflict in former Yugoslavia? and R Lindsey, The lobby for rape to be accepted as a war crime: a feminist failure, Sussex MA dissertations 1995

Rayika Omaar and Alex de Waal, Rwanda: Death, Despair and Defiance, Africa Rights 1994

Ronin Lentin, Gender and Catastrophe, London: Zed 1997

Institute of War and Peace Reporting, Tribunal Update, carried regular reports during 2000 of the Foca war crimes trials centring on charges of rape.

Sharon Macdonald et al, Images of Women in Peace and War: Cross-cultural and historical perspectives, Macmillan 1987

Jean Bethke Elshtain, Women and War, Harvester 1987

Mady Wechsler Segal, ‘The Military and the Family as Greedy Institutions’ and Patricia M Shields, ‘Sex Roles in the Military’, in Charles Moskos and Frank Wood, The Military: More than Just a Job?, Pergamon-Brassey 1988, 79-114

Jan Jindy Pettman, Worlding Women, Routledge 1996, Part 2



Linda Melvern, A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genocide. London: Zed 2000

Michael Barnett, Eye-witness to a Genocide, 2002

Samantha Power, A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide, London: Flamingo 2003

René Lemarchand, Patterns of state collapse and reconstructions in Central Africa: reflections on the crisis in the Great Lakes African Studies Quarterly 1, 1

Rayika Omaar and Alex de Waal, Rwanda: Death, Despair and Defiance, Africa Rights 1994

Mel McNulty, The Militarization of Ethnicity and the Emergence of Warlordism in Rwanda, 1990-94', in Paul Rich (ed.) Warlords in International Relations, London: Macmillan 1999, 140-63; 'Media Ethnicization and the International Response to War and Genocide in Rwanda', in Tim Allen and Jean Seaton, eds, The Media of Conflict: War Reporting and Representations of Ethnic Violence, Zed 1999, 268-86

G Prunier, The Rwanda crisis, 1959-94: history of a genocide, Hurst 1995

Mahmood Mamdnai, ‘From Conquest to Consent as the Basis of State Formation: Reflections on Rwanda’, New Left Review, 216, 1996, 3-36

René Lemarchand, Burundi: Ethnic Conflict and Genocide, Cambridge: CUP 1996.

International Crisis Group, Burundian Refugees in Tanzania: The Key Factor to the Burundi Peace Process

D Millwood, ed, The international response to conflict and genocide: lessons from the Rwanda experience, 5 vols, 1996 (Documents counter)



Ken Booth, ed, The Kosovo Tragedy: Human Rights Dimensions, London: Cass, 2000

Xavier Bougarel, Anatomie d'un conflit Decouvertes, Paris, 1996

Laura Silber and Allan Little, The Death of Yugoslavia Penguin 1995

David Dyker and Ivan Vejvoda, eds., Yugoslavia and After, Longmans 1996

Misha Glenny, The Fall of Yugoslavia: The Third Balkan War, London: Penguin, 1992

MA Sells, The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia, U California P 1996

Susan Woodward, Balkan Tragedy, Brookings 1996

Leonard J Cohen, Broken Bonds: Yugoslavia’s Distintegration and Balkan Politics in Transition, Westview 1995

Samantha Power, A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide, London: Flamingo 2003


Lawrence Freedman, 'Victims and victors: reflections on the Kosovo war', Review of International Studies, 26, 3, 2000, 335-58

Marc Weller, 'The Rambouillet conference on Kosovo', International Affairs, 75, 2, 1999, 211-52

Richard Caplan, 'International diplomacy and the crisis in Kosovo', International Affairs, 74, 4, 1998, 745-63

Hideaki Shinoda The politics of legitimacy in international relations: the case of NATO intervention in Kosovo

Adam Roberts, NATO's "humanitarian war" over Kosovo, Survival, 41, 3, 1999

Kees van der Pijl, article in Review of International Political Economy 2001 (details to come)

Ken Booth, ed, The Kosovo Tragedy: Human Rights Dimensions, London: Cass, 2000

Tim Judah, Kosovo: War and Revenge, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000

H Clark, Civil resistance in Kosovo, London: Pluto 2000

Noel Malcolm, Kosovo: a short history, Basingstoke: Macmillan 1998

Marc Weller, The crisis in Kosovo, 1989-1999, Documents and Analysis Publishing Cambridge 1999, and Kosovo conflict: forced displacement, the conduct and termination of hostilities and the renewed search for a settlement, Prospect Books 1999

Jurgen Habermas, Bestiality and humanity: a war on the border between law and morality, translation of Bestialitat und Humanitat from Die Zeit, 54, 18, 1999, 1-8

New Left Review, 234, March-April 1999, 'The Imperialism of Human Rights': articles by Ali, Zizek, Gowan

Philip Hammond and Edward S. Herman, editors, Degraded Capability: The Media and the Kosovo Crisis, London: Pluto, 2000 and review by Martin Shaw, The uses of media studies (Part I)

Noam Chomsky, On Humanitarian War, London: Pluto 1999

Martin Shaw, The Kosovan War, Sociological Research Online 4, 2, 1999; 'Has war a future?' New Political Economy, 5, 1, March 2000, 112-116; Return of the good war 2001





'Humanitarian' intervention: NGOs, media and global justice


1                    Is there any such thing as 'humanitarian' intervention?

2                    How are media and civil society involved in international interventions?

3                    What are the implications of the growing criminalisation of war and the rise of 'global justice'?


Essential readings


Nicholas J. Wheeler, Saving Strangers, Oxford: OUP 2000

Oliver Ramsbotham and Tom Woodhouse, Humanitarian Intervention in Contemporary Conflict, Polity, 1996

Samantha Power, A Problem from Hell: America and the Age of Genocide, London: Flamingo 2003

James Mayall (ed), The New Interventionism 1991-94: United Nations Experience in Cambodia, former Yugoslavia and Somalia, Cambridge: CUP, 1996

Tim Allen and Jean Seaton, eds, The Media of Conflict: War Reporting and Representations of Ethnic Violence, Zed 1999

Martin Shaw, Civil Society and Media in Global Crises: Representing Distant Violence, London: Pinter 1996, Part III

Philip Hammond and Edward S. Herman, editors, Degraded Capability: The Media and the Kosovo Crisis, London: Pluto, 2000 (review by Martin Shaw, The uses of media studies)


Other readings


Mary Kaldor, Cosmopolitanism and organized violence, the global site 2000.

Jan Willem Honig and Norbert Both, Srebrenica: Record of a War Crime, Penguin

David Rieff, Slaughterhouse: Bosnia and the Failure of the West, Harmondsworth: Penguin 1995

Ed Vulliamy, ‘Bosnia: the crime of appeasement’, International Affairs, 74, 1, 1998, 73-92 (also Seasons in Hell, London: Simon & Schuster, 1994, 98-117)

James Gow, Triumph of the Lack of Will, London 1997

Jane Sharp, Bankrupt in the Balkans: British Policy in Bosnia, London: Institute for Public Policy Research 1993

T Cushman & SG Mestrovic, eds, This Time We Knew: Western Responses to Genocide in Bosnia, New York UP 1996

James Petras and Steve Vieux, 'Bosnia and the revival of US hegemony', New Left Review 218, 1996, 3-25

David Chandler, Bosnia: Faking Democracy after Dayton, London: Pluto 1999

The Bosnia Institute site, with Books on Bosnia online database


Intervention and peacekeeping

J. Ginifer, Beyond the Emergency: Development Within UN Peace Missions, London: Cass 1997

M.W. Doyle, I. Johnstone and R.C. Orr, Keeping the Peace: Multinational UN Operations in Cambodia and El Salvador, Cambridge: CUP, 1997

Michael Barnett, 'The UN, regional organizations and peacekeeping', Review of International Studies, 21, 4, 1995, 411-34

W J Durch (ed), The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Case Studies and Comparative Analysis, St Martin's Press, New York, 1993

M.Berdal, "Whither UN Peacekeeping?" Adelphi Paper 281, ISIS, London, October 1993

A Roberts, "The Crisis in UN Peacekeeping", Survival, Autumn 1994

J Harriss (ed), The Politics of Humanitarian Intervention, Pinter, 1995

Thomas G Weiss and Larry Minear, eds, Humanitarianism Across Borders: Sustaining Civilians in Times of War, Lynne Reiner 1994

Jeffrey Herbst, ‘Responding to State Failure in Africa’, International Security, 21, 3, 1996-97

Ioan Lewis, Making History in Somalia: Humanitarian Intervention in a Stateless Society, London: LSE Centre for the Study of Global Governance, 1994

Alex de Waal, ‘Democratizing the aid encounter in Africa’, International Affairs, 73, 4, 1997, 632-40



Martin Shaw, Crystallizations of media in the global revolution: news coverage and power from Kurdistan to Kosova, draft of chapter in Brigitte Nacos and Robert Shapiro, eds., Decision-Making in a Glass House: Media, Public Opinion and American and European Foreign Policy, Boulder, Co.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001

Philip M Taylor, War and the Media: Propaganda and Persuasion in the Gulf War, Manchester University Press, 1992

Mark Thompson, Forging War: The Media in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, Article 19, 1994

James Gow, Richard Paterson and Alison Preston, eds, Bosnia by Television, British Film Institute 1996, 103-118

Michael Ignatieff, 'Is Nothing Sacred? The Ethics of Television', in The Warrior's Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience, Chatto and Windus 1998, 9-33

Edward S Herman, 'The Media's Role in US Foreign Policy', Journal of International Affairs, 47, 1, 1993

Noam Chomsky and B.Dajenais, Manufacturing Consent, Pantheon, 1988

Derrick Mercer et al, The Fog of War: The Media on the Battlefield, Heinemann 1987

Peter Viggo Jakobsen, ‘National Interest, Humanitarianism or CNN: What triggers UN peace enforcement after the Cold War?’, Journal of Peace Research, 33, 1996, 205-15

Larry Minea et al, The News Media, Civil War and Humanitarian Action, Lynne Reiner 1996

Stephen Badsey, Modern Military Operations and the Media, Camberley, Surrey: Strategic and Combat Studies Institute, 1994

Charles Moskos and TE Ricks, Reporting war when there is no war: the media and the military in peace and humanitarian operations, Cantigny Conference series, Special report, 1995

Picard, Robert G., Media portrayals of terrorism: functions and meaning of news coverage Ames: Iowa State U.P.,1993

Nacos, Brigitte L., Terrorism and the media: from the Iran hostage crisis to the World Trade Center bombing. New York: Columbia U.P., 1994

Lederman, Jim,  Battle lines: the American media and the Intifada. Boulder: Westview,1993

Akiba A. Cohen and Gadi Wolfsfeld, eds., Framing the Intifada: people and media. Norwood  N.J.: Ablex,1993

Pilger, John, Paying the price: killing the children of Iraq. Video recording. London: ITV, 2000

Mel McNulty, 'Media Ethnicization and the International Response to War and Genocide in Rwanda', in Tim Allen and Jean Seaton, eds., The Media of Conflict: War Reporting and Representations of Ethnic Violence, Zed 1999, 268-86


International justice

Roy Guttman and David Rieff, eds., Crimes of War, New York: Norton, 1999

Timothy Dunne and Nicholas J Wheeler, eds, Human Rights in Global Politics, Cambridge: CUP 1999

MP Scharf, Balkan justice: the story behind the first international war crimes trial since Nuremberg, Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic P. 1997

Y Beigbeder, Judging war criminals: the politics of international justice, Basingstoke: Macmillan 1998

Helsinki Watch, War crimes in Bosnia-Hercegovina, 2 volumes, New York: Human Rights Watch 1993

Jan Willem Honig and Norbert Both, Srebrenica: Record of a War Crime, Penguin

T. Meron, War crimes law comes of age: essays, Oxford: Clarendon P. 1998

Geoffrey Hawthorn, 'Pinochet: the politics', International Affairs, 75(2) 1999, 253-58

Geoffrey Best, War and law since 1945, Oxford: Clarendon P. 1994; Humanity in warfare: the modern history of the international law of armed conflicts, London: Methuen 1983; Nuremberg and after: the continuing history of war crimes and crimes against humanity, Reading: U. of Reading 1984

Adam Roberts and R. Guelff (eds.) Documents on the laws of war: 3rd ed, Oxford: OUP 1999

Michael Howard, GJ Andreopoulos and MR Shulman (eds.) The laws of war: constraints on warfare in the Western world, New Haven: Yale UP 1994

Brad R. Roth, Governmental Illegitimacy in International Law, Oxford: OUP 1999

International Crisis Group, Bosnia Legal Project Report Denied Justice: Individuals Lost in a Legal Maze

Philip Hammond and Edward S. Herman, editors, Degraded Capability: The Media and the Kosovo Crisis, London: Pluto, 2000 (chapter on war crimes tribunal) and review by Martin Shaw, The uses of media studies

Paul J. Magnarella, Judicial responses to genocide:the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the Rwandan Genocide Court, African Studies Quarterly 1, 1

Institute of War and Peace Reporting, Tribunal Update, has carried regular reports of the war crimes trials for five years and maintains a full archive.

International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia

International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia, Final Report to the Prosecutor by the Committee Established to Review the NATO Bombing Campaign Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Amnesty International, Kosovo: 'Collateral Damage' or Unlawful Killings? 2000

Balkan Crisis Reports, Tribunal Update, Institute for War and Peace Reporting (available free by email subscription), for ongoing reports on Balkans and the War Crimes Tribunal's cases (mainly Bosnia)



Political economy of war, refugees and reconstruction


1                    How are the economies of contemporary war zones different from those of classic modern wars?

2                    What are the principal issues concerning the roles of international agencies in reconstruction?

3                    What are the principal issues in understanding international responses to refugee crises?


Essential readings


Mark Duffield, ‘The political economy of internal war: asset transfer, complex emergencies and international aid’, in Joanna Macrae and Anthony Zwi, eds, War and Hunger: Rethinking International Responses, Zed 1994; David Keen, Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars, Adelphi paper 320, IISS 1998

Mats Berdal, David M. Malone, eds., Greed and grievance: economic agendas in civil wars, Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000

Krishna Kumar, ed., Rebuilding Societies after Civil War: Critical Roles for International Assistance, Lynne Reiner 1996

Tony Kushner, ed., Refugees in an Age of Genocide, London: Cass 2000

Gil Loescher, The UNHCR and world politics: a perilous path. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001

Cécile Dubernet, The international containment of displaced persons: humanitarian spaces without exit. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2001

Jennifer Hyndman, Managing displacement: refugees and the politics of humanitarianism. Minneapolis, Minn.: University of Minnesota Press, 2000


Other readings


Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, Cambridge: Polity 1999

Mark Duffield, Global Governance and the New Wars, London: Pluto 2001.

E. Wayne Nafziger, Frances Stewart and Raimo Väyrynen, eds., War, Hunger and Displacement: The Origins of Humanitarian Emergencies, 2 volumes. Oxford: Oxford University Press 2000.

UNHCR, The State of the World’s Refugees, Oxford: OUP annually

J Van Selm, Kosovo's refugees in the EU, London: Continuum 2000

Kurt Mills, ‘Permeable Borders: Human Migration and Sovereignty’, Global Society, 10, 2 1996, 77-106

Stephen Castles and Mark J Miller, eds, The Age of Migration, 2nd edn, London: Macmillan 1998

Richard Black and Khalid Koser, eds, The end of the refugee cycle?: refugee repatriation and reconstruction. New York: Berghahn Books, 1999

Aristide R. Zolberg and Peter M. Benda, eds, Global migrants, global refugees: problems and solutions. New York;Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2001

Osten Wahlbeck, Kurdish diasporas: a comparative study of Kurdish refugee communities. Basingstoke:  Macmillan, 1999

Ann Bernstein and Myron Weiner, eds, Migration and refugee policies: an overview. London:  Pinter 1999

Naseer Aruri, Palestinian refugees: the right of return. London:  Pluto 2001

Ruth M. Krulfeld and Jeffery L. MacDonald, eds, Power, ethics and human rights:  anthropological studies of refugee research and action. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield,1998

Arthur C. Helton, The price of indifference: refugees and humanitarian action in the new century. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002

Frances Nicholson and Patrick Twomey, eds, Refugee rights and realities: evolving international concepts and regimes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999

Alastair Ager, ed., Refugees: perspectives on the experience of forced migration. London: Continuum, 1999

Louise London, Whitehall and the Jews, 1933-1948: British immigration policy, Jewish refugees and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000



The War on Terror and the new Western wars


1                    How far is contemporary international terrorism a new and distinctive violent phenomenon?

2                    What is the significance of the War on Terror for the global order?

3                    Is there a new 'Western way of war' in the wars in the Gulf, Kosovo and Afghanistan?


Essential readings


Burke, J. (2003) Al-Qaeda: Casting a Shadow of Terror. London: IB Tauris

Gunaratna, R. (2002) Inside Al Qaeda: global network of terror. New York: Columbia University Press

Booth, K. and Dunne, T. (2002) Worlds in collision: terror and the future of global order. Basingstoke: Palgrave.

Kaldor, M. (2003) 'American power: from "compellance" to cosmopolitanism?' International Affairs 79, 1, 1-22

Shaw, M. (2002) 'Risk-transfer militarism, small massacres and the historic legitimacy of war', International Relations, 16 (3), 343-60

Benini, A. and Moulton, L. (forthcoming) 'The Distribution of Civilian Victims in An Asymmetrical Conflict: Operation Enduring Freedom, Afghanistan', Journal of Peace Research (to be made available by MS)

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (2003) 'From Victory to Success: Afterwar policy in Iraq', Foreign Policy, July-August,

Wheeler, N.J. (2002) 'Dying for enduring freedom: accepting responsibility for casualties in the war against terrorism', International Relations, 16, 2, 105-25.


Other readings: terrorism and recent Western wars

Chasdi, R.J. (2002) Tapestry of terror: a portrait of Middle East terrorism, 1994-1999. Lanham, Md.: Lexington.

Esposito, J. (2002) Unholy war: terror in the name of Islam. Oxford:Oxford University Press

Pollack, K. (2002) Threatening Storm: The Case for Invading Iraq, New York: Random House.

McInnes, C. (2003) 'A different kind of war? September 11 and the United States' Afghan War', Review of International Studies, 29:165-184

Heidenrich, J.G. (2003) 'The Gulf War: How Many Iraqis Died?', Foreign Policy, 90:3, March

Pollack, K. (2002) Threatening Storm: The Case for Invading Iraq, New York: Random House.

Rai, M. (2003) Regime Unchanged: Why the War on Iraq Changed Nothing. London: Pluto.

Slim, H. (2003) 'Why protect civilians? Innocence, immunity and enmity in war', International Affairs, 79, 3, 481-501

O'Balance, E. (1997) Islamic fundamentalist terrorism (1979-95). Basingstoke: Macmillan 

Tanter, R. (1999) Rogue regimes: terrorism and proliferation. Basingstoke: Macmillan

Cooley, J. (1999) Unholy wars: Afghanistan, America and international terrorism.  London: Pluto

Pappe, I. (1999) The Israel-Palestine question. London: Routledge

Ihekwoaba, O. D. (2001) The globalization of terrorism.  Aldershot: Ashgate

Halliday,  F. (2001) Two hours that shook the world. London: Saqi

Griffin, M. (2001) Reaping the whirlwind: the Taliban movement in Afghanistan. London: Pluto

Marsden, P. (1998) The Taliban: war, religion and the new order in Afghanistan. London: Zed Books

Rashid, A. (2001) Taliban: the story of the Afghan warlords. London: Pan 2001

            (2002) Jihad: the rise of militant Islam in Central Asia. London: Yale U.P.

Hala, J. (1997) Hezbollah: born with a vengeance. New York: Columbia U.P.

Chasdi, R. J. (1999) Serenade of suffering: a portrait of Middle East terrorism (1968-1993) Lanham,  Md.: Lexington Books

Yonah, A. (2001) Usama bin Laden's al-Qaida: profile of a terrorist network. Ardsley  NY: Transnational

Netanyahu,B. (1996) Fighting terrorism: how democracies can defeat domestic and international terrorists. London: Allison & Busby

Ali, T. (2002) The Clash of Fundamentalisms:  Crusades, Jihads and Modernity. London: Verso

Higgins, R. and M. Flory (1996) Terrorism and international law. London: Routledge

Rogan, E. and A. Shlaim (2001) The war for Palestine: rewriting the history of 1948. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2001

Sayigh,Y. (1997) Struggle and the search for state:  the Palestinian national movement. Oxford: Clarendon

Morris, B. (1990) 1948 and after: Israel and the Palestinians. Oxford: Clarendon

Finkelstein, N. G.  (2001) Image and reality of the Israel-Palestine conflict. London: Verso

Nassar, J. R. (1991) The Palestine Liberation Organization: from armed struggle to the declaration of independence. New York: Praeger

O'Ballance, E. (1998) The Palestinian Intifada. Basingstoke: Macmillan


Other readings: theoretical background


Ian Clark, Globalization and Fragmentation, Oxford University Press 1998

Gilbert Achcar, ‘The Strategic Triad: The United States, Russia and China’, New Left Review, 228, 1998, pp. 91-127

Andrew Latham, 'Reimagining Warfare: The "Revolution in Military Affairs"', in Craig A Snyder, ed, Contemporary Security and Strategy, London: Macmillan 1999, 210-37

Chris Hables Gray, Post-Modern War: The New Politics of Conflict, London: Routledge 1997

James Der Derian, 'Virtual Security: Technical Oversight, Simulated Foresight and

Political Blindspots in the Infosphere', in Stephen Chan and Jarrod Wierner, eds, Twentieth Century International History, London: IB Taurus 1999

Alvin and Heidi Toffler, War and Anti-War: Survival at the Dawn of the 21st Century, New York: Little Brown 1994

Georg Sørenson, 'International Relations Theory after Cold War' and David Held and Anthony McGrew, 'Globalization and the End of the Old Order', Review of International Studies, 24 (special issue), 1998, 83-100 and 219-44

W.I. Robinson, Promoting Polyarchy: Globalization, US Hegemony and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996

Gier Lundestad, 'Empire' By Integration. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998

John G. Ruggie, Building the World Polity: Essays on International Institutionalization. London: Routledge, 1998

Hanson, V. D. (2002) Why the West Has Won. London: Faber.

Creveld, M. van (1991) The Transformation of War. London: Macmillan

Craig N. Murphy, International Organization and Industrial Change: Global Governance Since 1850. Cambridge: Polity, 1994

Robert Keohane, After Hegemony, Cambridge: CUP, 1986; Keohane and Nye, J.S., Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition. Boston: Little, 1977

The Imperialism of Human Rights (themed issue) New Left Review, 234, 1999

Susan Strange, The Retreat of the State: The Diffusion of Power in the Contemporary World Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996

Volker Rittberger (ed.) Regime Theory and International Relations, Oxford: Clarendon

Kees Van der Pijl, The Making of a Transatlantic Ruling Class, London: Verso, 1984 and Transnational Class Formation. London: Routledge, 1998

John Tomlinson, Cultural Imperialism: A Critical Introduction, London: Pinter, 1990

D. Yost, NATO Transformed: The Alliance's New Roles in International Security, Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 1998

Martin Shaw, 'The State of Globalization', Review of International Political Economy, 4, 3, 1997, 497-513, and Theory of the Global State, CUP 2000