Library catalogue IR Martin Shaw The global site: critical gateway to world politics, society and culture

University of Sussex

MA option 

Spring 2001

Genocide in World Politics

Professor Martin Shaw

E504 (office hours to be notified), 678032,

Secretary, Shirley Stay, E412, 678892,

Aims and objectives    Course information


Course summary

Week 2 Genocide: definition, explanation and response

Part I: Genocide in the Holocaust era

Week 3 Modern mass slaughter before the Nazis

Week 4 Nazism: The defining case?

Week 5 Genocidal content of modern war 

Part II: Post-1945 genocides

Week 6 Cold War-era genocides

Week 7 Global-era genocides

Part III: Significance of genocide in contemporary world politics

Week 8 The contemporary politics of the Holocaust

Week 9 International law and responses to contemporary genocides

Week 10 CONSULTATIONS on assessed essays

Aims and objectives

This course deals with the problem of mass killing in world politics and the ways in which we understand and respond to it. It examines the definition of genocide in relation to war, in the international convention and from a wider sociological point of view. The first main section examines a range of historical cases of mass killing from the era of total war. The second examines recent episodes of, and issues related to, mass killing. The final section discusses the significance of mass killing today, including the 'Holocaust industry' and 'Holocaust denial' as well as international legal, political and military responses to contemporary genocidal episodes. 

The aim of the course is to stimulate understanding of the nature, contexts and implications of mass killing in world politics, as well as the common and distinctive features of the major historical instances. Dealing with necessarily difficult and contested issues, the objectives of the course are that students increase their abilities to develop and apply critical social-scientific ideas relevant to these issues.

Course information

Course structure

The course is divided into an introductory meeting and three sections, each comprising  linked sessions.

Each session will include two topics, with a short refreshment break. There will be a short presentation (of approximately 15 minutes) to introduce each part of the session, i.e. two presentations per session. I will introduce the first session.


This course looks at genocide in the context of world politics and uses a  range of historical and contemporary materials. It adopts a broadly sociological perspective, in which genocide is seen involving certain kinds of social power. It assumes that genocide, which has often been rooted in international war and has been formulated as an international crime, is an important topic of international relations study.

Because episodes of mass slaughter are large-scale historical events it can legitimately be argued that each genocide raises distinct sets of issues. Certainly most of the literature concerns particular episodes, and the amount of comparative material is modest. For these reasons the course is organized around major cases and periods of genocide, rather than thematically. 

However, the course assumes that, as established in international law, genocide is a general problem of modern world politics that can be studied comparatively. Major thematic issues arise that can be studied across cases. Some of these are listed here as a guide to questions that should be borne in mind in discussing particular cases. These thematic issues -  just as well as case studies - could form the basis of essays and dissertations.

Major thematic issues

1    How and how far can - or should - genocide be distinguished from:

How far are such distinctions helpful and what does their difficulty tell us about the problem?

2    How adequate is the international legal definition of genocide?

3    What is the relationship between the apparently discriminating character of genocide and the indiscriminate and arbitrary ways killing and terror are experienced? Does the very concept of genocide privilege perpetrators' intentions over victims' experiences?

4   Is genocide a potential of state power or of civil society, of all forms of modern state power, or only/primarily of some (e.g. totalitarianism, authoritarianism)?

5   Under what circumstances do genocidal potentials get realized - e.g. is there a causal connection with international war?

6    Who participates in genocide? Who are its victims? Who resists? Why?  E.g. is genocide gendered and how important is this to our understanding of the phenomenon?

7    By whom, how and under what conditions has genocide been ended or defeated?

8   How has genocide changed historically - e.g. what is the relationship between modern 'ethnic cleansing' and genocide?

9    How can genocide be prevented and/or punished?

10    What kind of theoretical challenge does genocide represent to social science? Is there a theoretical approach that can explain it?

Reading list

There are no textbooks for this course. Reading is listed below under the seminar topics, with key items being starred*. Seminar lists are of uneven length. This is partly because items are listed on first relevance; you are expected to see overlaps and go back to previous sections for items already referred to. It is also because academic attention to different genocides has varied enormously: a keyword search in the Library will produce over 500 items on 'Holocaust', almost all concerning Nazism and the Jews, but less than 100 on 'genocide' and at most ten or twenty on any other case.

Lists are also extensive to help in writing essays and as a resource for dissertation topics. In case of any items being unavailable in the Library, look for substitutes or consult me - in some cases I may be able to lend you the relevant book or article.

Web links are underlined. If you are working with a  hard copy of this list, you will need to use the online version at the course website, Using the online version is also recommended because you will also have access to Course NEWS and revisions as they happen.

The Library will also be putting this reading list online at Once this is done, this will be the easiest way to access the list week by week. You will still need to refer to the course website for course updates.

Web materials

Because this course has a partly topical focus, much useful and especially up to date material is on the web rather than in traditional printed publications. I would like to incorporate further Internet materials into this course - please email me any that you find useful. My personal website is at and I am editor of further materials relevant to this course will be found on these sites.

Course essays

There will be two course essays, each 2000 words long, to be handed in at the sessions in weeks 4 and 8. You may write on any of the topics in the course, using the seminar questions as a guide, or you may produce your own topic relevant to the themes of the course.


This course is assessed by a 5000 word term paper on a topic of your choice, related to the issues of the course. For preparations, see week 10 below.


I am keen to hear your evaluations of this course and my teaching. Please raise difficulties as they arise. Course evaluation forms will be distributed in the penultimate week of term.


If you need to contact me when I am not in my office, email me or in case of urgency phone Shirley Stay. I shall set up an email list for the course early on in the term, so that we can all communicate with each other quickly.


I am always willing, like all members of faculty, to write references for every student on my courses. Please let me know if you would like to give my name as a referee. Supply me with any background information that might be useful in writing a reference, and keep me updated on your progress if you wish to use my name in future.

Note for 2000-01

This is the first time that this course has been offered. Naturally I am particularly keen to have feedback on the course in general, the construction of the topics and reading materials.

Weekly outline


Genocide: definition, explanation and response

What are the problems of studying and understanding genocide? Critically examine the international definition of genocide in the historical context in which it arose. Discuss the theoretical difficulties posed by genocide and suggest how we might resolve them.

Andreopoulos, G. (1994) Genocide: Conceptual and Historical Dimensions. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press

Campbell, K.J. (1999) Genocide and the Global Village. Basingstoke: Macmillan

Chalk, F. and Jonasson, K. (1990) The History and Sociology of Genocide: Analyses and Case Studies. Cambridge, Mass.: Yale University Press

Charny, I.W. (eds.) (1999) Encyclopaedia of Genocide. Oxford: ABC-CLIO; (1988, 1991) Genocide: a critical bibliographic review, 2 vols.

Du Preez, P. (1994) Genocide: the psychology of mass murder. London: Boyars Bowerdean

Fein, H. (1993) Genocide: A Sociological Perspective. London: Sage

Grant, R. (1998) Genocide. London: Amnesty.

Horowitz, I.L. (1997) Taking Lives: Genocide and State Power. Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction

Human Rights Watch (1995) Slaughter among neighbors: the political origins of communal violence. New Haven: Yale U.P.

*Kuper, A. (1981) Genocide. Harmondsworth: Penguin

Mann, M. (1999) 'The dark side of democracy: the modern tradition of ethnic and political cleansing', New Left Review (232).

*Marcusen, E. and Kopf, D. (1995) The Holocaust and Strategic Bombing: Genocide and Total War in the Twentieth Century. Boulder: Westview

Sofsky, W. (1997) The order of terror: the concentration camp. Princeton: Princeton U.P.

Sluka, J. (1999) Death squad: the anthropology of state terror. Pittsburgh: U. of Pennsylvania P.

Staub, E. (1989) The roots of evil: the origins of genocide and other group violence. Cambridge: C.U.P.

Storr, A. (1991) Human Destructiveness: the Roots of Genocide and Human Cruelty. London: Routledge


Part I: Genocide in the Holocaust era


Modern mass slaughter before the Nazis

Why is the slaughter of the Armenians in 1915 generally described as the first modern genocide? In what senses is genocide distinctively modern?

Chorbajian, L. and Shirinian, G., eds. (1999) Studies in comparative genocide, Basingstoke: Macmillan

Dadrian, V. N. (1989) Genocide as a problem of national and international law: the World War 1 Armenian case and its contemporary legal ramifications. Yale journal of international law, 14,.2. Copy under author in Library.

Graber, G. (1996) Caravans to Oblivion: The Armenian Genocide, 1915. New York: Wiley

*Hovannisian, R. (1992) The Armenian Genocide: History, Politics, Ethics. London: Macmillan, especially J.J. Reid, 'Total war, the annihilation ethic, and the Armenian genocide, 1870-1918'

Jaimes, A. (1991) The state of native America: genocide, colonization, and resistance, Boston: South End P.

Mann, M. (1996) 'Authoritarian and liberal militarism: a contribution from historical sociology' in S. Smith, K. Booth and M. Zalewski (eds.) International Theory: Positivism and Beyond, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp 221-239


Was the 'liquidation of the kulaks' genocidal? Considering the relationships between this episode and subsequent mass killing by Stalin's (and Mao's?) regimes, what does this case tell us about the scope of genocide and its relationships to war, totalitarianism and terror?

Ashton, B. et al.(1985) 'Famine in China 1958-1961', Population and Development Review (Spring): 613-645.

Bacon, E. (eds.) (1998) The Gulag at War: Stalin's Forced Labour System in the Light of the Archives. Basingstoke: Macmillan

Becker, J. (1996) Hungry ghosts: China's secret famine. London: John Murray.

*Conquest, R. (1990) The great terror: a reassessment. New ed., London:Hutchinson; (1986) The harvest of sorrow: Soviet collectivization and the terror famine; (1991) Stalin: breaker of nations. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.

Fitzpatrick, S. (1994) Stalin's peasants: resistance and survival in the Russian village after collectivization Sheila Fitzpatrick New York: O.U.P.

Getty, J.A. and Thompson Manning, R. (eds.) (1993) Stalinist terror: new perspectives. Cambridge: C.U.P.

Kershaw, I. and Lewin, M. (1997) Stalinism and Nazism: dictatorships in comparison, Cambridge: C.U.P.

*Lewin, M. (1968) Russian Peasants and Soviet Power: A Study of Collectivization. London: Allen and Unwin, final chapters

Smith, K. E. (1996) Remembering Stalin's victims: popular memory and the end of the USSR, Ithaca: Cornell U.P.

Thurston, A. (1988) Enemies of the People: The Ordeal of the Intellectuals in China's Great Cultural Revolution. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press

Thurston, R.W. (1999) Life and terror in Stalin's Russia, 1934-1941, New Haven: Yale U.P.

Tucker, R.C. (1990) Stalin in power: the Revolution from above, 1928-1941. New York: Norton, 1990

Viola, L. (1996) Peasant rebels under Stalin: collectivization and the culture of peasant resistance. Lynne Viola New York: O.U.P.

White, L. (1993) The Policies of Chaos: The Organizational Causes of Violence in China's Cultural Revolution. Princeton: Princeton University Press


Nazism: the defining case?

Outline the historical development of the Nazis' genocide of the Jews, and consider the general explanations that are possible.

Was the Nazi dictatorship genocidal in a broader sense than that of the extermination of the Jews? (Compare the genocidal elements of the German war campaign to those of Imperial Japan between 1937 and 1945.)

Bankier, D. (1990) 'Germans and the Holocaust: what did they know?', Yad Vashem Studies 20.

Bartov, O. (1991) Hitler's Army: Soldiers, Nazis and War in the Third Reich'.

Bauer, Y. (1990) The Holocaust in Historical Perspective. Washington: University of Seattle Press; (1973) They chose life: Jewish resistance in the Holocaust. New York: American Jewish Committee; (1978) The holocaust in historical perspective. Sheldon P.

Botwinick, Rita S. (1996) A history of the Holocaust: from ideology to annihilation. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall.

*Bauman, Z. (1990) Modernity and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Polity

Block, G. and Drucker, M. (1992) Rescuers: Portraits of Moral Courage in the Holocaust. New York: Holmes and Meier

*Browning, C.R. (1992) The Path to Genocide: Essays on Launching the Final Solution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; (1992) Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battallion 101 and the Final Solution. New York: Harper.

Burleigh, M. (1997) Ethics and extermination: reflections on Nazi genocide Cambridge: C.U.P.

Cesarani, D. (eds.) (1997) Genocide and rescue: the Holocaust in Hungary 1944. Oxford:Berg.

Chang, I. (1998) The Rape of Nanking: The Forgotten Holocaust of World War II. London: Penguin.

Davidowicz, L. (1985) The War Against the Jews. Harmondsworth: Penguin

Friedlander, H. (1995) The origins of Nazi genocide: from euthanasia to the final solution. Chapel Hill:U. of North Carolina P.

Friedlander, S. (1994) 'Introduction to the English edition' in P. Burrin (eds) Hitler and the Jews, London: Edward Arnold

Goldhagen, D.J. (1996) Hitler's Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust. New York: Little, Brown

Gordon, S. (1984) Hitler, Germans and the 'Jewish Question'. Princeton: Princeton University Press

Grau, G. and Schoppmann, C. (eds.) (1995) Hidden Holocaust?: gay and lesbian persecution in Germany, 1933-45. London: Cassell.

Hamburg Institute for Social Research (2000) The German army and genocide: crimes against war prisoners, Jews, and other civilians in the East, 1939-1944. London: I.B.Tauris.

Hirschfeld, G. (ed.) (1986) The policies of genocide: Jews and Soviet prisoners of war in Nazi Germany. London: German Historical Institute.

Hsiung, J.C. & Levine, S.I., eds. (1992) China's bitter victory: the war with Japan 1937-1945, Armonk: Sharpe

Katz, S.T. (1994) The Holocaust in historical context: The Holocaust and mass death before the modern age. New York: O.U.P.

Kitterman, D. H. (1996) Refusing Nazi orders to kill: Germans in uniform who resisted the Holocaust. Oxford: Berg.

Landau, R. S. (1992) The Nazi Holocaust. London: Tauris.

Lifton, R.J. and Marcusen, E. (1988) The Genocidal Mentality: The Nazi Holocaust and the Nuclear Threat. London: Macmillan

Lukas, R. C. (1986) The forgotten holocaust: the Poles under German occupation 1939-1944. Lexington: U.P. of Kentucky.

*Marcusen, E. and Kopf, D. (1995) The Holocaust and Strategic Bombing: Genocide and Total War in the Twentieth Century. Boulder: Westview

Pehle, W.H. (ed.) (1991) November 1938: from "Reichskristallnacht" to genocide. New York: Berg.

Rohrlich, R. (eds.) (1998) Resisting the Holocaust. Oxford: Berg.

Rosenbaum, A.S. (1996) Is the Holocaust unique?: perspectives on comparative genocide. Boulder:Westview.

Ryan, M.D. (ed.) (1981) Human responses to the Holocaust: perpetrators and victims, bystanders and resisters. New York: Edwin Mellen P.

Steiman, L. B. (1998) Paths to genocide: antisemitism in Western history. Basingstoke:Macmillan.



Genocidal content of modern war 

Was Anglo-American strategic bombing of Germany and Japan genocidal?

What were the relationships between nuclear war-preparation and genocide? Is it possible for modern war to escape a genocidal potential?

Aronson, R. (1983) Technological madness: towards a theory of the impending nuclear holocaust. Menard P.

Gray, C. (1998) Modern Strategy. Oxford: Oxford University Press; Martin Shaw, review of Gray, 'Strategy and Slaughter' 

Jervis, R. (1989) The Meaning of the Nuclear Revolution: Statecraft and the Prospect of Armageddon. Ithaca: Cornell University Press

Latham, A. (1999) 'Reimagining Warfare: The "Revolution in Military Affairs"' in C. Snyder (eds) Contemporary Strategy and Security, London: Macmillan, pp 210-237

Lifton, R.J. and Marcusen, E. (1988) The Genocidal Mentality: The Nazi Holocaust and the Nuclear Threat. London: Macmillan

*Marcusen, E. and Kopf, D. (1995) The Holocaust and Strategic Bombing: Genocide and Total War in the Twentieth Century. Boulder: Westview

Rosenberg, D.A. (1981) 'A smoking radiating ruin at the end of two hours: documents on American plans for nuclear war with the Soviet Union', International Security 6: 3-38.

Shaw, M. (1999) War and globality: the role and character of war in the global transition', in Ho-won Jeong, ed, The New Agenda for Peace Research, Ashgate; (2000) 'The contemporary mode of warfare? Mary Kaldor's theory of new wars', Review of International Political Economy, 7, 1, 2000, 171-80

*Thompson, E.P. (1982) 'Exterminism: the last stage of civilization', in New Left Review, ed., Exterminism and Cold War, London: Verso


Part II: Genocide since 1945


Cold War-era genocides

Outline the character of the Cambodian genocide and explain it in its international context.

Barnett, A. & Pilger, J. (1982) Aftermath: the Struggle of Cambodia and Vietnam. London: New Statesman.

Burns, R.D. and Leitenberg, M. (1984) The wars in Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos, 1945-1982: a bibliographic guide. Oxford: ABC-CLIO P.

Chandler, David P.(1991) The tragedy of Cambodian history: politics, war, and revolution since 1945. New Haven:Yale U.P.

*Evans, G. and Rowley, K. (1990) Red Brotherhood at War: Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos Since 1975. London: Verso

Haas, M. (1991) Cambodia, Pol Pot, and the United States: the Faustian pact. New York:Praeger, 1991

Hannum, H. and Haslam, E. (1989) International law and Cambodian genocide: the sounds of silence. Human rights quarterly, 11, 1

*Kiernan, B. (1996) The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power and Genocide in Cambodia Under the Khmer Rouge, 1975-79. Cambridge, Mass.: Yale University Press; (ed.) (1993) Genocide and democracy in Cambodia: the Khmer Rouge, the United Nations and the international community. New Haven: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies

Kiljunen, K. (ed.) (1989) Kampuchea: decade of the genocide. London: Zed Books, 1984

Shaw, M. (2000) The Cambodian genocide

Shawcross, W. (1984) The quality of mercy: Cambodia, holocaust and modern conscience. London: Deutsch; (1986) Sideshow: Kissinger, Nixon and the destruction of Cambodia. London: Hogarth P.

Wright, M. (ed.) (1989) Cambodia: a matter of survival. Harlow:Longman.

Joffe, R. (director) (1984)The killing fields. Video recording.


Discuss the genocidal experiences of authoritarian rule and post-authoritarian transformation in Indonesia - from the 1965 massacres to the end of Indonesian domination in East Timor.

Anderson, B. (2000) article in New Left Review 3

Barbedo de Magalhaes, A. (1992) East Timor, Indonesian occupation and genocide. Oporto: Oporto University.

*Carey, P. and Carter Bentley, G. (1995) East Timor at the Crossroads: The Forging of a Nation. London: Cassell.

*Cribb, R. (eds.) (1991) The Indonesian Killings 1965-66. Clayton, Victoria: Monash University Centre for Southeast Asian Studies

Hainsworth, P. & McCloskey, S. (1999) The East Timor question: the struggle for independence from Indonesia. I.B.Tauris, 1999

*International Crisis Group (2000) Indonesia's Shaky Transition

May, B. (1978) The Indonesian Tragedy. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.

Palmier, L. (1973) Communists in Indonesia. London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson

Pilger, J. (1992) Distant Voices. London: Vintage

Retbøll, T. (1998) East Timor: Occupation and Resistance. Copenhagen: IWGIA.

Suter, Keith D. (1997) East Timor, West Papua-Irian and Indonesia. London: Minority Rights Group International



Global-era genocides

 What are the relationships between 'ethnic cleansing', war and genocide in the struggles surrounding contemporary authoritarian regimes, on the part of (a) these regimes (b) their local opponents and (c) the West? Discuss with respect to one or more of the following cases: Iraq/ former Yugoslavia / Rwanda 

Note. The reading list for this topic is extended to indicate additional routes which could be followed in your essays.


Arnove, A. (2000) Iraq under siege: the deadly impact of sanctions and war. Cambridge, Mass.:South End P., 2000

Baram, A. and Rubin, B. (eds.) (1993) Iraq's road to war. Basingstoke:Macmillan.

Campaign Against Sanctions on Iraq (2000) Sanctions Against Iraq: Background, Consequences, Strategies Cambridge: CASI.

Cordesman, A. H.(1999) Iraq and the war of sanctions: conventional threats and weapons of mass destruction. Westport: Praeger.

Dodd, T. and Youngs, T. (1998) The Iraq crisis. London: House of Commons Library.

Dreze, J. & Gazdar, H. (1991) Hunger and poverty in Iraq. London: Suntory-Toyota International Centre for Economics and Related Disciplines

Freedman, L. and Karsh, E. (1993) The Gulf Conflict 1990-91: Diplomacy and War in the New World Order, London: Faber.

*Gunter, M. (1999) The Kurdish predicament in Iraq: a political analysis. Basingstoke:Macmillan.

Haselkorn, A. (1999) The continuing storm: Iraq, poisonous weapons, and deterrence. New Haven: Yale U.P.

*Hazelton, F. (ed.) (1994) Iraq since the Gulf War: prospects for democracy. London: Zed Books.

Khadduri, M. and Ghareeb, E. (1997) War in the Gulf, 1990-91: the Iraq-Kuwait conflict and its implications. New York: O.U.P.

Karsh, E. (ed.) (1989) The Iran-Iraq war: impact and implications, London: Macmillan 1989

Minority Rights Group (1993) The Marsh Arabs of Iraq. London: Minority Rights Group.

Nakash, Y. (1994) The Shi'is of Iraq. Princeton: Princeton U.P.

Pilger, J. (presenter) (2000) Paying the price: the killing of the children of Iraq. London: ITV. Video recording. See also review by M. Shaw.

Shaw, M. (1996) Civil Society and Media in Global Crises: Representing Distant Violence. London: Pinter.

*Simons, G. (1998) The Scourging of Iraq: Sanctions, Law and Natural Justice: 2nd edition, London: Macmillan; (1999) Iraq - primus inter pariahs: a crisis chronology. Basingstoke:Macmillan.

United Nations (2000)  Iraq: Oil for Food Programme. New York: UN.

Watson, F. M. (1994) Sanctions against Iraq. London: House of Commons Library. 

Weller, M. (ed.) (1999) Coercive disarmament: Iraq, UNSCOM and the use of force. Cambridge: Documents and Analysis Publishing; (1993) Iraq and Kuwait: the hostilities and their aftermath. Cambridge: Grotius.

Former Yugoslavia

Benard, C. (1994) Rape as terror: the case of Bosnia. Article from Terrorism and political violence, 6, 1.

Bosnia Institute (2000) Books on Bosnia online database. London: Bosnia Institute.

Bougarel, X. (1996) Anatomie d'un conflit. Paris: Decouvertes.

Burg, S. L. and Shoup, P.(1999) The war in Bosnia-Herzegovina: ethnic conflict and international intervention. Armonk: Sharpe.

Chandler, D. (1999) Bosnia: Faking Democracy after Dayton. London: Pluto.

Clark, H. (2000) Civil resistance in Kosovo. London: Pluto P., 2000

Cohen, L.J. (1995) Broken Bonds: Yugoslavia’s Distintegration and Balkan Politics in Transition. Boulder: Westview.

Columbus, F. (ed.) (1999) Kosovo - Serbia: a just war? Commack: Nova Science.

Cushman, T. and Mestrovic, S. (eds.) (1996) This Time We Knew: Western Responses to Genocide in Bosnia. New York: New York University Press

Dyker, D. and Vejvoda, I. (eds.) (1996) Yugoslavia and After. London: Longmans.

European Stability Initiative (2000) Refocusing International Policy in Bosnia and Herzegovina Part I Bosnian Power Structures, Part II International Power in Bosnia; (1999) Power and Strategy in Bosnia and Herzegovina

*Honig, J.W. and Both, N. (1996) Srebrenica: Record of a War Crime. London: Penguin.

Institute for War and Peace Reporting (1992-date) Balkan Crisis Reports and Tribunal Update (both available free by email subscription).

Kaldor, M. (1999) New and Old Wars. Cambridge: Polity, ch 3, 31-68.

Ramet, S. P. (1999) Balkan babel: the disintegration of Yugoslavia from the death of Tito to the war for Kosovo. Boulder:Westview P.

*Rieff, D. (1995) Slaughterhouse: Bosnia and the Failure of the West. Harmondsworth: Penguin.

Rogel, C. (1998) The breakup of Yugoslavia and the war in Bosnia Carole Westport:Greenwood P.

*Sells, M. (1996) The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia. Berkeley: University of California Press; (1996) Massacre in Srebrenica, Haverford College

United Nations (1998) Report on Srebrenica. New York:UN.

Vulliamy, E. (1998) ‘Bosnia: the crime of appeasement’, International Affairs, 74, 1, 1998, 73-92; (1994) Seasons in Hell, London: Simon & Schuster, 98-117.

Women of Srebrenica: refugees' site

Woodward, S. (1996) Balkan Tragedy. Washington, DC: Brookings.

Youngs, T. and Bowers, P. (1999) Kosovo: KFOR and reconstruction. London: House of Commons Library.


Des Forges, A. (eds.) (1999) Leave None To Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda. London: Human Rights Watch

Destexhe, A. (1995) Rwanda and genocide in the twentieth century. London: Pluto P.

Human Rights Watch ( 1996) Shattered lives: sexual violence during the Rwandan genocide and its aftermath. New York: Human Rights Watch.

Igwara, O. (ed.) (1995) Ethnic hatred: genocide in Rwanda. London: ASEN.

Klinghoffer, A.J. (2000) The International Dimension of Genocide in Rwanda. Basingstoke: Macmillan

Lemarchand, R. (1999) Patterns of state collapse and reconstructions in Central Africa: reflections on the crisis in the Great Lakes African Studies Quarterly 1, 1; & Martin, D. (1974) Selective genocide in Burundi. London: Minority Rights Group, 1974

McNulty, M. (1999) 'The Militarization of Ethnicity and the Emergence of Warlordism in Rwanda, 1990-94', in Paul Rich (ed.) Warlords in International Relations, London: Macmillan 1999, 140-63

Magnarella, P.J. (2000) Justice in Africa: Rwanda's genocide, its courts, and the UN criminal tribunal. Aldershot: Ashgate; (1999) Judicial responses to genocide:the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the Rwandan Genocide Court, African Studies Quarterly 1, 1

Martin, I. (1998)  After genocide: the United Nations human rights field operation in Rwanda. Human Rights Centre.

*Melvern, L.R. (2000) A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genjocide. London: Zed.

Millwood, D. (ed) (1996) The international response to conflict and genocide: lessons from the Rwanda experience, 5 vols. (Documents counter)

*Omaar, R. and de Waal, A. (1994) Rwanda: Death, Despair and Defiance. London: Africa Rights.

Prunier, G. (1995) 'The Rwanda crisis, 1959-94: history of a genocide'.

Shaw, M. (2000) From the Rwandan genocide to the Congo war 

Taylor, C. (1999) Sacrifice as terror: the Rwandan genocide of 1994. Oxford:Berg.

Twagiramariya, C. and Turshen, M. (1998) '"Favours" to give and "consenting" victims: the sexual politics of survival in Rwanda', in Twagiramariya and Turshen (eds.) What Women Do in Wartime, London: Zed

Waters, T. (1999) Conventional wisdom and Rwanda's genocide: an opinion, African Studies Quarterly 1, 1


Part III: The significance of genocide in contemporary world politics


The contemporary politics of the Holocaust

Discuss the significance of the changing ways in which 'the Holocaust' has been represented in Western and world politics in the last three decades.

Consider the meaning of various forms of 'Holocaust denial'. In what senses is 'denial' a general feature of the practice and representation of genocide?

Bauer, Y. (1989) Out of the ashes: the impact of American Jews on post-Holocaust Jewry. Oxford: Pergamon P.

Benz, W. (1999) The Holocaust: a German historian examines the genocide. New York: Columbia U.P.

Berenbaum, M. (1993) The world must know: the history of the Holocaust as told in the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Boston:Little, Brown.Buruma, I. (1994) The wages of guilt: memories of war in Germany and Japan, London: Cape

*Finkelstein, N. (2000) The Holocaust Industry, London: Verso

Gurock, J.S. (1998) America, American Jews and the Holocaust. New York: Routledge.

Hayes, P. (1999) Lessons and legacies: memory, memorialization, and denial. Evanston: Northwestern U.P.

Imperial War Museum (2000) Holocaust Exhibition. London: IWM

Katz, S. T.(1992) Historicism, the Holocaust and Zionism: critical studies in modern Jewish thought and history. New York U.P.

Kushner, T. (1994) The Holocaust and the Liberal Imagination: a Social and Cultural History. Oxford: Blackwell

Lifton, R.J.& Mitchell, G.(1995) Hiroshima in America: fifty years of denial, New York: Putnam 

*Lipstadt, D. (1996) Denying the Holocaust: The Growing Assault on Truth and Memory. Harmondsworth: Penguin

Littell, F.H. (1997) Hyping the Holocaust: scholars answer Goldhagen. New York:Cummings & Hathaway.

Loshitzky, Y. (1997) Spielberg's Holocaust: critical perspectives on "Schindler's list". Bloomington:Indiana U.P.

Milburn, M.A.& S.D. Conrad (1996) The politics of denial, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press

Minow, M. (1998) Between vengeance and forgiveness: facing history after genocide and mass violence. Boston: Beacon P.

*Novick, P. (1999) The Holocaust in American Life. New York: Houghton Mifflin

Rosenthal, G. (1998) The Holocaust in three generations: families of victims and perpetrators of the Nazi regime. London: Cassell.

Seidel, Gill (1986) The Holocaust denial: antisemitism, racism and the new right Gill Seidel Manchester: Beyond the Pale Collective.

Stern, K. S.(1993) Holocaust denial, New York: The American Jewish Community

Vidal-Naquet, P. ( 1992)  Assassins of memory: essays on the denial of the Holocaust. New York:Columbia U.P.

Young, J. E. (1988) Writing and rewriting the Holocaust: narrative and the consequences of interpretation. Bloomington: Indiana U.P.



International law and contemporary attitudes to genocide

What can we conclude from the records of the International Tribunals for former Yugoslavia and Rwanda in prosecuting the perpetrators of genocide and crimes against humanity?

Beigbeder, Y. (1998) Judging war criminals : the politics of international justice. Basingstoke: Macmillan.

Best, G. (1994) War and law since 1945. Oxford: Clarendon P.; (1984) Nuremberg and after : the continuing history of war crimes and crimes against humanity. Reading: U. of Reading.

Dunne, T. and Wheeler, N.J. (eds.) (1999) Human Rights in Global Politics. Cambridge: CUP.

*Guttman, R. and Rieff, D. (eds.) (1999) Crimes of War. New York: Norton.

Hammond, P. and Herman, E.S. (eds.) (2000) Degraded Capability: The Media and the Kosovo Crisis, London: Pluto, 2000 (chapter on war crimes tribunal) and review by Martin Shaw, The uses of media studies 

Hawthorn, G. (1999) 'Pinochet: the politics', International Affairs, 75 (2), 253-58

Helsinki Watch (1993) War crimes in Bosnia-Hercegovina, 2 volumes. New York: Human Rights Watch.

Howard, M., Andreopoulos, G.J. and Shulman, M.R. (eds.) (1994) The laws of war: constraints on warfare in the Western world. New Haven: Yale UP.

Institute of War and Peace Reporting, Tribunal Update

International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia

International Crisis Group (1999) Bosnia Legal Project Report Denied Justice: Individuals Lost in a Legal Maze

Magnarella, P.J. (2000) Justice in Africa: Rwanda's genocide, its courts, and the UN criminal tribunal. Aldershot: Ashgate; (1999) Judicial responses to genocide:the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the Rwandan Genocide Court, African Studies Quarterly 1, 1; (1999) Is US cooperation with the UN Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda unconstitutional?, African Studies Quarterly 1, 1

Meron, T. (1998) War crimes law comes of age: essays. Oxford: Clarendon P.

Neier, A. (1998) War crimes, brutality, genocide, terror and the struggle for justice A. Neier Times Bks, 1998

Nowrojee, B. and Ralph, Regan (2000) 'Justice for women victims of violence: Rwanda after the 1994 genocide' in Amadiume, I. and An-Na'im, A. (eds.) The Politics of Memory: Truth, Healing and Social Justice, London: Zed

Roberts, A. and R. Guelff (eds.) (1999) Documents on the laws of war : 3rd ed, Oxford: OUP.

Roth, B.R. (1999) Governmental Illegitimacy in International Law. Oxford: OUP.

Scharf, M.P. (1997) Balkan justice: the story behind the first international war crimes trial since Nuremberg. Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic P. 

What can we conclude from this course about contemporary understanding of and responses to genocide?

*Geras, N. (1999) The Contract of Mutual Indifference: Political Philosophy After the Holocaust. London: Verso

*Mann, M. (2000) 'The polymorphous state and ethnic cleansing' in S. Hobden and J. Hobson (eds.) Bringing Historical Sociologies into International Relations, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

*Marcusen, E. and Kopf, D. (1995) The Holocaust and Strategic Bombing: Genocide and Total War in the Twentieth Century. Boulder: Westview

Rubin, B. (ed.) (1989) The politics of terrorism: terror as a state and revolutionary strategy. Washington: Johns Hopkins University. Foreign Policy Institute.

Sjoberg, G. & Haslam, E. (1995) Ethics, human rights and sociological inquiry: genocide, politicide and other issues of organizational power. Article from American Sociologist, Vol.26, Spring.

Sluka, J. (1999) Death squad: the anthropology of state terror. Pittsburgh: U. of Pennsylvania P.

Sofsky, W. (1997) The order of terror: the concentration camp. Princeton: Princeton U.P.

Staub, E. (1989) The roots of evil: the origins of genocide and other group violence. Cambridge: C.U.P.

Storr, A. (1991) Human Destructiveness: the Roots of Genocide and Human Cruelty. London: Routledge

Traverso, E. (1999) Understanding the Nazi genocide: Marxism after Auschwitz. London: Pluto P.



Individual Consultations on term papers

You should consider possible topics and bring a 1-page outline of your proposed topic, with headings, to your session. Term papers may be written on seminar questions, thematic questions outlined in the Course information section, or on a question of your own choosing.