University of Sussex

        MA in Contemporary War and Peace Studies, Autumn 2000

Contemporary Warfare and Society

Tutor: Professor Martin Shaw

E504 (office hours to be notified), 678032,

Secretary, Shirley Stay, E412, 678892,

Aims and objectives/Course information/Course NEWS

Course summary


Week 1 Definitions and approaches: war, militarism and peace/strategic, international, sociological

Part I: New world power relations, new wars?

Week 2  Narratives of international relations after the Cold War (MS)

Week 3 End of the Cold War: implosion of the Soviet system

Week 4 Western hegemony: America and the internationalization of power

New wars? Patterns of war and armament since 1989

Post-Soviet wars: Armenia-Azerbaijan to Chechnya

Iraqi wars: Iran, Kuwait, the West; Shi'ites, Kurds and sanctions

Part II:  Explaining wars: power relations in zones of conflict

Week 5 State fragmentation and new states (MS)

Week 6 State collapse and warlordism

Week 7 Genocide, war and refugees

Post-Yugoslav wars: from Croatia to Bosnia

Political economy of parasitic war

Central Africa: Rwanda to the Congo

Part III: International responses to local wars

Week 8  Media, politics and intervention (MS)

Week 9 International justice and the war crimes tribunals

Week 10 The Kosovo war: a new politics of intervention?

War-management and 'humanitarian' intervention 

Gender: men and women as victims

NATO and Kosovo: legality of bombing and the future of war

Web links are underlined. If you are working with a  hard copy of this list, you will need to use the online version at Using the online version is also recommended because you will also have access to Course NEWS and revisions as they happen

Aims and objectives

This course will develop an understanding of contemporary warfare with an emphasis on the changes in warfare in recent decades and especially since the end of the Cold War. 

The course will examine the transformations of warfare from the periods of total war and the East-West nuclear arms race to the age of nuclear proliferation, regional conflicts and genocidal wars of state fragmentation.

It will examine the causes and consequences of contemporary wars in economy, society, politics and culture, and the accompanying transformations of military organisation and culture.

The MA in Contemporary War and Peace Studies

1 to provide a framework for understanding the development of war and peace in the twentieth century, through a distinctive theoretical approach which examines war and peace historically in the context of social, economic and cultural relations;

2 to develop an understanding of the major contemporary wars and the recent transformations of warfare, especially in the period since 1989, together with an appreciation of the problems of developing a stable democratic peace in the twenty-first century.


1 that students will develop a rounded, historically informed understanding of the nature of modern war and of the major contemporary conflicts, together with an appreciation of ideas of and problems in the creation of a peaceful world;

2 that students will develop their abilities to theorise, analyse, write and present social, political and historical ideas and information; and

3 that students will receive a general education in problems of contemporary war and peace which will help prepare them for research or for work concerning war, peace and related international issues in areas such as media, education and international organisations.

Course information


Professor Martin Shaw, Room E504 (office hours: to be advised), Tel. 678032, e-mail Secretary: Shirley Stay, Room E407, Tel. 678992,

Course structure

The course is divided into an introductory meeting and three main sections, each comprising  three linked sessions.

Each section of the course will be introduced by a tutor presentation (indicated below by 'MS'). Other topics will be introduced by student presentations.

Each session will include two topics, with a short refreshment break. There will be a short presentation (of approximately 15 minutes) to introduce each part of the session, i.e. two presentations per session.


This course recognizes that students on the MA come from a variety of national and disciplinary backgrounds. For a broad historical and theoretical framework, students should refer to the complementary core course, Foundations of World Politics. This course

Reading list

There are no textbooks for these courses. Reading is listed below under the seminar topics, with key items being starred*. Seminar lists are of uneven length because items are listed on first relevance; you are expected to see overlaps and go back to previous sections for items already referred to.

Lists are often extensive to help in writing essays. In case of any items being unavailable in the Library, look for substitutes or consult me - in some cases I may be able to lend you the relevant book or article.

Web materials

Because this course has a topical focus, much useful and especially up to date material is on the web rather than in traditional printed publications. I am in the process of incorporating a wide range of Internet materials into this course - please email me any that you find useful. My personal website is at further materials relevant to this course will be found there.

Course essays

There will be two course essays of 2000 words, to be handed in at the sessions in weeks 6 and 9. You may write on any of the topics in the courses, using the seminar questions as a guide, or you may produce your own topics relevant to the themes of the course.


This course is assessed by a 3-question, three-and-a-half-hour unseen examination in January. Exam papers from 1998-99 and 1999-2000 are available: these will be a good guide to the general character of the questions - but it is important to note that the topics in the course have been revised in 2000-01.


I am keen to hear your evaluations of this course and my teaching. Please raise difficulties as they arise. Course evaluation forms will be distributed in the penultimate week of term.


If you need to contact me when I am not in my office, email me or in case of urgency phone Shirley Stay. I shall set up an email list for the course early on in the term, so that we can all communicate with each other quickly.


I am always willing, like all members of faculty, to write references for every student on my courses. Please let me know if you would like to give my name as a referee. Supply me with any background information that might be useful in writing a reference, and keep me updated on your progress if you wish to use my name in future.

Course NEWS

Advice to intending students

If you have time, sample readings across the course. The first meeting will be late in the first week of term. Please consult the readings for Week 1 before then.

During the course, any new information will be posted here.

Week 1

Definitions and approaches

How do we define war and militarism?

What are the relationships between social-scientific and biological understandings, and between strategic, international and sociological approaches?

*Martin Shaw, Post-Military Society, Polity 1991, chapter 1 (this book is also available from the University Bookshop at a reduced price)

*Colin Gray, Modern Strategy, Oxford University Press, 1998, and review by Martin Shaw

Kenneth Waltz, Man, the State and War, Columbia 1959

Leon Bramson and George W Goethals, eds, War: Studies from Psychology, Sociology and Anthropology, Basic Books 1978 (chapters by Malinowski, Mead, Spencer)

John Keegan, The Face of Battle, Cape 1976

Konrad Lorenz, On Aggression, Methuen 1966

Anthony Storr, Human destructiveness: the roots of genocide and human cruelty, Routledge 1991

Barbara Ehrenreich, Blood Rites: Origins and History of the Passions of War, Virago 1997

Part I: New world power relations, new wars?


Narratives of international relations after the Cold War (MS)

What has changed, and what hasn't, in world politics and society after the Cold War?

What do postmodern and global perspectives have to offer?

*Georg Sørenson, 'International Relations Theory after Cold War' and David Held and Anthony McGrew, 'Globalization and the End of the Old Order', Review of International Studies, 24 (special issue), 1998, 83-100 and 219-44

*Ian Clark, Globalization and Fragmentation, Oxford University Press 1998

*David Held, Anthony McGrew, David Goldblatt and Jonathan Perraton, Global Transformations, Polity 1999

Martin Shaw (ed.) Politics and Globalisation: Knowledge, Ethics, Agency. London: Routledge, 1999, and 'Globality', Chapter 1 of Theory of the Global State, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000 (December).

Anthony McGrew, ed., The Transformation of Democracy, Polity 1997

Robert W Cox, 'Civil Society at the Turn of the Millennium: Prospects for an Alternative', Review of International Studies 25, 1, 1999

Robin Luckham and Gordon White, eds., Democratization in the South: The jagged wave, Manchester UP 1996, especially Introduction and Conclusion, 1-10 and 274-89

Geoffrey Hawthorn, 'Pinochet: the politics', International Affairs, 75, 2, 1999, 253-58

Samuel Huntington, ‘The Clash of Civilizations?’, Foreign Affairs, Summer 1993 and The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order, Simon & Schuster 1996

Andrew Linklater, The Transformation of Political Community: Ethical Foundations of the Post-Westphalian Era. Cambridge: Polity 1998

Kofi Annan, We the Peoples: The Role of the UN in the 21st Century United Nations 2000 

Human Rights Watch World Report 2000

Korwa G. Adar, The Wilsonian conception of democracy and human rights: a retrospective and prospective, African Studies Quarterly 2, 2

New wars? Patterns of war and armament since 1989

What is new about 'new wars'? 

Examine the continuities and discontinuities in contemporary warfare, concerning both forces in zones of conflict and of Western military power.

*Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era, Polity 1999; Kaldor and Basker Vashee, eds, New Wars, Pinter 1998;  Kaldor, Ulrich Albrecht and Genevieve Schmeder, eds, The End of Military Fordism, Pinter 1998

*Martin Shaw, 'The contemporary mode of warfare? Mary Kaldor's theory of new wars', Review of International Political Economy, 7, 1, 2000, 171-80 ; 'War and globality: the role and character of war in the global transition', in Ho-won Jeong, ed, The New Agenda for Peace Research, Ashgate 1999

*Stathis Kalyvas, '"New" and "old" civil wars: is the distinction valid?', paper to the colloquium, 'La guerre entre le local et le global', Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches Internationales, Paris, 2000. (I shall try to make either an online or photo-copy available.)

Edward N Luttwak, ‘Towards Post-Heroic Warfare’, Foreign Affairs, 74, 3, 1995

Michael Ignatieff, The Warrior's Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience, Chatto and Windus 1998

Gilbert Achcar, ‘The Strategic Triad: The United States, Russia and China’, New Left Review, 228, 1998, pp. 91-127

Andrew Latham, 'Reimagining Warfare: The "Revolution in Military Affairs"', in Craig A Snyder, ed, Contemporary Security and Strategy, London: Macmillan 1999, 210-37

The Military Balance 1999-2000, International Institute for Strategic Studies 1999 (2000-01 edition out October)

James Der Derian, 'Virtual Security: Technical Oversight, Simulated Foresight and Political Blindspots in the Infosphere', in Stephen Chan and Jarrod Wierner, eds, Twentieth Century International History, London: IB Taurus 1999

Chris Hables Gray, Post-Modern War: The New Politics of Conflict, London: Routledge 1997

Alvin and Heidi Toffler, War and Anti-War: Survival at the Dawn of the 21st Century, New York: Little Brown 1994

Dan Smith, The State of War and Peace Atlas, 3rd edition, Penguin 1997

Kalevi J Holsti, The State, War and the State of War, CUP 1996

Saferworld The Cost of War 1995

UNICEF, Impact of Armed Conflict on Children

William Walker, 'International nuclear relations after the Indian and Pakistani test explosions', International Affairs, 74, 3, 1998, 505-28

Melvin Small & J David Singer, Resort to Arms: International and Civil Wars, 1826-1980, Sage 1982


End of the Cold War: implosion of the Soviet system

How should we evaluate the relationships in the ending of the Cold War between 

(a) the inter-bloc balance of military and economic forces (the Cold War as 'war') and

(b)  the internal politics of the blocs, especially economic, political and social movements within the Soviet bloc?

*A. Hunter (ed.) Rethinking the Cold War, Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998, chapters by M. Cox, H. Friedman, M. Kaldor

*M. Cox (ed.) Rethinking the Soviet Collapse: Sovietology, the Death of Communism and the New Russia. London: Pinter, 1998

*F. Halliday, 'The ends of cold war', New Left Review (180) 1990 (also The Second Cold War. London: Verso, 1982)

V. Mastny (ed.) The Helsinki Process and the Reintegration of Europe 1986-1991: Analysis and Documentation. London: Pinter 1992.

W. Korey, The Promises We Keep: Human Rights, the Helsinki Process and American Foreign Policy. New York: St. Martin's Press 1993

D. Larson,  Anatomy of Mistrust: US-Soviet Relations During the Cold War. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1997

B. Lightbody, The Cold War. London: Routledge, 1999

Mary Kaldor, M. The Imaginary War. Oxford: Blackwell 1990 and (ed.) Europe From Below. London: Verso 1991

Michael Waller, ‘Peace, Power and Protest: Eastern Europe in the Gorbachev Era’, Conflict Studies, 209, 1988

Walter Kaltefleiter and Robert Pfaltzgraff, The Peace Movements in Europe and the United States, London: Croom Helm 1985

V Tismaneanu, ed, In search of civil society: independent peace movements in the Soviet bloc, London: Routledge 1990

Post-Soviet wars: Armenia/Azerbaijan to Chechnya

Discuss the pattern, causes and consequences of wars in the former Soviet Union, especially the Caucasus.

How far are these phenomena of a specifically post-Soviet transformation, and how far can be we explain them in terms of forces also at work elsewhere?

*MP Croissant, The Armenia-Azerbaijan conflict: causes and implications, Westport: Praeger 1998

*J.B. Dunlop, Russia confronts Chechnya: roots of a separatist conflict, Cambridge: CUP 1998

*Anatole Lieven, Chechnya: tombstone of Russian power, New Haven: Yale UP 1998

V Bennett, Crying wolf : the return of war to Chechnya, London: Picador 1998

S Knezys & R. Sedlickas, The war in Chechnya, College Station: Texas A & M UP 1999

C. Gall & T. De Waal, Chechnya : a small victorious war, London: Pan 1997 

Caucasus War Report, Central Asia Report, both from Institute of War and Peace Reporting (with email subscription lists)

Transitions Online is an Internet magazine covering Central and Eastern Europe, the Balkans, and the former Soviet Union.

Post-Soviet Armies Newsletter (with email subscription list)

Human Rights Watch Leaving No Witnesses: Uzbekistan's Campaign against Rights Defenders


Western hegemony: America and the internationalization of power

How we should characterize Western dominance in the world system -  and its relationship to international institutionalization?

*Gier Lundestad, 'Empire' By Integration. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998

*John G. Ruggie, Building the World Polity: Essays on International Institutionalization. London: Routledge, 1998

*W.I. Robinson, Promoting Polyarchy: Globalization, US Hegemony and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996

Craig N. Murphy, International Organization and Industrial Change: Global Governance Since 1850. Cambridge: Polity, 1994

Robert Keohane, After Hegemony, Cambridge: CUP, 1986; Keohane and Nye, J.S., Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition. Boston: Little, 1977

The Imperialism of Human Rights (themed issue) New Left Review, 234, 1999

Susan Strange, The Retreat of the State: The Diffusion of Power in the Contemporary World Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996

Volker Rittberger (ed.) Regime Theory and International Relations, Oxford: Clarendon

Kees Van der Pijl, The Making of a Transatlantic Ruling Class, London: Verso, 1984 and Transnational Class Formation. London: Routledge, 1998

John Tomlinson, Cultural Imperialism: A Critical Introduction, London: Pinter, 1990

D. Yost, NATO Transformed: The Alliance's New Roles in International Security, Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace, 1998

Martin Shaw, 'The State of Globalization', Review of International Political Economy, 4, 3, 1997, 497-513

Iraqi wars: Iran, Kuwait, the West; Shi'ites, Kurds and sanctions

Why might we discuss the ‘Iraqi wars’ rather than the ‘Gulf War’? 

What kinds of war have these been and what is their significance for our understanding of war in the contemporary world?

*Lawrence Freedman and Efraim Karsh, The Gulf Conflict 1990-91: Diplomacy and War in the New World Order, London: Faber, 1993

*Martin Shaw, Civil Society and Media in Global Crises: Representing Distant Violence, London: Pinter 1996, Ch. 2

*Efraim Karsh, ed, The Iran-Iraq war: impact and implications, London: Macmillan 1989

R.Dannreuther, The Gulf Conflict: a Political and Strategic Analysis, Adelphi Papers, No 264, 1992

D Hiro, Desert shield to desert storm: the Second Gulf War, London: Paladin 1992

D Campbell, Politics without principle: sovereignty, ethics, and the narratives of the Gulf War, Boulder: Lynne Reinner 1993

F Hazelton, ed (Committee Against Repression and for Democratic Rights in Iraq) Iraq since the Gulf War: prospects for democracy London: Zed Books 1994

M Khadduri & E Ghareeb, War in the Gulf, 1990-91: The Iraq-Kuwait Conflict and its Implications, Oxford: O.U.P. 1997

MM Gunter, The Kurdish Predicament in Iraq: A Political Analysis, London: Macmillan 1999

M Weller, ed (University of Cambridge Research Centre for International Law) Iraq and Kuwait: the hostilities and their aftermath: Cambridge international documents series: 3, Cambridge: Grotius 1993

T Dodd & T Youngs, (House of Commons Library) The Iraq crisis: Research paper 98/28 issued by the Research Division of the Library 1998

A Haselkorn, The Continuing Storm: Iraq, Poisonous Weapons, and Deterrence, New Haven: Yale U.P 1999

G Simons, The Scourging of Iraq: Sanctions, Law and Natural Justice: 2nd edition, London: Macmillan 1998

J Gow, ed., Iraq, the Gulf Conflict and the World Community, London: Brassey's 1993

United Nations, Iraq: Oil for Food Programme 2000

Campaign Against Sanctions on Iraq, Sanctions Against Iraq: Background, Consequences, Strategies 2000

Part II: Explaining wars: power relations in zones of conflict


State fragmentation, ethnicity and new states (MS)

What are the relationships in contemporary war between state fragmentation and formation, and the much-cited phenomenon of 'ethnic conflict'? 

Examine with particular reference to Yugoslavia.

*Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars, ch 3, 31-68

*Susan Woodward, Balkan Tragedy, Brookings 1996

*Leonard J Cohen, Broken Bonds: Yugoslavia’s Distintegration and Balkan Politics in Transition, Westview 1995

Xavier Bougarel, Anatomie d'un conflit Decouvertes, Paris, 1996

Laura Silber and Allan Little, The Death of Yugoslavia Penguin 1995

David Dyker and Ivan Vejvoda, eds, Yugoslavia and After, Longmans 1996

Misha Glenny, The Fall of Yugoslavia: The Third Balkan War, London: Penguin, 1992

MA Sells, The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia, U California P 1996

Martin Shaw, New wars of the city (English text of 'Nueva Guerras Urbanas', 1997)

International Crisis Group, Indonesia's Shaky Transition

International intervention in Bosnia: the case of Srebrenica

Discuss what the Strebrenica massacre tells us about international intervention in Bosnia and other new wars. 

How far have lessons been learned from this disaster?

*Jan Willem Honig and Norbert Both, Srebrenica: Record of a War Crime, Penguin

*David Rieff, Slaughterhouse: Bosnia and the Failure of the West, Harmondsworth: Penguin 1995

*Ed Vulliamy, ‘Bosnia: the crime of appeasement’, International Affairs, 74, 1, 1998, 73-92 (also Seasons in Hell, London: Simon & Schuster, 1994, 98-117)

United Nations, Report on Srebrenica

James Gow, Triumph of the Lack of Will, London 1997

Jane Sharp, Bankrupt in the Balkans: British Policy in Bosnia, London: Institute for Public Policy Research 1993

T Cushman & SG Mestrovic, eds, This Time We Knew: Western Responses to Genocide in Bosnia, New York UP 1996

James Petras and Steve Vieux, 'Bosnia and the revival of US hegemony', New Left Review 218, 1996, 3-25

David Chandler, Bosnia: Faking Democracy after Dayton, London: Pluto 1999

Balkan Crisis Reports, Tribunal Update, Institute for War and Peace Reporting (available free by email subscription), for ongoing reports on Balkans and the War Crimes Tribunal's cases (mainly Bosnia). The trial of Serbian General Radislav Krstic, for his part in Srebrenica, has been going on throughout 2000 and much information is available at this site; see also ICTY site below.

European Stability Initiative, Refocusing International Policy in Bosnia and Herzegovina Part I Bosnian Power Structures, Part II International Power in Bosnia

European Stability Initiative, Power and Strategy in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Michael Sells, Massacre in Srebrenica, Haverford College

Women of Srebrenica refugees' site

The Bosnia Institute site, with Books on Bosnia online database


State collapse and warlordism

Can contemporary African wars be adequately explained in terms of state failure? 

How different are they from wars in other regions, or in earlier periods?

*Jeffrey Herbst, 'War and the State in Africa', International Security, 14(4) 1990

*Christopher Clapham, Africa and the International System, Cambridge University Press, 1996, Chapter 9; African Guerrillas, James Currey 1998.

*Jean-François Bayart, Stephen Ellis, and Béatrice Hibou, The Criminalization of the State in Africa, Oxford, Bloomington & Indianapolis: James Currey & Indiana University Press. 1999, Chapter 1

Paul Rich (ed.) Warlords in International Relations, London: Macmillan 1999, esp. chapters by Rich (1), Segell (3), McNulty (5) and Mackinda (7)

Alex de Waal, 'Contemporary Warfare in Africa', in M. Kaldor and V. Bashee (eds.) New Wars, London: Pinter 1997

Lionel Cliffe and Robin Luckham, 'Complex Political Emergencies and the State', Third World Quarterly 20(1) 1999

William Reno, Warlord Politics and African States, Boulder: Lynne Rienner 1999

ME Sharpe and Donald M. Snow, Uncivil Wars: International Security and the New Internal Conflicts, Boulder: Lynne Rienner 1996

William Zartman, ed., Collapsed States: The Disintegration and Restoration of Legitimate Authority, Boulder: Lynne Rienner 1995

Adebayo Adedeji (ed.) Comprehending and Mastering African Conflicts, London: Zed 1999

Taisier M. Ali and Robert O. Matthew (ed.) Civil Wars in Africa, Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press 1999

Stephen Ellis, The Mask of Anarchy: The Destruction of Liberia and the Religious Dimension of an African Civil War, London: Hurst 1999

Terrence Ranger, Peasant Consciousness and Guerrilla War in Zimbabwe, Oxford: James Currey 1985.

*Christopher Clapham, War and State Formation in Eritrea and Ethiopia, paper to a conference at CERI, Paris, 2000 (I will make this paper available either online or in photocopy)

Samuel M. Mackinda, Clan Conflict and Factionalism in Somalia, in Paul Rich (ed.) Warlords in International Relations, London: Macmillan 1999, 120-39

Ioan Lewis, Making History in Somalia: Humanitarian Intervention in a Stateless Society, London: LSE Centre for the Study of Global Governance, 1994

‘African Encounters’, Index on Censorship, 1994, 6

Scott Peterson, Me Against My Brother: At War in Somalia, Sudan and Rwanda, London: Routledge 2000

Political economy of parasitic war

*Mary Kaldor, New and Old Wars 1999, Chapter 4

*Mark Duffield, ‘The political economy of internal war: asset transfer, complex emergencies and international aid’, in Joanna Macrae and Anthony Zwi, eds, War and Hunger: Rethinking International Responses, Zed 1994

Joanna Macrae and Anthony Zari (eds.) War and Hunger, London: Zed, Chapters 2 (Green), 3 (Duffield) plus case studies, 1994.

David Keen, The Economic Functions of Violence in Civil Wars, Adelphi paper 320, IISS 1998

Peter Lewis, ‘From prebendalism to predation: the political economy of decline in Nigeria’, Journal of Modern African Studies, 34, 1, March 1996

Alex de Waal, ‘Democratizing the aid encounter in Africa’, International Affairs, 73, 4, 1997, 632-40 and ‘Contemporary Warfare in Africa’ in Kaldor, ed, New Wars, Pinter 1997


Genocide, war and refugees

Is 'genocide' a phenomenon widespread in contemporary wars or restricted to one or two cases, such as Rwanda? 

What have been the relationships between mass expulsions (producing massive refugee movements) and mass killing?

*Leo Kuper, Genocide, Harmondsworth: Penguin 1981

*Tony Kushner, Refugees in an Age of Genocide, London: Cass 2000

*Myron Wiener, ‘Bad neighbours, bad neighbourhoods: an inquiry into the causes of refugee flows’, International Security, 21, 1, Summer 1996

Gil Loeschler, 'Refugees', in Tim Dunne and Nicholas Wheeler, eds, Human Rights and Human Wrongs, Cambridge: CUP 1999

International Crisis Group, Burundian Refugees in Tanzania: The Key Factor to the Burundi Peace Process

UNHCR, The State of the World’s Refugees, Oxford: OUP 1995

Kurt Mills, ‘Permeable Borders: Human Migration and Sovereignty’, Global Society, 10, 2 1996, 77-106

Stephen Castles and Mark J Miller, eds, The Age of Migration, 2nd edn, London: Macmillan 1998

Ben Kiernan, The Pol Pot Regime: Race, Power and Genocide in Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge, 1975-79, New Haven: Yale UP 1996

Central Africa: Rwanda to Congo

How should we understand the Rwandan genocide and how is it connected to the pattern of wars in the region? 

What have been the failures of understanding in the West, and how are they connected to failures of moral and political response?

*Rayika Omaar and Alex de Waal, Rwanda: Death, Despair and Defiance, Africa Rights 1994

*Mel McNulty, The Militarization of Ethnicity and the Emergence of Warlordism in Rwanda, 1990-94', in Paul Rich (ed.) Warlords in International Relations, London: Macmillan 1999, 140-63; 'Media Ethnicization and the International Response to War and Genocide in Rwanda', in Tim Allen and Jean Seaton, eds, The Media of Conflict: War Reporting and Representations of Ethnic Violence, Zed 1999, 268-86

G Prunier, The Rwanda crisis, 1959-94: history of a genocide, Hurst 1995

Mahmood Mamdnai, ‘From Conquest to Consent as the Basis of State Formation: Reflections on Rwanda’, New Left Review, 216, 1996, 3-36

*Melvern, L.R. (2000) A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda's Genjocide. London: Zed.

D Millwood, ed, The international response to conflict and genocide: lessons from the Rwanda experience, 5 vols, 1996 (Documents counter)

Nowrojee, B. and Ralph, Regan (2000) 'Justice for women victims of violence: Rwanda after the 1994 genocide' in Amadiume, I. and An-Na'im, A. (eds.) The Politics of Memory: Truth, Healing and Social Justice, London: Zed

René Lemarchand, Patterns of state collapse and reconstructions in Central Africa: reflections on the crisis in the Great Lakes African Studies Quarterly 1, 1

Tony Waters, Conventional wisdom and Rwanda's genocide: an opinion, African Studies Quarterly 1, 1

Michael D. Quam, Creating peace in an armed society: Karamoja, Uganda, 1996.African Studies Quarterly 1, 1

Paul J. Magnarella, Judicial responses to genocide: the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the Rwandan Genocide Court, African Studies Quarterly 1, 1

Martin Shaw, From the Rwandan genocide to the Congo war (and compare The Cambodian genocide 1977-89)

Twagiramariya, C. and Turshen, M. (1998) '"Favours" to give and "consenting" victims: the sexual politics of survival in Rwanda', in Twagiramariya and Turshen (eds.) What Women Do in Wartime, London: Zed

Part III International responses


Media, politics and intervention (MS)

How far do the roles of media in contemporary wars vary? 

Assess the major hypotheses concerning the roles of media and how far they can account for contrasting roles in different situations.

*Philip M Taylor, War and the Media: Propaganda and Persuasion in the Gulf War, Manchester University Press, 1992

*Tim Allen and Jean Seaton, eds, The Media of Conflict: War Reporting and Representations of Ethnic Violence, Zed 1999

*Martin Shaw, Civil Society and Media in Global Crises: Representing Distant Violence, London: Pinter 1996, Part III, and Crystallizations of media in the global revolution: news coverage and power from Kurdistan to Kosova, draft of chapter to be published in Brigitte Nacos and Robert Shapiro, eds., Decision-Making in a Glass House: Media, Public Opinion and American and European Foreign Policy, Boulder, Co.: Rowman and Littlefield, 2000.

*Philip Hammond and Edward S. Herman, editors, Degraded Capability: The Media and the Kosovo Crisis, London: Pluto, 2000, and review by Martin Shaw, The uses of media studies

W Lance Bennett and David L Paletz, eds, Taken by Storm, London: University of Chicago Press, 1994

Jean Baudrillard, ‘La Guerre de Golfe n'a pas eu lieu’, Libération, 29 March 1991, translation, The Gulf War did not take place, Sydney 1995

Christopher Norris, Uncritical Theory: Post-modernism, Intellectuals and the Gulf War, Lawrence and Wishart, 1992

David E Morrison, Television and the Gulf War, John Libbey 1992

RE Denton, ed, The Media and the Persian Gulf War, Praeger 1993

D. Kellner, The Persian Gulf TV War, Westview, 1992

Greg Philo and Greg McLaughlin, The British Media and the Gulf War, Glasgow: Glasgow University Media Group 1993

Mark Thompson, Forging War: The Media in Serbia, Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, Article 19, 1994

James Gow, Richard Paterson and Alison Preston, eds, Bosnia by Television, British Film Institute 1996

Michael Ignatieff, 'Is Nothing Sacred? The Ethics of Television', in The Warrior's Honor: Ethnic War and the Modern Conscience, Chatto and Windus 1998, 9-33

Edward S Herman, 'The Media's Role in US Foreign Policy', Journal of International Affairs, 47, 1, 1993

Noam Chomsky and B.Dajenais, Manufacturing Consent, Pantheon, 1988

Derrick Mercer et al, The Fog of War: The Media on the Battlefield, Heinemann 1987

Peter Viggo Jakobsen, ‘National Interest, Humanitarianism or CNN: What triggers UN peace enforcement after the Cold War?’, Journal of Peace Research, 33, 1996, 205-15

Greg Philo, ‘From Buerk to Band aid: the media and the 1984 Ethiopian famine, in John Eldridge, ed, Getting the Message: News, Truth and Power, Routledge 1993

Larry Minea et al, The News Media, Civil War and Humanitarian Action, Lynne Reiner 1996

James Gow et al, Bosnia by Television, British Film Institute 1997, 103-18

Stephen Badsey, Modern Military Operations and the Media, Camberley, Surrey: Strategic and Combat Studies Institute, 1994

Charles Moskos and TE Ricks, Reporting war when there is no war: the media and the military in peace and humanitarian operations, Cantigny Conference series, Special report, 1995

War-management and 'humanitarian' intervention

How should we understand the various forms of international intervention in contemporary local wars? 

Is there a middle ground between peace-keeping and war-fighting? Is there such a thing as 'humanitarian' intervention?

*Oliver Ramsbotham and Tom Woodhouse, Humanitarian Intervention in Contemporary Conflict, Polity, 1996

*James Mayall (ed), The New Interventionism 1991-94: United Nations Experience in Cambodia, former Yugoslavia and Somalia, Cambridge:CUP, 1996

J. Ginifer, Beyond the Emergency: Development Within UN Peace Missions, London: Cass 1997

M.W. Doyle, I. Johnstone and R.C. Orr, Keeping the Peace: Multinational UN Operations in Cambodia and El Salvador, Cambridge: CUP, 1997

Michael Barnett, 'The UN, regional organizations and peacekeeping', Review of International Studies, 21, 4, 1995, 411-34

W J Durch (ed), The Evolution of UN Peacekeeping: Case Studies and Comparative Analysis, St Martin's Press, New York, 1993

M.Berdal, "Whither UN Peacekeeping?" Adelphi Paper 281, ISIS, London, October 1993

A Roberts, "The Crisis in UN Peacekeeping", Survival, Autumn 1994

J Harriss (ed), The Politics of Humanitarian Intervention, Pinter, 1995

Krishna Kumar, ed, Rebuilding Societies after Civil War: Critical Roles for International Assistance, Lynne Reiner 1996

Thomas G Weiss and Larry Minear, eds, Humanitarianism Across Borders: Sustaining Civilians in Times of War, Lynne Reiner 1994

Jeffrey Herbst, ‘Responding to State Failure in Africa’, International Security, 21, 3, 1996-97

Ioan Lewis, Making History in Somalia: Humanitarian Intervention in a Stateless Society, London: LSE Centre for the Study of Global Governance, 1994

Mark Hoffman, ‘Doing no harm?’ (NGOs in conflicts) LSE Magazine, Summer 1997, 4-7


International justice and the war crimes tribunals

Discuss the significance of the new war crimes tribunals for the development of international justice in war.

*Roy Guttman and David Rieff, eds, Crimes of War, New York: Norton, 1999

*Timothy Dunne and Nicholas J Wheeler, eds, Human Rights in Global Politics, Cambridge: CUP 1999

*MP Scharf, Balkan justice: the story behind the first international war crimes trial since Nuremberg, Durham, N.C.: Carolina Academic P. 1997

Y Beigbeder, Judging war criminals : the politics of international justice, Basingstoke: Macmillan 1998

Helsinki Watch, War crimes in Bosnia-Hercegovina, 2 volumes, New York: Human Rights Watch 1993

T. Meron, War crimes law comes of age: essays, Oxford: Clarendon P. 1998 

Geoffrey Hawthorn, 'Pinochet: the politics', International Affairs, 75(2) 1999, 253-58

Geoffrey Best, War and law since 1945, Oxford: Clarendon P. 1994; Humanity in warfare : the modern history of the international law of
armed conflicts, London: Methuen 1983; Nuremberg and after : the continuing history of war crimes and crimes against humanity, Reading: U. of Reading 1984

Adam Roberts and R. Guelff (eds.) Documents on the laws of war : 3rd ed, Oxford: OUP 1999

Michael Howard, GJ Andreopoulos and MR Shulman (eds.) The laws of war: constraints on warfare in the Western world, New Haven: Yale UP 1994

Brad R. Roth, Governmental Illegitimacy in International Law, Oxford: OUP 1999

International Crisis Group, Bosnia Legal Project Report Denied Justice: Individuals Lost in a Legal Maze

Philip Hammond and Edward S. Herman, editors, Degraded Capability: The Media and the Kosovo Crisis, London: Pluto, 2000 (chapter on war crimes tribunal) and review by Martin Shaw, The uses of media studies 

Paul J. Magnarella, Judicial responses to genocide:the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda and the Rwandan Genocide Court, African Studies Quarterly 1, 1

Paul J. Magnarella, Is US cooperation with the UN Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda unconstitutional?, African Studies Quarterly 1, 1

Institute of War and Peace Reporting, Tribunal Update, has carried regular reports of the war crimes trials for five years and maintains a full archive.

International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia

Gender: men and women as perpetrators and victims

What is the significance of rape in the larger pattern of the gendering of violence in contemporary warfare? 

How successfully has it been tackled in war crimes trials arising from Bosnia (and Rwanda)?

*A Stiglmayer, ed, Mass Rape: The War Against Women in Bosnia-Herzegovina, U of Nebraska P 1994

*Human Rights Watch Kosovo: Rape as a Weapon of Ethnic Cleansing 2000

*Jan Willem Honig & Norbert Both, Srebrenica: Record of a War Crime, Penguin 1996

Amnesty International, Bosnia-Herzegovina: Rape and Sexual Abuse by Armed Forces, Amnesty 1993

Lori Buck, Nicole Gallant and Kim Richard Nossal, 'Sanctions as a gendered instrument of statecraft: the case of Iraq', Review of International Studies, 24, 1, 1998, 69-84

Ronit Lentin, ed, Gender and Catastrophe, Zed 1997

Shems Hadj-Nassar, Has rape been used as a systematic weapon of war in the conflict in former Yugoslavia? and R Lindsey, The lobby for rape to be accepted as a war crime: a feminist failure, Sussex MA dissertations 1995

Sections on 'sexual violence' in Roy Guttman and David Rieff, eds, Crimes of War, Norton 1999

Rayika Omaar and Alex de Waal, Rwanda: Death, Despair and Defiance, Africa Rights 1994

Ronin Lentin, Gender and Catastrophe, London: Zed 1997

Institute of War and Peace Reporting, Tribunal Update, has carried regular reports during 2000 of the Foca war crimes trials centring on charges of rape.

For more general background on gendering of war:

Sharon Macdonald et al, Images of Women in Peace and War: Cross-cultural and historical perspectives, Macmillan 1987

Jean Bethke Elshtain, Women and War, Harvester 1987

Mady Wechsler Segal, ‘The Military and the Family as Greedy Institutions’ and Patricia M Shields, ‘Sex Roles in the Military’, in Charles Moskos and Frank Wood, The Military: More than Just a Job?, Pergamon-Brassey 1988, 79-114

Jan Jindy Pettman, Worlding Women, Routledge 1996, Part 2


The Kosovo war: a new politics of intervention?

Analyze the crisis in Kosovo that led to the war of 1998-99: were Serbian policies 'genocidal' and/or did the KLA provoke war? 

What is the significance of NATO intervention for the future of world politics?

*Lawrence Freedman, 'Victims and victors: reflections on the Kosovo war', Review of International Studies, 26, 3, 2000, 335-58

*Tim Judah, Kosovo: War and Revenge, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000

*Marc Weller, 'The Rambouillet conference on Kosovo', International Affairs, 75, 2, 1999, 211-52

Richard Caplan, 'International diplomacy and the crisis in Kosovo', International Affairs, 74, 4, 1998, 745-63

Ken Booth, ed, The Kosovo Tragedy: Human Rights Dimensions, London: Cass, 2000

Adam Roberts, NATO's "humanitarian war" over Kosovo, Survival,.41, 3, 1999 (photocopy in library)

H Clark, Civil resistance in Kosovo, London: Pluto 2000

Noel Malcolm, Kosovo: a short history, Basingstoke: Macmillan 1998

Marc Weller, The crisis in Kosovo, 1989-1999, Documents and Analysis Publishing Cambridge 1999, and Kosovo conflict: forced displacement, the conduct and termination of hostilities and the renewed search for a settlement, Prospect Books 1999

T. Young and T. Dodd, 'Kosovo', Research paper 98/73, House of Commons Library

J Van Selm, Kosovo's refugees in the EU, London: Continuum 2000

Jurgen Habermas, Bestiality and humanity: a war on the border between law and morality, translation of Bestialitat und Humanitat from Die Zeit, 54, 18, 1999, 1-8 (I shall try to make available online)

Michael Ignatieff and Robert Skidelsky, 'Is military intervention over Kosovo justified?' Prospect, June 1999, 16-22

New Left Review, 234, March-April 1999, 'The Imperialism of Human Rights': articles by Ali, Zizek, Gowan

Philip Hammond and Edward S. Herman, editors, Degraded Capability: The Media and the Kosovo Crisis, London: Pluto, 2000 and review by Martin Shaw, The uses of media studies (Part I)

Noam Chomsky, On Humanitarian War, London: Pluto 1999

Martin Shaw, The Kosovan War, Sociological Research Online 4, 2, 1999

Sussex seminar papers at:

International Crisis Group, Montenegro: in the Shadow of the Volcano and  What happened to the KLA?

Martin Shaw, 'Has war a future?' New Political Economy, 5, 1, March 2000, 112-116 and 'Return of the good war' unpublished, 2000

NATO and Kosovo: the legality of the bombing and the future of war

In the light of the political arguments about Kosovo, the laws of war and the practice of the International War Crimes Tribunal for Yugoslavia, assess the contrasting arguments of the Tribunal and Amnesty concerning possible 'war crimes' charges against NATO.

If there was a legal case against NATO, what are the implications for the future of war?

International Criminal Tribunal for former Yugoslavia, Final Report to the Prosecutor by the Committee Established to Review the NATO Bombing Campaign Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

Amnesty International, Kosovo: 'Collateral Damage' or Unlawful Killings? 2000